DeLillo in New York City, 2011
|Born||Donald Richard DeLillo
November 20, 1936
New York City, United States
|Notable work(s)||White Noise,
Donald Richard "Don" DeLillo (born November 20, 1936) is an American novelist, playwright and essayist. His works have covered subjects as diverse as television, nuclear war, sports, the complexities of language, performance art, the Cold War, mathematics, the advent of the digital age, and global terrorism. Initially a well-regarded cult writer, the publication in 1985 of White Noise brought him widespread recognition, and was followed in 1988 by Libra, a bestseller. DeLillo has twice been a Pulitzer Prize for Fiction finalist (for Mao II in 1992 and for Underworld in 1998), won the PEN/Faulkner Award for Mao II in 1992 (receiving a further PEN/Faulkner Award nomination for The Angel Esmeralda in 2012), was granted the PEN/Saul Bellow Award for Achievement in American Fiction in 2010, and won the inaugural Library of Congress Prize for American Fiction in 2013.
DeLillo has described his fiction as being concerned with "living in dangerous times", and in a 2005 interview declared, "Writers must oppose systems. It's important to write against power, corporations, the state, and the whole system of consumption and of debilitating entertainments [...] I think writers, by nature, must oppose things, oppose whatever power tries to impose on us."
Early life and Influences
DeLillo was born on November 20, 1936 and grew up in a working-class Italian Catholic family, from Molise, in an Italian-American neighborhood of the Bronx in New York City, not far from Arthur Avenue. Reflecting on his childhood in The Bronx, DeLillo later described how he was "...always out in the street. As a little boy I whiled away most of my time pretending to be a baseball announcer on the radio. I could think up games for hours at a time. There were eleven of us in a small house, but the close quarters were never a problem. I didn't know things any other way. We always spoke English and Italian all mixed up together. My grandmother, who lived in America for fifty years, never learned English."
As a teenager, DeLillo wasn't interested in writing until taking a summer job as a parking attendant, where hours spent waiting and watching over vehicles led to a reading habit. In a 2010 interview with The Australian, DeLillo reflected on this period by saying "I had a personal golden age of reading, in my 20s and my early 30s, and then my writing began to take up so much time". Among the writers DeLillo read and was inspired by in this period were James Joyce, William Faulkner, Flannery O'Connor, and Ernest Hemingway, who was a major influence on DeLillo's earliest attempts at writing in his late teens. As well as the influence of modernist fiction, DeLillo has also cited the influence of jazz music – "[...] guys like Ornette Coleman and Mingus and Coltrane and Miles Davis" -and postwar cinema: "[...] Antonioni and Godard and Truffaut, and then in the '70s came the Americans, many of whom were influenced by the Europeans: Kubrick, Altman, Coppola, Scorsese and so on. I don't know how they may have affected the way I write, but I do have a visual sense." On the influence of film, particularly European cinema, on his work, DeLillo has said, "European and Asian cinemas of the 1960s shaped the way I think and feel about things. At that time I was living in New York, I didn't have much money, didn't have much work, I was living in one room ... I was a man in a small room. And I went to the movies a lot, watching Bergman, Antonioni, Godard. When I was little, in the Bronx, I didn't go to the cinema and I didn't think of the American films I saw as works of art. Perhaps, in an indirect way, cinema allowed me to become a writer." DeLillo also credits his parents' leniency and acceptance of his desire to write for encouraging him to pursue a literary career: "They ultimately trusted me to follow the course I’d chosen. This is something that happens if you’re the eldest son in an Italian family: You get a certain leeway, and it worked in my case.”
After graduating from Cardinal Hayes High School in the Bronx in 1954 and from Fordham University in the Bronx with a bachelor's degree in Communication Arts in 1958, DeLillo took a job in advertising because he couldn't get one in publishing. He worked for five years as a copywriter at the agency of Ogilvy & Mather on Fifth Avenue at East 48th Street, writing image ads for Sears Roebuck among others, working on “Print ads, very undistinguished accounts...I hadn’t made the leap to television. I was just getting good at it when I left," in 1964. DeLillo published his first short story, "The River Jordan", in Epoch, the literary magazine of Cornell University, in 1960 and began to work on his first novel in 1966. Discussing the beginning of his writing career, DeLillo said, "I did some short stories at that time, but very infrequently. I quit my job just to quit. I didn't quit my job to write fiction. I just didn't want to work anymore." Reflecting in 1993 on his relatively late start in writing fiction, DeLillo said "I wish I had started earlier, but evidently I wasn’t ready. First, I lacked ambition. I may have had novels in my head but very little on paper and no personal goals, no burning desire to achieve some end. Second, I didn’t have a sense of what it takes to be a serious writer. It took me a long time to develop this."
DeLillo's inaugural decade of novel writing has been his most productive to date, resulting in the writing and publication of six novels in eight years between 1971 and 1978.
In 1964, DeLillo resigned from the advertising industry, moved into a modest apartment near the Queens-Midtown Tunnel ("It wasn’t Paris in the 1920s, but I was happy" DeLillo has said of this time), and began work on his first novel. Reflecting on the early days of his writing career, DeLillo remarked: "...I lived in a very minimal kind of way. My telephone would be $4.20 every month. I was paying a rent of sixty dollars a month. And I was becoming a writer. So in one sense, I was ignoring the movements of the time." DeLillo's first novel, Americana, was written over the course of four years and finally published in 1971, to modest critical praise. Americana concerned "a television network programmer who hits the road in search of the big picture". This novel was later revised by DeLillo in 1989 for paperback re-printing. Reflecting on the novel later in his career, DeLillo admitted, "I don't think my first novel would have been published today as I submitted it. I don't think an editor would have read 50 pages of it. It was very overdone and shaggy, but two young editors saw something that seemed worth pursuing and eventually we all did some work on the book and it was published." Later still, DeLillo still felt a degree of surprise at Americana being published, noting “I was working on my first novel, ‘Americana,’ for two years before I ever realized that I could be a writer [...] I had absolutely no assurance that this book would be published because I knew that there were elements that I simply didn’t know how to improve at that point. So I wrote for another two years and finished the novel. It wasn’t all that difficult to find a publisher, to my astonishment. I didn’t have a representative. I didn’t know anything about publishing. But an editor at Houghton Mifflin read the manuscript and decided that this was worth pursuing.”
