Buyid dynasty

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Buyid Dynasty
آل بویِه
Āl-e Buye

 

 

934–1062[1]
The Buyid dynasty in 970
Capital Shiraz
(Buyids of Fars, 934–1062)
Ray
(Buyids of Jibal, 943–1029)
Baghdad
(Buyids of Iraq, 945–1055)
Languages Persian (mother tongue)[2]
Arabic
Religion Shia Islam[3]
(also Sunni Islam, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Judaism)
Government Hereditary monarchy
Emir/Shāhanshāh
 -  934-949 Imad al-Dawla
 -  1048-1062 Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun
Historical era Middle Ages
 -  Established 934
 -  Imad al-Dawla proclaimed himself "Emir"
 -  Adud al-Dawla proclaimed himself "Shāhanshāh" 978
 -  Disestablished 1062[1]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Samanid Empire
Ziyarids
Banu Ilyas
Ghaznavid Empire
Great Seljuq Empire
Kakuyids
Uqaylid dynasty
Marwanids
Today part of

The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (Persian: آل بویهĀl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, were a Shia[4] dynasty which originated from Lahijan in Dailam.[5]

The Buyid dynasty was founded by 'Ali ibn Buya, who in 934 conquered Fars and made Shiraz his capital, while his younger brother Hasan ibn Buya conquered parts of Jibal in the late 930s, and by 943 managed to capture Ray, which he made his capital. In 945, the youngest brother, Ahmad ibn Buya, conquered Iraq and made Baghdad his capital, receiving the honorific title of "Mu'izz al-Dawla", while 'Ali was given the title of "'Imad al-Dawla" ("Support of the State"), and Hasan was given the title of "Rukn al-Dawla" ("Pillar of the State").

At its greatest extent, the Buyid dynasty encompassed most of today's Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, UAE, Syria, Lebanon, Yemen, parts of Turkey, Afghanistan and Pakistan. During the 10th and 11th centuries, just prior to the invasion of the Seljuq Turks, the Buyids were the most influential dynasty in the Middle East,[6] and under king 'Adud al-Dawla, became one of the most powerful Muslim dynasties.[7]

The approximate century of Buyid rule, coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, represents a period in Iranian history sometimes called the 'Iranian Intermezzo' since it was an interlude between the rule of the 'Abbāsid Arabs and the Seljuq Turks.[8] Indeed, as Dailamite Iranians the Buyids consciously revived symbols and practices of Persia's Sassānid dynasty.[9] In fact, beginning with 'Adud al-Dawla they used the ancient Sassānid title Shāhanshāh (Persian: شاهنشاه‎), literally "king of kings".[10][11]

Origins[edit]

The Buyids were descendants of Panah-Khusrau, a Zoroastrian from Dailam. He had a son named Buya, who was a fisherman from Lahijan,[12] and later left his Zoroastrian faith and converted to Islam.[13] Buya later had three sons named Ahmad, 'Ali, and Hasan, who would later carve the Buyid kingdom together. According to Kelly L. Maglaughli, the Buyids were of Kurdish origin,[14] however, most historians agree that the Buyids were of Dailamite origin.[15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]

History[edit]

Rise (934-945)[edit]

The founder of the dynasty, 'Ali ibn Buya, was originally a soldier in the service of the Dailamite warlord Makan ibn Kaki,[23] but later changed his adherence to the Iranian ruler Mardavij, who had established the Ziyarid dynasty, and was himself related to the ruling dynasty of Gilan,[24] a region bordering Dailam. 'Ali was later joined by his two younger brothers, Hasan ibn Buya and Ahmad ibn Buya. In 932, 'Ali was given Karaj as his fief, and thus was able to enlist other Dailamites into his own army. However, 'Ali's independent actions made Mardavij plan to have him killed, but fortunately for 'Ali, he was informed of Mardavij's plan by the latter's own vizier. The Buyids brother, with 400 of their Dailamite supporters, then fled to Fars,[25] where they managed to take control of Arrajan.[26] However, the Buyids and the Abbasid general Yaqut shortly came into a struggle for the control of Fars, which the Buyids eventually emerged victorious in.[23] This victory opened the way for the conquest of the capital of Fars, Shiraz.[27]

'Ali also made an alliance with the landowners of Fars, which included the Fasanjas family, which would later produce many prominent statesmen for the Buyids. Furthermore, 'Ali also to enlist more soldiers, which included the Turks, who were made part of cavalry. 'Ali then sent his brother Ahmad on a expedition to Kirman, but was forced to withdraw from the after opposition from the Baluchis and the Qafs.[28] However, Mardavij, who sought to depose the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad and recreate a Zoroastrian Iranian Empire, shortly wrested Khuzistan from the Abbasids and forced 'Ali to recognize him as his suzerain.[29]

Luckily for the Buyids, Mardavij was shortly assassinated in 935, which caused chaos in the Ziyarid territories, a perfect situation for the Buyid brothers; Ali and Ahmad conquered Khuzistan, while Hasan captured the Ziyarid capital of Isfahan, and in 943 captured Ray, which became his capital, thus conquering all of Jibal. In 945, Ahmad entered Iraq and made the Abbasid Caliph his vassal, and at the same receiving the honorific title of "Mu'izz al-Dawla", while 'Ali was given the title of "'Imad al-Dawla" ("Support of the State"), and Hasan was given the title of "Rukn al-Dawla" ("Pillar of the State").

Height of power and Golden age (945-983)[edit]

In addition to the other territories the Buyids had conquered, Kirman was conquered in 967, Oman (967), the Jazira (979), Tabaristan (980), and Gorgan (981). After this, however, the Buyids went into a slow decline, with pieces of the confederation gradually breaking off and local dynasties under their rule becoming de facto independent.

