Ardabil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the province of Iran, see Ardabil Province. For the county within the province, see Ardabil County.


Ardebil
اردبیل -دارالارشاد
Ardebil ( Artawila )
Tomb of Ardabil City
Tomb of Ardabil City
Nickname(s): دارالارشاد، دارالملک، دارالعرفان، دارالامان و شهر مقدس Darolershad ( Home Of Gentrice )
Ardebil is located in Iran
Ardebil
Ardebil
Coordinates: 38°15′N 48°17′E / 38.250°N 48.283°E / 38.250; 48.283Coordinates: 38°15′N 48°17′E / 38.250°N 48.283°E / 38.250; 48.283
Country Iran
Province Ardabil
County Ardabil
Bakhsh Central
Government
 • M.P. Nouradin Pirmoazen, Vali Azarvash, Hassan No'i-Aghdam
 • Governing Body Ardabil City Council
Area
 • Total 18.011 km2 (6.954 sq mi)
Elevation 1,351 m (4,432 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 564,365
 • Density 18,857/km2 (48,840/sq mi)
Demonym Ardabili
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 • Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)
Postal code 56131-56491
Area code(s) (+98) 451
Website http://www.eardabil.ir/ ardabil.ostan-ar.ir

Ardabil About this sound pronunciation  (Persian اردبیل, also Romanized as Ardabīl and Ardebīl[1]) is a historical city in north-western Iran. The name Ardabil comes from the Zoroastrian name of "Artawila", which means a holy place.[2] Ardabil is the center of Ardabil Province. At the 2011 census, its population was 564,365, in 156,324 families,[3] where the dominant majority are ethnic Azeris.[4][5] Notable for its silk and carpet trade tradition, the ancient Ardabil Carpets are considered some of the best of the classical Persian carpet creations. Ardabil is also known as the seat of a World Heritage Site: the sanctuary and tomb of Shaikh Safî ad-Dîn, eponym of the Safavid Dynasty.

Location[edit]

Ardabil is about 70 km (43 mi) from the Caspian Sea, and 210 km from the city of Tabriz. It has an average altitude of 1,263 metres (4,144 ft) and total area of 18.011 km2 (6.954 sq mi).

Neighboring on the Caspian Sea and the Republic of Azerbaijan, this city is of great political and economical significance.[citation needed]

The province of Ardabil has been blessed with splendid natural beauty and numerous sights.

It is located on an open plain 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) above sea level, just east of Mount Sabalan (4,811 m), where cold spells occur until late spring. Wastewater is used on crops, rangelands, forests, parks and golf courses in many parts of the world ([4e8], among others). Unrestricted irrigation, however, may expose the public to a variety of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths

History[edit]

The province is believed to be as old as the Achaemenid (ca. 550–330 BC). It is mentioned in the Avesta, where prophet Zoroaster was born by the river Aras and wrote his book in the Sabalan Mountains. During the Parthian era, the city had a special importance among the cities of Azarbaijan. Some Muslim historians attribute the foundation of Ardabil to king Peroz I of the Sassanid Empire. The Persian poet Ferdowsi also credits the foundation of the city to Peroz I. Ardabil suffered some damages caused by occasional raids of Huns from 4th to 6th century AD. Peroz repaired those damages and fortified the city. Peroz made Ardabil the residence of provincial governor (Marzban) of Azarbaijan.

During the Islamic conquest of Iran, Ardabil was the largest city in north western Iran, and remained so until the Mongol invasion period. Ardabilis fought the Mongols three times; however the city fell after the third attempt by Mongols. They massacred not only the Ardabilis but inhabitants of neighboring villages, killing everyone they could find.[citation needed] Incursions of Mongols and Georgians left the city in ruins for nearly three centuries until the advent of Safavids.

Safavid Shah Ismail I started his campaign to nationalize Iran's government and land from there, but consequently announced Tabriz as his capital in AD 1500. Yet Ardabil remained an important city both politically and economically until modern times. It was sacked by the Ottomans many times between 1514 and 1722 and in 1915, and by the Russians in 1813, 1828 and 1916 during the Russo-Persian Wars.

Bazaars[edit]

Gold Bazaar


Ardabil Bazaar In the heart of the Ardabil city, this bazaar stands as old as the Islamic period. Its shape was described by the historians of 4th century AH as a cross, extending in four directions with simply designed domes. Most sections of the bazaar were constructed and renovated during the Safavid and Zand periods.[6]
Produce Bazar, Ardabil and vicinity This is the fresh produce bazaar on the Meshkin Shahr gate in the city of Ardabil. Vendors buy directly from farmers and distributors.

Ardabil Carpet[edit]

Why the Ardabil Carpet was made One of the main sights in the city of Ardabil in north-west Iran is the shrine of Shaykh Safi al-Din Ardabili, who died in 1334. The Shaykh was a Sufi leader, who trained his followers in Islamic mystic practices. After his death, his followers remained loyal to his family, who became increasingly powerful.