Americana was followed in rapid succession by the American college football/nuclear war black comedy End Zone (1972)- written under the working-titles "The Self-Erasing Word” and “Modes of Disaster Technology.” – and the rock and roll satire Great Jones Street (1973), which DeLillo later felt was "...one of the books I wish I’d done differently. It should be tighter, and probably a little funnier." In 1975, he married Barbara Bennett, a former banker turned landscape designer.
DeLillo's fourth novel, Ratner's Star (1976) – which according to DeLillo is "structure[d] [...] on the writings of Lewis Carroll, in particular Alice in Wonderland and Alice Through the Looking Glass – took two years to write and drew numerous favorable comparisons to the works of Thomas Pynchon. This "conceptual monster", as DeLillo scholar Tom LeClair describes it, is "the picaresque story of a 14-year-old math genius who joins an international consortium of mad scientists decoding an alien message." and has been cited by DeLillo as both one of the most difficult books to write and his personal favorite of his own novels.
Following this early attempt at a major long novel, DeLillo ended the decade with two shorter works. Players (1977), originally conceived as being "[...] based on what could be called the intimacy of language. What people who live together really sound like", concerned the lives of a young yuppie couple as the husband gets involved with a cell of domestic terrorists. Its 1978 successor, Running Dog (1978), written in a brief four-month streak of writing, was a thriller concerning numerous individuals hunting down a celluloid reel of Hitler's sexual exploits. Of Running Dog, DeLillo remarked in his 'Rolling Stone interview that ""What I was really getting at in Running Dog was a sense of the terrible acquisitiveness in which we live, coupled with a final indifference to the object. After all the mad attempts to acquire the thing, everyone suddenly decides that, well, maybe we really don't care about this so much anyway. This was something I felt characterized our lives at the time the book was written, in the mid to late seventies. I think this was part of American consciousness then."
Reflecting on his first six novels and his rapid writing turnover later in his career, DeLillo remarked, "I wasn't learning to slow down and examine what I was doing more closely. I don't have regrets about that work, but I do think that if I had been a bit less hasty in starting each new book, I might have produced somewhat better work in the 1970s. My first novel took so long and was such an effort that once I was free of it I almost became carefree in a sense and moved right through the decade, stopping, in a way, only at Ratner's Star (1976), which was an enormous challenge for me, and probably a bigger challenge for the reader. But I slowed down in the 1980s and '90s." DeLillo has also acknowledged some of the weaknesses of his 1970s works, reflecting in 2007: "I knew I wasn’t doing utterly serious work, let me put it that way."
The beginning of the 1980s saw the most unusual and uncharacteristic publication in DeLillo's career. The sports novel Amazons, a mock memoir of the first woman to play in the National Hockey League, is a far more lighthearted and more evidently commercial novel than his previous and subsequent novels. DeLillo published the novel under the pseudonym Cleo Birdwell, and later requested publishers compiling a bibliography for a reprint of a later novel to expunge the novel from their lists.
While DeLillo spent several years living in Greece, he took three years to write The Names (1982), a complex thriller concerning "a risk analyst who crosses paths with a cult of assassins in the Middle East". While lauded by an increasing number of literary critics, DeLillo was still relatively unknown outside of small academic circles and did not reach a wide readership with this novel. Also in 1982, DeLillo finally broke his self-imposed ban on media coverage by giving his first major interview to Tom LeClair, who had first tracked DeLillo down for an interview while he was in Greece in 1979 (on that occasion, DeLillo had handed LeClair a business card with his name printed on it and beneath that the message "I don't want to talk about it.")
With the publication of his eighth novel White Noise in 1985, DeLillo began a rapid ascendancy to being a noted and respected novelist. White Noise was arguably a major breakthrough both commercially and artistically for DeLillo, earning him a National Book Award for Fiction and a place among the academic canon of contemporary postmodern novelists. DeLillo remained as detached as ever from his growing reputation: when called upon to give an acceptance speech for the Award, he simply said, "I'm sorry I couldn't be here tonight, but I thank you all for coming," and then sat down. The influence and impact of White Noise can be seen in the writing of such authors as David Foster Wallace, Jonathan Lethem, Jonathan Franzen, Dave Eggers, Martin Amis, Zadie Smith and Richard Powers (who provides an introduction to the 25th Anniversary edition of the novel). Among the 39 proposed titles for the novel were “All Souls”, “Ultrasonic”, "The American Book of the Dead", "Psychic Data" and "Mein Kampf"; however, DeLillo acknowledged in a 2005 interview that White Noise was a fine choice, remarking "Once a title is affixed to a book, it becomes as indelible as a sentence or a paragraph."
DeLillo followed White Noise with Libra (1988), a speculative fictionalized take on the life of Lee Harvey Oswald up to the 1963 assassination of John F. Kennedy. For this novel DeLillo undertook a vast research project, which included reading at least half of the Warren Commission report (subsequently DeLillo described it as "...the Oxford English Dictionary of the assassination and also the Joycean novel. This is the one document that captures the full richness and madness and meaning of the event, despite the fact that it omits about a ton and a half of material.") Originally written with the working title of either "American Blood" or "Texas School Book," Libra became an international bestseller, one of five finalists for the National Book Award, and winner of the next year's Irish Times Aer Lingus International Fiction Prize. The novel also elicited fierce critical division, with some critics praising DeLillo's take on the Kennedy assassination while others decried it. George Will, in a Washington Post article, declared the book to be an affront to America and "an act of literary vandalism and bad citizenship." DeLillo has frequently reflected on the significance of the Kennedy assassination to not only his own work but American culture and history as a whole, remarking in one 2005 interview "November 22nd 1963 marked the real beginning of the 1960s. It was the beginning of a series of catastrophes: political assassinations, the war in Vietnam, the denial of Civil Rights and the revolts that occasioned, youth revolt in American cities, right up to Watergate. When I was starting out as a writer it seemed to me that a large part of the material you could find in my novels – this sense of fatality, of widespread suspicion, of mistrust – came from the assassination of JFK."
