Hän language

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Hän
Häɬ goɬan
Native to Canada, United States
Region Yukon, Alaska
Ethnicity Hän people
Native speakers
20  (1997–2007)[1]
Latin (Dené alphabet)
Language codes
ISO 639-3 haa
Glottolog hann1241[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

The Hän language (Dawson, Han-Kutchin, Moosehide) is a Native American endangered language spoken in only two places: Eagle, Alaska and Dawson City, Yukon.[citation needed] There are only a few fluent speakers left (perhaps about 10), all of them elderly.[citation needed]

It is a member of the Athabaskan language family, which is part of the larger Na-Dené family. The name of the language is derived from the name of the people, "Hän Hwëch'in", which in the language means "people who live along the river", the river being the Yukon. There are currently efforts to revive the language locally.[citation needed]

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

The consonants of Hän in the standard orthography are listed below (with IPA notation in brackets):

Labial Inter-
dental
Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Retroflex Velar Glottal
central lateral
Nasal [m] m []
[n]
nh
n
Stop [p]
[pʰ]
b
(p)
[t]
[tʰ]
d
t
[k]
[kʰ]
g
k
[ʔ]
 
ʼ
 
[] t’ [] k’
[ᵐb] mb [ⁿd] nd
Affricate []
[tθʰ]
ddh
tth
[ts]
[tsʰ]
dz
ts
[]
[tɬʰ]
dl
tl
[]
[tʃʰ]
dj
ch
[ʈʂ]
[ʈʂʰ]
dr
tr
[tθʼ] tth’ [tsʼ] ts’ [tɬʼ] tl’ [tʃʼ] ch’ [ʈʂʼ] tr’
[ⁿdʒ] nj
Fricative [θ]
[ð]
th
dh
[s]
[z]
s
z
[ɬ]
[ɮ]
ł
l
[ʃ]
[ʒ]
sh
zh
[ʂ]
[ʐ]
sr
zr
[x]
[ɣ]
kh
gh
[h] h
Approximant [l] l []
[j]
yh
y
[ɻ̥]
[ɻ]
rh
r
[]
[w]
wh
w

Vowels[edit]

  • short
    • a [a]
    • ä [ɑ]
    • e [e]
    • ë [ə]
    • i [i]
    • o [o]
    • u [u]
  • long
    • aa [aː]
    • ää [ɑː]
    • ee [eː]
    • ëë [əː]
    • ii [iː]
    • oo [oː]
    • uu [uː]
  • diphthongs
    • aw [au]
    • ay [ai]
    • äw [ɑu]
    • ew [eu]
    • ey [ei]
    • iw [iu]
    • oy [oi]
  • nasal vowels are marked by an ogonek accent, e.g., ą
  • low tone is marked with a grave accent, e.g., à
  • rising tone is marked with a circumflex accent, e.g., â[citation needed]
  • falling tone is marked with a caron (or háček), e.g., ǎ[citation needed]
  • high tone is never marked, e.g., a

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hän at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Han". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 

External links[edit]

Bibliography[edit]