In 1501, one of his descendants, Shah Isma'il, seized political power. He united Iran for the first time in several centuries and established the Shi'i form of Islam as the state religion. Isma'il was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, named after Shaykh Safi al-Din.

The Safavids, who ruled without a break until 1722, promoted the shrine of the Shaykh as a place of pilgrimage. In the late 1530s, Isma'il's son, Shah Tahmasp, enlarged the shrine, and it was at this time, too, that the carpet was made as one of a matching pair The completion of the carpets was marked by a four-line inscription placed at one end. The first two lines are a poetic quotation that refers to the shrine as a place of refuge:

'Except for thy threshold, there is no refuge for me in all the world. Except for this door there is no resting-place for my head.'

The third line is a signature, 'The work of the slave of the portal, Maqsud Kashani.' Maqsud was probably the court official charged with producing the carpets. He was not necessarily a slave in the literal sense but called himself one to express humility, while the word for 'portal' can be used for a royal court or a shrine. Perhaps Maqsud meant both, as in this case the court was the patron of the shrine.

The fourth line contains the date 946 in the Muslim calendar, which is equivalent to AD 1539–1540.

The Ardabil Carpet and the V&A The two Ardabil carpets were still in the shrine of Shaykh Safi al-Din in 1843, when one was seen by two British visitors. Thirty years or more later, the shrine suffered an earthquake, and the carpets were sold off, perhaps to raise funds for repairs. The damaged carpets were purchased in Iran by Ziegler & Co., a Manchester firm involved in the carpet trade. Parts of one carpet were used to patch the other. The result was one 'complete' carpet and one with no border.

In 1892, the larger carpet was put on sale by Vincent Robinson & Co. of London. The designer William Morris went to inspect it on behalf of this museum. Reporting that the carpet was 'of singular perfection … logically and consistently beautiful', he urged the museum to buy it. The money was raised, and in March 1893 the Museum acquired the carpet for £2000.

The second, smaller carpet was sold secretly to an American collector, and in 1953 it was given to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. The Ardabil carpet hung on the wall in this gallery for many years. In 2006, the museum created the case in the centre of the gallery so that the carpet could be seen as intended, on the floor. To preserve its colours, it is lit for ten minutes on the hour and half-hour.[7]

Earthquakes[edit]

Ardabil is associated with historical confusion between the 893 Dvin earthquake which was often wrongly documented as the 893 Ardabil earthquake due to the similarity of the Arabic name for city of Dvin in Armenia, 'Dabil' to Ardabil.

On 28 February 1997, a destructive earthquake hit the Ardabil area. At least 965 people were killed, 2,600 injured, 36,000 homeless, 12,000 houses damaged or destroyed and 160,000 livestock were killed. Severe damage was observed to roads, electrical power lines, communications and water distribution systems around Ardabil.[8]

Climate[edit]

Cold and semi-arid (Köppen BSk), many tourists come to the region for its relatively cool climate during the hot summer months. The winters are long and bitter cold, with a temperature plummeting to −25 °C. The annual rainfall is around 380 mm (15 in).

Climate data for Ardabil
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3.0
(37.4)
4.5
(40.1)
9.3
(48.7)
16.7
(62.1)
19.7
(67.5)
23.2
(73.8)
25.0
(77)
24.7
(76.5)
22.6
(72.7)
17.5
(63.5)
11.4
(52.5)
5.7
(42.3)
15.28
(59.51)
Average low °C (°F) −7.9
(17.8)
−6.3
(20.7)
−2.4
(27.7)
2.8
(37)
6.0
(42.8)
9.0
(48.2)
11.6
(52.9)
11.6
(52.9)
8.7
(47.7)
4.8
(40.6)
0.3
(32.5)
−4.6
(23.7)
2.8
(37.04)
Precipitation mm (inches) 24.7
(0.972)
21.8
(0.858)
37.4
(1.472)
38.3
(1.508)
45.1
(1.776)
19.4
(0.764)
6.7
(0.264)
5.4
(0.213)
9.9
(0.39)
33.0
(1.299)
37.1
(1.461)
25.1
(0.988)
303.9
(11.965)
Avg. precipitation days 8.0 8.5 11.2 11.5 13.7 6.9 3.9 3.8 5.8 8.8 7.5 7.7 97.3
Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN) [9]

Demography[edit]

Attractions[edit]