DeLillo's concerns about the position of the novelist and the novel in a media- and terrorist-dominated society were made clear in his next novel, Mao II (1991). Clearly influenced by the events surrounding the fatwa placed upon the author Salman Rushdie and the intrusion of the press into the life of the reclusive writer J. D. Salinger, Mao II earned DeLillo significant critical praise from, among others, fellow authors John Banville and Thomas Pynchon. He earned a PEN/Faulkner Award and a Pulitzer Prize finalist nomination for Mao II in 1991 and 1992, respectively.
Following Mao II, DeLillo went to ground and spent several years writing and researching his eleventh novel. Aside from the publication of a folio short story entitled "Pafko at the Wall" in a 1992 edition of Harper's Magazine, and one short story in 1995, little was seen or heard of him for a number of years.
In 1997, DeLillo finally broke cover with his long awaited eleventh novel, the epic Cold War history Underworld. The book was widely heralded as a masterpiece, with novelist and critic Martin Amis saying it marked "the ascension of a great writer." Underworld went on to become DeLillo's most acclaimed novel to date, achieving mainstream success and earning nominations for the National Book Award and the New York Times Best Books of the Year in 1997, and a second Pulitzer Prize for Fiction nomination in 1998. The novel went on to win the 1998 American Book Award, the 1999 Jerusalem Prize, and both the William Dean Howells Medal and Riccardo Bacchelli International Award in 2000. It was a runner-up in the 2006 New York Times' survey of the best American fiction of the last 25 years. White Noise and Libra were also recognized by the anonymous jury of contemporary writers.
DeLillo has subsequently expressed surprise at the success of the novel. In 2007, he candidly remarked: "When I finished with Underworld, I didn't really have any all-too-great hopes, to be honest. It's some pretty complicated stuff: 800 pages, more than 100 different characters – who's going to be interested in that?" After re-reading it again in 2010, over ten years after its publication, DeLillo commented that re-reading it "...made me wonder whether I would be capable of that kind of writing now – the range and scope of it. There are certain parts of the book where the exuberance, the extravagance, I don’t know, the overindulgence... There are city scenes in New York that seem to transcend reality in a certain way.”
Although they have received some acclaim in places, DeLillo's post-Underworld novels have been often viewed by critics as "...disappointing and slight, especially when held up against his earlier, big-canvas epics", marking a shift "...away from sweeping, era-defining novels such as "White Noise," "Libra" and "Underworld" to a more "spare and oblique" style, characterized by "[...] decreased length, the decommissioning of plot machinery and the steep deceleration of narrative time". DeLillo has commented on this shift to shorter novels, saying "“If a longer novel announces itself, I’ll write it. A novel creates its own structure and develops its own terms. I tend to follow. And I never try to stretch what I sense is a compact book.” In a March 2010 interview, it was reported that DeLillo's deliberate stylistic shift had been informed by his having recently re-read several slim but seminal European novels, including Albert Camus's The Stranger, Peter Handke's The Goalie's Anxiety at the Penalty Kick, and Max Frisch's Man in the Holocene.
After the publication and extensive publicity drive for Underworld, DeLillo once again retreated from the spotlight to write his twelfth novel, surfacing with The Body Artist in 2001. The novel contained many established DeLillo preoccupations, particularly its interest in performance art and domestic privacies in relation to the wider scope of events. However, the slight and brief novella was very different in style and tone to the epic history of Underworld, and met with a mixed critical reception.
DeLillo followed The Body Artist with 2003's Cosmopolis, a modern re-interpretation of James Joyce's Ulysses transposed to New York around the time of the collapse of the dot-com bubble in the year 2000. This novel was met at the time with a largely negative reception from critics, with several high profile critics and novelists – notably John Updike – voicing their objections to the novel's style and tone. When asked in 2005 how he felt about the novel's mixed reception compared to the broader positive consensus afforded to Underworld, DeLillo remarked: "I try to stay detached from that aspect of my work as a writer. I didn't read any reviews or articles. Maybe it [the negative reception] was connected to September 11. I'd almost finished writing the book when the attacks took place, and so they couldn't have had any influence on the book's conception, nor on its writing. Perhaps for certain readers this upset their expectations." However, subsequently critical opinions have been revised, the novel latterly being seen as prescient for its views on the flaws and weaknesses of the international financial system and cybercapital.
DeLillo's papers were acquired in 2004 by the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin, reputedly for "half a million dollars". There are "[one] hundred and twenty-five boxes" of DeLillo materials, including various drafts and correspondence. Of his decision to donate his papers to the Ransom Center, DeLillo is quoted in a fax to curator Tom Staley as explaining his donation being motivated by the following: "“I ran out of space and also felt, as one does at a certain age, that I was running out of time. I didn’t want to leave behind an enormous mess of papers for family members to deal with. Of course, I’ve since produced more paper – novel, play, essay, etc. – and so the cycle begins again.”
DeLillo returned with what would turn out to be his final novel of the decade with Falling Man in May 2007. The novel concerned the impact on one family of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York, "...an intimate story which is encompassed by a global event." According to a 2007 interview in Die Zeit, DeLillo claims that originally he "...didn't ever want to write a novel about 9/11." and "...had an idea for a different book" which he had "been working on for half a year" in 2004 when he came up with an idea for the novel, beginning work on the novel following the re-election of George W. Bush that November. Although highly anticipated and eagerly awaited by critics, who felt that DeLillo was one of the contemporary writers best equipped to tackle with the events of 9/11 in novelistic form, the novel met once again with a mixed critical reception and garnered no major literary awards or nominations. DeLillo, however, remained unconcerned by this relative lack of critical acclaim, remarking in 2010 "In the 1970s, when I started writing novels, I was a figure in the margins, and that’s where I belonged. If I’m headed back that way, that’s fine with me, because that’s always where I felt I belonged. Things changed for me in the 1980s and 1990s, but I’ve always preferred to be somewhere in the corner of a room, observing.”
