Ga language

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Not to be confused with Kãasa language.
Ga
Pronunciation [ɡã]
Region South-eastern Ghana, around Accra
Ethnicity Ga
Native speakers
600,000  (2004)[1]
Latin (Ga alphabet)
Ga Braille
Official status
Official language in
Ghana
Language codes
ISO 639-2 gaa
ISO 639-3 gaa
Glottolog gaaa1244[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Ga is a Kwa language spoken in Ghana, in and around the capital Accra. It has a phonemic distinction between 3 vowel lengths.

Classification[edit]

Ga is a Kwa language, part of the Niger–Congo family. It is very closely related to Adangme, and together they form the Ga–Dangme branch within Kwa.

Ga is the name of the Tribe.

Ga is the language spoken.

Gamashie is the name of the capital of the Ga tribe in Ghana.

Geographic distribution[edit]

Ga is spoken in south-eastern Ghana, in and around the capital Accra. It has relatively little dialectal variation. Although English is the official language of Ghana, Ga is one of 16 languages in which the Bureau of Ghana Languages publishes material.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Ga has 31 consonant phonemes.

Consonant phonemes
  Labial Dental Postalveolar
and palatal
Velar Labial-
velar
Glottal
Plain Labialized Plain Lab.v Plain Lab.
Nasal m n ɲ   ŋ   ŋ͡m  
Stop p b t d tʃʷ dʒʷ k ɡ ɡʷ k͡p ɡ͡b  
Fricative f v s z ʃ   ʃʷ               h
Approximant   l j ɥ     w  
  • [ŋʷ] is an allophone of /w/ which occurs before nasals and is represented with its own digraph in writing.
  • /l/ may be realised as [r] when between a consonant and vowel
  • /j/ has an allophone [ɲ] before nasal vowels

Vowels[edit]

Ga has 7 oral vowels and 5 nasal vowels. All of the vowels have 3 different vowel lengths: short, long or extra long (the latter appears only in the simple future and the simple past negative forms).

Monophthongs
Front Central Back
oral nasal oral nasal oral nasal
Close i ĩ     u ũ
Close-mid e       o  
Open-mid ɛ ɛ̃     ɔ ɔ̃
Open     a ã    

Tones[edit]

Ga has 2 tones, high and low. Like many West African languages, it has tone terracing.

Phonotactics[edit]

The syllable structure of Ga is (C)(C)V(C), where the second phoneme of an initial consonant cluster can only be /l/ and a final consonant may only be a (short or long) nasal consonant, e.g. ekome, "one", V-CV-CV; kakadaŋŋ, "long", CV-CV-CVC; mli, "body", CCV. Ga syllables may also consist solely of a syllabic nasal, for example in the first syllable of ŋshɔ, "sea".

Writing system[edit]

Ga was first written by Christian Jacobsen Protten, who was the son of a Danish soldier and an Ga woman, in about 1764. The orthography has been revised a number of times since 1968, with the most recent review in 1990.

The writing system is a Latin-based alphabet and has 26 letters. It has three additional letter symbols which correspond to the IPA symbols. There are also eleven digraphs and two trigraphs. Vowel length is represented by doubling or tripling the vowel symbol, e.g. 'a', 'aa' and 'aaa'. Tones are not represented. Nasalisation is represented after oral consonants where it distinguishes between minimal pairs.

The Ga alphabet is: Aa, Bb, Dd, Ee, Ɛɛ, Ff, Gg, Hh, Ii, Jj, Kk, Ll, Mm, Nn, Ŋŋ, Oo, Ɔɔ, Pp, Rr, Ss, Tt, Uu, Vv, Ww, Yy, Zz

The following letters represent sounds which do not correspond with the same letter as the IPA symbol (e.g. B represents /b/):

  • J j - /d͡ʒ/
  • Y y - /j/

Digraphs and trigraphs:

  • Gb gb - /ɡb/
  • Gw gw - /ɡʷ/
  • Hw hw - /hʷ/
  • Jw jw - /d͡ʒʷ/
  • Kp kp - /kp/
  • Kw kw - /kʷ/
  • Ny ny - /ɲ/
  • Ŋm ŋm - /ŋm/
  • Ŋw ŋw - [ŋʷ] (an allophone rather than a phoneme)
  • Sh sh - /ʃ/
  • Ts ts - /t͡ʃ/
  • Shw shw - /ʃʷ/
  • Tsw tsw - /t͡ʃʷ/

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ga at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Ga". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  • M. E. Kropp Dakubu, ed. (1977). West African Language Data Sheets Vol 1. West African Linguistic Society. 
  • M. E. Kropp Dakubu, ed. (1988). The Languages of Ghana. London: Kegan Paul International for the International African Institute. ISBN 0-7103-0210-X. 
  • M. E. Kropp Dakubu (1999). Ga-English dictionary with English-Ga Index. Accra: Black Mask Ltd. ISBN 9964-960-50-6. 
  • M. E. Kropp Dakubu (2002). Ga Phonology. Legon: Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana. 
  • Bureau of Ghana Languages (1995). Ga Wiemɔ Kɛ Ŋmaa. Accra:Bureau of Ghana Languages. ISBN 9964-2-0276-8. 
  • A. A. Amartey (1989). Beginners' Ga. Ga Society. 

External links[edit]