Hän language

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Hän
Häɬ goɬan
Native to Canada, United States
Region Yukon, Alaska
Ethnicity Hän people
Native speakers
20  (1997–2007)[1]
Latin (Dené alphabet)
Language codes
ISO 639-3 haa
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

The Hän language (Dawson, Han-Kutchin, Moosehide) is a Native American endangered language spoken in only two places: Eagle, Alaska and Dawson City, Yukon. There are only a few fluent speakers left (perhaps about 10), all of them elderly.

It is a member of the Athabaskan language family, which is part of the larger Na-Dené family. The name of the language is derived from the name of the people, "Hän Hwëch'in", which in the language means "people who live along the river", the river being the Yukon. There are currently efforts to revive the language locally.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

The consonants of Hän in the standard orthography are listed below (with IPA notation in brackets):

  Bilabial Interdental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Velar Glottal
    central lateral        
Stop voiceless   b  [p]     d  [t]         g  [k]    [ʔ]
aspirated   (p)  [pʰ]     t  [tʰ]         k  [kʰ]  
ejective       t’  [tʼ]         k’  [kʼ]  
Affricate voiceless     ddh  [tθ]   dz  [ts]   dl  [tɬ]   dj  [tʃ]   dr  [ʈʂ]    
aspirated     tth  [tθʰ]   ts  [tsʰ]   tl  [tɬʰ]   ch  [tʃʰ]   tr  [ʈʂʰ]    
ejective     tth’  [tθʼ]   ts’  [tsʼ]   tl’  [tɬʼ]   ch’  [tʃʼ]   tr’  [ʈʂʼ]    
Fricative voiced     dh  [ð]   z  [z]   l  [ɮ]   zh  [ʒ]   zr  [ʐ]   gh  [ɣ]  
voiceless     th  [θ]   s  [s]   ł  [ɬ]   sh  [ʃ]   sr  [ʂ]   kh  [x]   h  [h]
Nasal voiced   m  [m]     n  [n]          
voiceless       nh  [n̥]          
voiced stop   mb  [ᵐb]     nd  [ⁿd]          
voiced affricate           nj  [ⁿd͡ʒ]      
Approximant voiced   w  [w]       l  [l]   y  [j]   r  [ɻ]    
voiceless   wh  [ʍ]         yh  [ȷ̊]   rh  [ɻ̥]    

Vowels[edit]

  • short
    • a [a]
    • ä [ɑ]
    • e [e]
    • ë [ə]
    • i [i]
    • o [o]
    • u [u]
  • long
    • aa [aː]
    • ää [ɑː]
    • ee [eː]
    • ëë [əː]
    • ii [iː]
    • oo [oː]
    • uu [uː]
  • diphthongs
    • aw [au]
    • ay [ai]
    • äw [ɑu]
    • ew [eu]
    • ey [ei]
    • iw [iu]
    • oy [oi]
  • nasal vowels are marked by an ogonek accent, e.g., ą
  • low tone is marked with a grave accent, e.g., à
  • rising tone is marked with a circumflex accent, e.g., â[citation needed]
  • falling tone is marked with a caron (or háček), e.g., ǎ[citation needed]
  • high tone is never marked, e.g., a

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hän at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)

External links[edit]

Bibliography[edit]