On April 25, 2009, DeLillo received another significant literary award, the 2009 Common Wealth Award for Literature, given by PNC Bank of Delaware.
On June 9, 2009 it was announced[by whom?] that DeLillo's next novel, his fifteenth, had been completed and was set for publication. Titled Point Omega, the brief plot description released revealed that the new short novel concerns: "A young filmmaker [who] visits the desert home of a secret war adviser in the hopes of making a documentary. The situation is complicated by the arrival of the older man's daughter, and the narrative takes a dark turn." The first confirmed extract from Point Omega was made available on the Simon and Schuster website on December 10, 2009.
On July 24, 2009, Entertainment Weekly announced that the director David Cronenberg (A History of Violence, Naked Lunch) would write a screenplay adaptation of Don DeLillo's 2003 novel Cosmopolis, with "a view to eventually direct," Cosmopolis, eventually released in 2012, became the first direct adaptation for the screen of a DeLillo novel, although both Libra and Underworld had previously been optioned for screen treatments, there had been discussions about adapting earlier novel End Zone, and DeLillo himself has written an original screenplay for the film Game 6.
On November 30, 2009, DeLillo published a new original short story in the New Yorker magazine, his first since "Still Life" in 2007 prior to the release of Falling Man. The new story is called "Midnight in Dostoevsky" and it is a standalone short story (not a part of DeLillo's novel Point Omega as seen in the advance copies).
DeLillo ended the decade by making an unexpected appearance at a PEN event on the steps of the New York City Public Library, 5th Ave and 42nd St in support of Chinese dissident writer Liu Xiaobo, who was sentenced to eleven years in prison for "inciting subversion of state power" on December 31, 2009.
DeLillo published Point Omega, his fifteenth novel, in February 2010. According to DeLillo, the novel considers an idea from "...the writing of the Jesuit thinker and paleontologist [Pierre] Teilhard de Chardin." The 'Omega Point' of the title "...[is] the possible idea that human consciousness is reaching a point of exhaustion and that what comes next may be either a paroxysm or something enormously sublime and unenvisionable." Point Omega is DeLillo's shortest novel to date, and he has said it could be considered as a companion piece to The Body Artist: "In its reflections on time and loss, this may be a philosophical novel and maybe, considering its themes, the book shares a place in my work with The Body Artist, another novel of abbreviated length." Reviews thus far have been polarised, with some saying the novel is a return to form and innovative, while others have complained about the novel's brevity and apparent lack of plot and engaging characters. Upon its initial release, Point Omega spent one week on the New York Times Bestseller List, peaking at #35 on the extended version of the list during its one week stay on the list.
In a January 29, 2010 interview with the Wall Street Journal, DeLillo discussed Point Omega, his views of writing and his plans for the future at great length. When asked about why his recent novels had been shorter, DeLillo replied, "Each book tells me what it wants or what it is, and I'd be perfectly content to write another long novel. It just has to happen." While DeLillo is open to the idea of returning to the form of the long novel, the interview also revealed that he currently has no interest in doing as many of his literary contemporaries have done and writing a memoir. DeLillo also made some observations on the state of literature and the challenges facing young writers:
It's tougher to be a young writer today than when I was a young writer. I don't think my first novel would have been published today as I submitted it. I don't think an editor would have read 50 pages of it. It was very overdone and shaggy, but two young editors saw something that seemed worth pursuing and eventually we all did some work on the book and it was published. I don't think publishers have that kind of tolerance these days, and I guess possibly as a result, more writers go to writing class now than then. I think first, fiction, and second, novels, are much more refined in terms of language, but they may tend to be too well behaved, almost in response to the narrower market.
However, in a February 21, 2010 interview with The Times newspaper, DeLillo re-affirmed his belief in the validity and importance of the novel in a technology and media driven age, offering a more optimistic opinion of the future of the novel than his contemporary Philip Roth had done in a recent interview:
It is the form that allows a writer the greatest opportunity to explore human experience...For that reason, reading a novel is potentially a significant act. Because there are so many varieties of human experience, so many kinds of interaction between humans, and so many ways of creating patterns in the novel that can’t be created in a short story, a play, a poem or a movie. The novel, simply, offers more opportunities for a reader to understand the world better, including the world of artistic creation. That sounds pretty grand, but I think it’s true.
DeLillo received two further significant literary awards in 2010: the St. Louis Literary Award for his entire body of work to date on October 21, 2010 (previous recipients include Salman Rushdie, E.L. Doctorow, John Updike, William Gass, Joyce Carol Oates, Joan Didion and Tennessee Williams); and his second PEN Award – the PEN/Saul Bellow Award for Achievement in American Fiction on October 13, 2010.
DeLillo's first collection of short stories, The Angel Esmeralda: Nine Stories, covering short stories published between 1979 and 2011, was published in November 2011. It has received favorable reviews, and has been a finalist for both the 2012 Story Prize award and the 2012 PEN/Faulkner award for Fiction, as well as being longlisted for the Frank O’Connor International Short Story Award. New York Times Book Review contributor Liesl Schillinger praised it, saying, "DeLillo packs fertile ruminations and potent consolation into each of these rich, dense, concentrated stories."
DeLillo received the 2012 Carl Sandburg Literary Award on October 17, 2012, on the campus of the University of Illinois at Chicago. The prize is "presented annually to an acclaimed author in recognition of outstanding contributions to the literary world and honors a significant work or body of work that has enhanced the public's awareness of the written word."
On January 29, 2013, Variety announced that Italian director Luca Guadagnino is to direct an adaptation of DeLillo's 2001 novel The Body Artist as Body Art. On April 26, 2013 it was announced that DeLillo had received the inaugural Library of Congress Prize for American Fiction (formerly the Library of Congress Creative Achievement Award for Fiction), with the presentation of the award due to take place during the 2013 Library of Congress National Book Festival, Sept. 21–22 2013. The prize honours "[...] an American literary writer whose body of work is distinguished not only for its mastery of the art but for its originality of thought and imagination. The award seeks to commend strong, unique, enduring voices that – throughout long, consistently accomplished careers – have told us something about the American experience." In a statement issued in response to the award, DeLillo said “When I received news of this award, my first thoughts were of my mother and father, who came to this country the hard way, as young people confronting a new language and culture. In a significant sense, the Library of Congress Prize is the culmination of their efforts and a tribute to their memory.”