Sheikh Safi's tomb
Ardabil Museum
Yeddi goz bridge (Seven eyes bridge)
Anthropology
Attraction Description
The complex of Sheikh Safi-ad-din Ardabili is a World Heritage Site, comprising the following components: the mausoleums of Sheikh Safi and Shah Ismail I, Chini khaneh (meaning the house of chinaware), a mosque, Jannat Sara (meaning the house of paradise), Khanaqah (the house of Dervishes), Cheragh Khaneh (the house of lamps), Shahid khaneh (the house of martyrs) and Chelleh Khaneh (the place where devotees shut themselves up during the forty days of Lent). The mausoleum of Sheikh Safi, the dome of which is called "Allah-Allah" has an octagonal interior.(Virtual tour)
Masjid Jameh Ruins of once magnificent and unique mosque
Mirza Ali Akbar mosque and school This complex dates back to Qajar period
Ardabil Bazaar This Persian bazaar was built during Safavid period and in addition to main bazaar hall with open vaults has a hammam and a small yet mystifying mosque.
Ardabil bridges Ardabil host numerous historical bridges namely Pol-e Gilandeh, Pol-e Nayer, Pol-e Haft Cheshmeh, Pol-e Panj Cheshmeh and Pol-e She Cheshmeh and Qarah Soo Bridge, most were built during Safavid era.
Ardabil bridges Ardabil host numerous historical bridges namely Pol-e Gilandeh, Pol-e Nayer, Pol-e Haft Cheshmeh, Pol-e Panj Cheshmeh and Pol-e She Cheshmeh and Qarah Soo Bridge, most were built during Safavid era.
Imamzadeh Saleh mausoleum The mausoleum of Imamzadeh Saleh who is a descendant of a Shia Imam was built 250 years ago.
Saint Mary church This Armenian orthodox church has a beautiful wooden main door and painted dome built in 1876.
mausoleum of Sheikh Jebra'il located 2 km north of Ardabil
old but always lively bazaar
babadavood anbaran Friday mosque

and a few ancient bridges. In addition to these, in many villages of Ardabil, relics of ancient monuments, including tombs have been found.

Being a city of great antiquity, the origins of Ardabil go back 4000 to 6000 years (according to historical research in this city). This city was the capital of Azerbaijan province in different times, but its golden age was in the Safavid period.

Geology[edit]

Lake Shorabil

Many hot springs and beautiful natural landscapes are in Ardabil and around which attract tourists. The mineral springs of Ardabil (Beele-Darreh, Sar'eyn, Sardabeh and Booshloo) are notable throughout Iran for their medicinal qualities.

Many beauty lakes: the largest of which are Ne'or, Shorabil, ShoorGel, NouShahr and Aloocheh that are the habitats of some species of water birds. The beautiful Lake Ne'or is located in a mountainous area 48 km south-east of the city of Ardabil. It covers an area of 2.1 km² and has an average depth of 3 metres. It is fed by springs in the lake bed.

Attraction Description
Lake Shorabil located in a hilly area south of the city of Ardabil and covers an area of 640,000 m². The surface of the lake is covered with a thin white layer of minerals, being useful for healing skin diseases and rheumatism. Near the lake there is the leisure complex of Shorabil.
Baliqly Chay River Meaning "a river with many fish" in Azarbayjani language, this river originates from the Sabalan Mountains and passes through Ardabil city. As a result, many villages and townships have settled around this river. It also irrigates much of the agricultural lands in this province.
Sabalan (Savalan) mountain Sabalan (Persian: سبلانSabalân; also called Sāvālān) is an inactive stratovolcano in Meshkinshahr Ardabil province of northwestern Iran about 20 miles west of Arbadil. Sabalan is the third highest mountain in Iran and a permanent crater lake has formed at the summit. Sabalan has a ski resort (Alvares) and different tourist areas such as the Sarein spa. The mountain is known for its beautiful vistas, including the Shirvan gorge, where few climbers ever venture.
Savalan's honey.

Music[edit]

Main article: Music of Iran

Colleges and universities[edit]

Economy[edit]

The economy of Ardabil is partially agricultural, partially tourist based, with some industries in operation.

The Iranian government in 2006 announced plans to build "the largest textile factory of its kind in the Middle East" in Ardabil.[13]

Arta Industrial Group (AIG) has one of the largest textile conglomerates in Iran, which is located in the provinces called Qazvin and Ardabil. The group has received numerous awards for being one of the top 20 exporters and industrial groups in Iran since 1998. It is the first company to produce high-density fiberboard (HDF), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), laminate flooring and multi-layer films in Iran.

AIG has the first private industrial site in Iran in the city of Ardabil, which has fifteen main factories owned by (AIG). This Industrial zone covers an area of 100 hectares and Residential Area for engineers and managers of the company.

The town has an airport

Sports[edit]

Ardabil is host to a few minor football teams. The most popular team is Shahrdari Ardabil who play in the 2nd Division.

Notable people from Ardabil[edit]

The mausoleum of Sheikh Safi-ad-din Ardabili

Arts and music[edit]

Clergy and religious[edit]

Businesspeople[edit]

Poets and writers[edit]

Statue of Shah Ismail
  • siyamak sahafi, writer and poet.

Politicians and reformers[edit]

Sport[edit]

Photo gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]