DeLillo has revealed that he is currently at work on a new novel, his sixteenth, and that "the [main] character spends a lot of time watching file footage on a wide screen, images of a disaster."
Since 1979, in addition to his novels and occasional essays, DeLillo has been active as a playwright. To date, DeLillo has written five major plays: The Engineer of Moonlight (1979), The Day Room (1986), Valparaiso (1999), Love Lies Bleeding (2006), and, most recently, The Word For Snow (2007). Stage adaptations have also been written for DeLillo's novels Libra and Mao II.
Of his work as a playwright, DeLillo has said that he feels his plays are not influenced by the same writers as his novels: "I'm not sure who influenced me [as a playwright]. I've seen some reviews that mention Beckett and Pinter, but I don't know what to say about that. I don't feel it myself."
Themes and criticism
DeLillo's work displays elements of both modernism and postmodernism. He has said the primary influences on his work and development are "abstract expressionism, foreign films, and jazz." Many of DeLillo's books (notably White Noise) satirize academia and explore postmodern themes of rampant consumerism, novelty intellectualism, underground conspiracies, the disintegration and re-integration of the family, and the promise of rebirth through violence. In several of his novels, DeLillo explores the idea of the increasing visibility and effectiveness of terrorists as societal actors and, consequently, the displacement of what he views to be artists', and particularly novelists', traditional role in facilitating social discourse (Players, Mao II, Falling Man). Another perpetual theme in DeLillo's books is the saturation of mass media and its role in forming simulacra, resulting in the removal of an event from its context and the consequent draining of meaning (see the highway shooter in Underworld, the televised disasters longed for in White Noise, the planes in Falling Man, the evolving story of the interviewee in Valparaiso). The psychology of crowds and the capitulation of individuals to group identity is a theme DeLillo examines in several of his novels, especially in the prologue to Underworld, Mao II, and Falling Man. In a 1993 interview with Maria Nadotti, DeLillo explained
|“||My book (Mao II), in a way, is asking who is speaking to these people. Is it the writer who traditionally thought he could influence the imagination of his contemporaries or is it the totalitarian leader, the military man, the terrorist, those who are twisted by power and who seem capable of imposing their vision on the world, reducing the earth to a place of danger and anger. Things have changed a lot in recent years. One doesn't step onto an airplane in the same spirit as one did ten years ago: it's all different and this change has insinuated itself into our consciousness with the same force with which it insinuated itself into the visions of Beckett or Kafka.||”|
Many younger English-language authors such as Bret Easton Ellis, Jonathan Franzen and David Foster Wallace have cited DeLillo as an influence. Literary critic Harold Bloom named him as one of the four major American novelists of his time, along with Thomas Pynchon, Philip Roth, and Cormac McCarthy, though he questions the classification of DeLillo as a "postmodern novelist." Asked if he approves of this designation, DeLillo has responded: "I don't react. But I'd prefer not to be labeled. I'm a novelist, period. An American novelist."
Critics of DeLillo argue that his novels are overly stylized and intellectually shallow. Bruce Bawer famously condemned DeLillo's novels insisting they weren't actually novels at all but "tracts, designed to batter us, again and again, with a single idea: that life in America today is boring, benumbing, dehumanized...It's better, DeLillo seems to say in one novel after another, to be a marauding murderous maniac – and therefore a human – than to sit still for America as it is, with its air conditioners, assembly lines, television sets, supermarkets, synthetic fabrics, and credit cards." George Will proclaimed the study of Lee Harvey Oswald in Libra as "sandbox existentialism" and "an act of literary vandalism and bad citizenship." DeLillo responded "I don't take it seriously, but being called a 'bad citizen' is a compliment to a novelist, at least to my mind. That's exactly what we ought to do. We ought to be bad citizens. We ought to, in the sense that we're writing against what power represents, and often what government represents, and what the corporation dictates, and what consumer consciousness has come to mean. In that sense, if we're bad citizens, we're doing our job." In the same interview DeLillo rejected Will's claim that DeLillo blames America for Lee Harvey Oswald, countering that he instead blamed America for George Will. DeLillo also figured prominently in B. R. Myers' critique of recent American literary fiction, A Reader's Manifesto.
References in popular culture
- Paul Auster dedicated his books In the Country of Last Things and Leviathan to his friend Don DeLillo.
- Ryan Boudinot  and Neal Pollack contributed humor pieces to the journal McSweeney's satirizing DeLillo.
- A fictionalized DeLillo blogs for The Onion.
- Conor Oberst begins his song "Gold Mine Gutted" with "It was Don DeLillo, whiskey neat, and a blinking midnight clock."
- Rhett Miller references Libra in his song "World Inside a World" saying, "I read it in DeLillo, like he'd written it for me." The phrase, "There is a world inside the world", appears multiple times in the book.
- The band The Airborne Toxic Event takes its name from a chemical gas leak of the same name in DeLillo's White Noise.
- Too Much Joy's song "Sort of Haunted House" from Mutiny is inspired by DeLillo; similarly, Too Much Joy spin-off band, Wonderlick, takes its name from an intentional misspelling of the name of the protagonist from Great Jones Street.
- David Foster Wallace claimed DeLillo, and Cynthia Ozick, as two of the greatest living writers of the English language.
- In the 2009 film The Proposal, the Canadian-born editor in chief of a New York publisher risks deportation to meet DeLillo at the Frankfurt Book Fair.
List of works
- Americana (1971)
- End Zone (1972)
- Great Jones Street (1973)
- Ratner's Star (1976)
- Players (1977)
- Running Dog (1978)
- Amazons (1980) (under pseudonym "Cleo Birdwell")
- The Names (1982)
- White Noise (1985)
- Libra (1988)
- Mao II (1991)
- Underworld (1997) (see also Pafko at the Wall, the prologue of Underworld which was published separately in Harper's in Oct. 1992)
- The Body Artist (2001)
- Cosmopolis (2003)
- Falling Man (2007)
- Point Omega (2010)
- Short story collections
- Short stories
- The River Jordan (1960) (First published in Epoch 10, No. 2 (Winter 1960), pp. 105–120.)
- Take the "A" Train (1962) (First published in Epoch 12, No. 1 (Spring 1962) pp. 9–25.)
- "Spaghetti and Meatballs" (1965) (First published in Epoch 14, No. 3 (Spring 1965) pp. 244–250)
- "Coming Sun.Mon.Tues." (1966) (First published in Kenyon Review 28, No. 3 (June 1966), pp. 391–394.)
- "Baghdad Towers West" (1967) (First published in Epoch 17, 1968, pp. 195–217.)
- "The Uniforms" (1970) (First published in Carolina Quarterly 22, 1970, pp. 4–11.)
- In the Men's Room of the Sixteenth Century (1971) (First published in Esquire, Dec. 1971, pp. 174–177, 243, 246.)
- Total Lost Weekend (1972) (First published in Sports Illustrated, Nov. 27, 1972, pp. 98–101+)
- Creation (1979) (First published in Antaeus No. 33, Spring 1979, pp. 32–46.)
- "The Sightings" (1979) (First published in Weekend Magazine (Summer Fiction Issue, out of Toronto), August 4, 1979, pp. 26–30.)
- "Human Moments in World War III" (1983) (First published in Esquire, July 1983, pp. 118–126.)
- "The Ivory Acrobat" (1988) (First published in Granta 25, Autumn 1988, pp. 199–212.)
- "The Runner" (1988) (First published in Harper's, Sept. 1988, pp. 61–63.)
- "Pafko at the Wall" (1992) (First published in Harper's, Oct. 1992, pp. 35–70.)
- "The Angel Esmeralda" (1995) (First published in Esquire, May 1994, pp. 100–109.)
- "Baader-Meinhof" (2002) (First published in New Yorker, 1 April 2002, pp. 78–82.)
- "Still Life" (2007) (First published in New Yorker, April 9, 2007)
- "Midnight in Dostoevsky" (2009) (First Published in New Yorker, November 30, 2009)
- "The Border of Fallen Bodies" (2009) (First Published in Esquire, April 21, 2009)
- Hammer and Sickle (2010) (First published in Harper's, Dec. 2010, pp. 63–74)
- The Engineer of Moonlight (1979)
- The Day Room (first production 1986)
- Valparaiso (first production 1999)
- Love-Lies-Bleeding (first production 2005)
- The Word for Snow (first production in 2007)
- Game 6 (2005), the story of a playwright (played by Michael Keaton) and his obsession with the Boston Red Sox and the 1986 World Series, was written in the early 1990s, but wasn't produced until 2005, ironically one year after the Red Sox won their first World Series title in 86 years. To date, it is DeLillo's only work for film.
- Significant essays
- "American Blood: A Journey through the Labyrinth of Dallas and JFK" (1983) (Published in Rolling Stone, Dec. 8, 1983. DeLillo's first major published essay. Seen as signposting his interest in the JFK assassination that would ultimately lead to Libra)
- "Salman Rushdie Defense" (1994) (Co-written with Paul Auster in defense of Salman Rushdie following the announcement of a fatwa upon him after the publication of The Satanic Verses)
- "The Artist Naked in a Cage" (1997)(A short piece ran in The New Yorker on May 26, 1997, pages 6–7. An address delivered on May 13, 1997 at the New York Public Library's event "Stand In for Wei Jingsheng.")
- "The Power of History" (1997) (Published in the Sept. 7, 1997 issue of the New York Times Magazine. Preceded the publication of Underworld and was viewed by many as a rationale for the novel)
- "A History of the Writer Alone in a Room" (1999) (This piece is the acceptance address given by DeLillo on the occasion of being awarded the Jerusalem Prize in 1999. A small pamphlet was printed with this address, an address by Scribner editor-in-chief Nan Graham, the Jury's Citation and an address by Jerusalem mayor Ehud Olmert. It was reprinted in a German translation in Die Zeit in 2001. The piece is in five numbered sections, and is about five pages long.)
- "In the Ruins of the Future" (Dec 2001) (This short essay appeared in Harper's magazine, December 2001 issue, pages 33–40. It concerns the Sept 11 incidents, terrorism, and America. It consists of eight numbered sections.)
Awards and award nominations
- 1979 – DeLillo awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship.
- 1984 – Award in Literature from the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters
- 1985 – National Book Award (Fiction) for White Noise
- 1985 – National Book Critics Circle Award finalist (Fiction, 1985) for White Noise
- 1988 – National Book Critics Circle Award finalist (Fiction, 1988) for Libra
- 1988 – New York Times Best Books of the Year (1988) for Libra
- 1988 – National Book Award finalist (Fiction) for Libra
- 1989 – Irish Times, Aer Lingus International Fiction Prize for Libra
- 1992 – PEN/Faulkner Award for Mao II
- 1992 – Pulitzer Prize for Fiction nomination for Mao II
- 1995 – Lila Wallace-Reader's Digest Award
- 1997 – National Book Award finalist (Fiction) for Underworld
- 1997 – National Book Critics Circle Award finalist (Fiction, 1997) for Underworld
- 1997 – New York Times Best Books of the Year nominee for Underworld
- 1998 – Pulitzer Prize for Fiction nomination for Underworld
- 1998 – American Book Award for Underworld
- 1999 – Jerusalem Prize
- 1999 – IMPAC Award shortlist for Underworld
- 2000 – William Dean Howells Medal awarded for Underworld
- 2000 – "Riccardo Bacchelli" International Award for Underworld
- 2001 – James Tait Black Memorial Prize shortlist (Fiction, 2001) for The Body Artist
- 2003 – IMPAC Award longlist for The Body Artist
- 2006 – New York Times: Best Work of American Fiction of the Last 25 Years (Runner-Up) for Underworld
- 2007 – New York Times Notable Book of the Year (Fiction and Poetry) for Falling Man
- 2007 – Booklist Top of the List: A Best of Editors Choice for Falling Man
- 2007 – Nominee for Man Booker International Prize
- 2009 – Common Wealth Award of Distinguished Service for achievements in literature
- 2009 – IMPAC Award longlist for Falling Man
- 2010 – St. Louis Literary Award
- 2010 – PEN/Saul Bellow Award for Achievement in American Fiction
- 2011 – New York Times 100 Notable Books of 2011 list for The Angel Esmeralda
- 2012 – The Story Prize finalist for The Angel Esmeralda
- 2012 – PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction finalist for The Angel Esmeralda
- 2012 – Frank O’Connor International Short Story Award longlist for The Angel Esmeralda
- 2012 – Carl Sandburg Literary Award
- 2012 – IMPAC Award longlist for Point Omega
- 2013 – Library of Congress Prize for American Fiction [Inaugural award]
- Adelman, Gary, Sorrow's Rigging: The Novels of Cormac McCarthy, Don Delillo, and Robert Stone,McGill-Queen's University Press, 2012.
- Bloom, Harold (ed.), Don DeLillo (Bloom's Major Novelists), Chelsea House, 2003.
- Boxall, Peter, Don DeLillo: The Possibility of Fiction, Routledge, 2006.
- Civello, Paul, American Literary Naturalism and its Twentieth-century Transformations: Frank Norris, Ernest Hemingway, Don DeLillo, University of Georgia Press, 1994.
- Cowart, David, Don DeLillo – The Physics of Language, University of Georgia Press, 2002.
- Dewey, Joseph, Beyond Grief and Nothing: A Reading of Don DeLillo, University of South Carolina Press, 2006.
- Dewey, Joseph (ed.), Kellman, Steven G. (ed.), Malin, Irving (ed.), Underwords: Perspectives on Don DeLillo's Underworld, University of Delaware Press, 2002.
- Duvall, John, Don DeLillo's Underworld: A Reader's Guide, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002.
- Duvall, John (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Don DeLillo, Cambridge UP, 2008.
- Ebbeson, Jeffrey, Postmodernism and its Others: The Fiction of Ishmael Reed, Kathy Acker, and Don DeLillo (Literary Criticism and Cultural Theory), Routledge, 2010.
- Engles, Tim (ed.), Duvall, John (ed.), Approaches to Teaching DeLillo's White Noise, Modern Language Association Press, 2006.
- Giaimo, Paul, "Appreciating Don DeLillo: The Moral Force of A Writer's Work", Praeger Publishers Inc, 2011.
- Halldorson, Stephanie, The Hero in Contemporary American Fiction: The Works of Saul Bellow and Don DeLillo, 2007.
- Hantke, Steffen, Conspiracy and Paranoia in Contemporary American Fiction: The works of Don DeLillo and Joseph McElroy, Peter Lang Publishing, 1994.
- Kavadlo, Jesse, Don DeLillo: Balance at the Edge of Belief, Peter Lang Publishing, 2004.
- Keesey, Douglas, Don DeLillo, Macmillan, 1993.
- Laist, Randy, Technology and Postmodern Subjectivity in Don DeLillo's Novels, Peter Lang Publishing, 2010.
- LeClair, Tom In the Loop – Don DeLillo and the Systems Novel, University of Illinois Press, 1987.
- Lentricchia, Frank (ed.), Introducing Don DeLillo, Duke University Press, 1991.
- Lentricchia, Frank (ed.), New Essays on White Noise, Cambridge University Press, 1991.
- Martucci, Elise, The Environmental Unconscious in the Fiction of Don DeLillo, Routledge, 2007.
- Morley, Catherine, The Quest for Epic in Contemporary American Literature, Routledge, New York, 2008.
- Olster, Stacy (ed.), Don DeLillo: Mao II, Underworld, Falling Man (Continuum Studies in Contemporary North America Fiction), Continuum, 2011.
- Orr, Leonard, White Noise: A Reader's Guide Continuum International Publishing Group, 2003.
- Osteen, Mark American Magic and Dread: Don DeLillo's Dialogue with Culture, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.
- Ruppersburg, Hugh (ed.), Engles, Tim (ed.), Critical Essays on Don DeLillo, G.K. Hall, 2000.
- Schneck, Peter & Schweighauser,Philipp (eds.),Terrorism, Media, and the Ethics of Fiction: Transatlantic Perspectives on Don Delillo, Continuum, 2010.
- Schuster, Marc, "Don DeLillo, Jean Baudrillard, and the Consumer Conundrum", Cambria Press, 2008.
- Sozalan, Azden, The American Nightmare: Don DeLillo's Falling Man and Cormac McCarthy's The Road, Authorhouse Publishing, 2011.
- Taylor, Mark C, Rewiring the Real: In Conversation with William Gaddis, Richard Powers, Mark Danielewski, and Don DeLillo (Religion, Culture and Public Life), Columbia University Press, 2013 [forthcoming].
- Weinstein, Arnold, Nobody's Home: Speech, Self, and Place in American Fiction From Hawthorne to DeLillo, Oxford University Press, 1993.
- "The Pulitzer Prizes | Fiction". Pulitzer.org. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- "Prize for American Fiction Awarded to Don DeLillo". Library of Congress. 2013-04-25. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- Kevin Nance (2012-10-12). "Don DeLillo talks about writing - Page 3". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- "Panic interview with DeLillo - 2005". Perival.com. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- Vince Passaro (1991-05-19). "Dangerous Don DeLillo". The New York Times.
- Amend, Christoph; Diez, Georg (October 11, 2007). "Dum Pendebat Filius: Translation of "Ich kenne Amerika nicht mehr" ("I don't know America anymore")". Die Zeit. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- March 06, 2010 12:00AM (2010-03-06). "Dancing to the music of time". The Australian. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- "DeLillo Interview by Peter Henning, 2003". Perival.com. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- Kevin Nance (2012-10-12). "Don DeLillo talks about writing - Page 2". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- [dead link]
- Ron Charles (2013-04-25). "Don DeLillo is first recipient of Library of Congress Prize for American Fiction". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- Ed Caesar (2010-02-21). "Don DeLillo: A writer like no other". The Sunday Times (London). Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- "Intensity of a Plot: Mark Binelli interviews Don DeLillo". Guernica. July 2007. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- Passaro, Vince (1991-05-19). "Dangerous Don DeLillo". New York Times.
- Interviewed by Adam Begley (Fall 1993). "Don DeLillo, The Art of Fiction No. 135: Interviewed by Adam Begley". The Paris Review. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "mean streak - artforum.com / scene & herd". Artforum.com. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- Alter, Alexandra (2010-01-29). "Don DeLillo on His New Book 'Point Omega' - WSJ.com". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- by D. T. Max. "Letter from Austin: Final Destination". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- Published May 7, 2007 (2007-05-07). "Our Guide to the Don DeLillo Oeuvre – New York Magazine". Nymag.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- Harris, Robert R. (October 10, 1982). "A Talk with Don DeLillo". The New York Times.
- "Players - Don DeLillo - 1977". Perival.com. 2012-12-18. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- "Running Dog - Don DeLillo - 1978". Perival.com. 2010-01-30. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- Rayner, Richard (2010-01-03). "Tuning back in to 'White Noise'". latimes.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- Leclair, Thomas; Delillo, Don (Winter 1982). "An Interview with Don DeLillo: Conducted by Thomas LeClair". Contemporary Literature 23 (1): 19–31. doi:10.2307/1208140. JSTOR 1208140.
- "National Book Awards – 1985". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
(With essays by Courtney Eldridge, Matthew Pitt, and Jess Walter from the Awards 60-year anniversary blog.)
- Alter, Alexandra (2010-01-30). "Don DeLillo on Point Omega and His Writing Methods - WSJ.com". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- "White Noise - Don DeLillo - 1985". Perival.com. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- "National Book Awards – 1988". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- "DeLillo Detractors". Perival.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- Amis, Martin (1997-10-05). "Survivors of the Cold War". The New York Times.
- "National Book Awards – 1997". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-03-28.
- Mark O'Connell (2012-09-09). "The Angel Esmeralda: Nine Stories by Don DeLillo – review". London: The Observer. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- "Ransom Center Acquires Archive of Noted American Novelist Don DeLillo". HRC News. 2004-10-20.
- "Don DeLillo – Events of Interest". Perival.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- "Books : Point Omega : Excerpts". Books.simonandschuster.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- 09:29 PM ET (2009-07-24). "David Cronenberg journeys to 'Cosmopolis' | EW.com". News-briefs.ew.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- by Don DeLillo (2009-01-07). "Midnight in Dostoevsky". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- "PEN American Center – Writers Rally for Release of Liu Xiaobo". Pen.org. 2009-12-31. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- Hales, Dianne R. (2010-02-01). "Don DeLillo - The Barnes & Noble Review". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- Schuessler, Jennifer (2010-02-18). "TBR – Inside the List". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- Henderson, Jane (August 24, 2010). "DeLillo to receive STL Literary Award". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "Books: The Angel Esmeralda". Simon & Schuster. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "The Story Prize". The Story Prize. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- [dead link]
- "The Frank O'Connor". Frankoconnor-shortstory-award.net. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- Schillinger, Liesl (November 17, 2011). "Don DeLillo and the Varieties of American Unease". The New York Times.
- "Carl Sandburg Literary Awards Dinner". Chicago Public Library Foundation. 2013-10-23. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- John Hopewell (2013-01-29). "Cronenberg, DeLillo, Branco reteam for ‘Body Art’". Variety (magazine). Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- Charles, Ron (2013-04-25). "Don DeLillo is first recipient of Library of Congress Prize for American Fiction". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- "DeLillo Wins Inaugural Library of Congress Prize for American Fiction". The Daily Beast. 2013-04-25. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- Williams, John (2013-04-25). "New Literary Prize Goes to DeLillo". The New York Times.
- "Cosmopolis Interviews - Rob Pattinson, David Cronenberg, Don Delillo". Oh No They Didn'tcom. 2012-04-23. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- Kevin Nance (2012-10-12). "Don DeLillo talks about writing". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- John Freeman (2006-03-05). "Q&A: Don DeLillo / It's not as easy as it looks / DeLillo talks about writing plays, watching sports and movies, and defining love and death". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- John N. Duvall (29 May 2008). The Cambridge Companion to Don DeLillo. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-139-82808-6.
- DePietro, Thomas (ed.) (2005). Conversations With Don DeLillo. University Press of Mississippi. p. 128. ISBN 1-57806-704-9.
- DePietro, Thomas (ed.) (2005). Conversations With Don DeLillo. University Press of Mississippi. p. 110. ISBN 1-57806-704-9.
- Bloom, Harold (2003-09-24). "Dumbing down American readers". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- DePietro, Thomas (ed.) (2005). Conversations With Don DeLillo. University Press of Mississippi. p. 115. ISBN 1-57806-704-9.
- Remnick, David, "Exile on Main Street: Don DeLillo's Undisclosed Underworld", The New Yorker, September 15, 1997.
- "McSweeney's Internet Tendency: DeLillo in the Outback". Mcsweeneys.net. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- "Don DeLillo | The Onion – America's Finest News Source". The Onion. Retrieved 2010-03-16.[dead link]
- Cohen, Patricia (September 23, 2010). "PEN American Center Names Award Winners". ArtsBeat (The New York Times). Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- Husna Haq (2013-04-25). "Don DeLillo becomes first writer to receive the Library of Congress Prize for American Fiction". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Don DeLillo|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Don DeLillo.|
- DeLillo 'Featured Authors' page at NY Times
- DeLillo Collection at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin
- Literary Encyclopedia Biography
- Works by or about Don DeLillo in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Don DeLillo's America website focused on Don DeLillo's work since 1996
- Don DeLillo Bibliography listing all work by DeLillo, including interviews, profiles, blurbs and other miscellaneous DeLillo writings
- Jacobs, Timothy. “Don DeLillo.” Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia. Ed. Peter Knight. Oxford: ABC-CLIO Press, 2003. 219–220.
- Don DeLillo interview with Granta Magazine