Decline and fall (983–1048)[edit]

The death of Adud al-Dawla is considered the starting point of the decline of the Buyid dynasty;[30] his son Abu Kalijar Marzuban, who was in Baghdad at the time of his death, first kept his death secret in order to ensure his succession and avoid civil war. When he made the death of his father public, he was given the title of "Samsam al-Dawla". However, Adud's other son, Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris, challenged the authority of Samsam al-Dawla, resulting in a civil war.[31] Meanwhile, a Marwanid chieftain named Badh, seized Diyabakr and forced Samsam al-Dawla to recognize him as the vassal ruler of the region.[31] Furthermore, Mu'ayyad al-Dawla also died during this period, and he was succeeded by Fakhr al-Dawla, who with the aid of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla's vizier Sahib ibn 'Abbad became the ruler of Mu'ayyad al-Dawla's possessions.[32] Another son of Adud al-Dawla, Abu Tahir Firuzshah, established himself as the ruler of Basra and took the title of "Diya' al-Dawla", while another son, Abu'l-Husain Ahmad, established himself as the ruler of Khuzistan, taking the title of "Taj al-Dawla".

Shirdil Abu'l-Fawaris (known by his title of "Sharaf al-Dawla") quickly seized Oman from Samsam al-Dawla, and in 983, the Turkic troops of Samsam al-Dawla mutinied against him, and left Iraq for Fars, but most of them were persuaded by his relative Ziyar ibn Shahrakawayh to stay in Iraq. However, unfortunately for Samsam al-Dawla, Iraq was in grim affairs, and several rebellions occurred, which he however, managed to suppress, the most dangerous rebellion being under Asfar ibn Kurdawayh, who tried to make Abu Nasr Firuz Kharshadh (known by his title of "Baha' al-Dawla") the ruler of Iraq. During the same period, Samsam al-Dawla also managed to seize Basra and Khuzistan, forcing his two brothers to flee to Fakhr al-Dawla's territory.

During the mid-11th century, the Buyid amirates gradually fell to the Ghaznavid and Seljuq Turks. In 1029, Majd al-Dawla, who was facing an uprising by his Dailami troops in Ray, requested assistance from Mahmud of Ghazna.[33] When Sultan Mahmud arrived, he deposed Majd al-Dawla, replaced him with a Ghaznavid governor and ended the Buyid dynasty in Ray.[34][35]

In 1055, Tughrul conquered Baghdad, the seat of the caliphate, and ousted the last of the Buyid rulers.[36] Like the Buyids, the Seljuqs kept the Abbasid caliphate as the titular ruler.[37]

Government[edit]

The Buyids established a confederation in Iraq and western Iran. This confederation formed three principalities - one in Fars, with Shiraz as it's capital - the second one in Jibal, with Ray as it's capital - and the last one in Iraq, with Baghdad as it's capital. However, during their late period, more principalities formed in the Buyid confederation. Succession of power was hereditary, with fathers dividing their land among their sons.

The title used by the Buyid rulers was amir, meaning "governor" or "prince". Generally one of the amirs would be recognized as having seniority over the others; this individual would use the title of amir al-umara,[11] or senior amir. Although the senior amīr was the formal head of the Būyids, he did not usually have any significant control outside of his own personal amirate; each amir enjoyed a high degree of autonomy within his own territories. As mentioned above, some of the stronger amirs used the Sassanid title of Shahanshah. Furthermore, several other titles such as malik ("king"), and malik al-muluk ("king of kings"), were also used by the Buyids. On a smaller scale, the Buyid territory was also be ruled by princes from other families, such as the Hasanwayhids.

Military[edit]

Dailamite soldier

During the beginning of the Buyid dynasty, their army consisted mainly of their fellow Dailamites, a warlike and brave people of mostly peasant origin, who served as foot soldiers. The Dailamites had a long history of military activity dating back to the Sasanian period, and had been mercenaries in various places in Iran and Iraq, and even as far as Egypt. The Dailamites, during a battle, normally bore a sword, a shield, and three spears. Furthermore, they were also known for their formidable shield formation, which was hard to break through.[38]

But when the Buyid territories increased, they began recruiting Turks into their cavalry,[27] who had played a prominent role in the Abbasid military.[39] The Buyid army also consisted of Kurds, who along with the Turks were Sunni Muslim, while the Dailamites were Shia Muslims.[40] However, the army of the Buyids of Jibal mainly composed of Dailamites.[41]

The Dailamites and Turks often quarreled with each other in an attempt to be the dominant force within the army.[42] To compensate their soldiers the Buyid amīrs often distributed iqtā's, or the rights to a percentage of tax revenues from a province, although the practice of payment in kind was also frequently used.[43] While the Turks were favored in Buyid Iraq, the Dailamites were favored in Buyid Iran.[44]

Religion[edit]

Like most Daylamites at the time, the Buyids were Shia and have been called Twelver Shia. However, it is more likely that they began as Zaidi Shia.[45][46] As the reason of this turning from Zaidi to Twelver, Moojen Momen suggests that since the Buyids were not descendants of Ali, the first Shia Imam, Zaidis Shiism doctrine would have urged them to install an Imam from Ali's family. For that reason Buyids tended toward Twelver Shia' with its occulted Imam was more politically attractive to them.[45]

The Buyids rarely attempted to enforce a particular religious view upon their subjects except when in matters where it would be politically expedient. The Sunnī 'Abbāsids retained the caliphate, although they were deprived of all secular power. In addition, in order to prevent tensions between the Shī'a and Sunni from spreading to government agencies, the Buyid amirs occasionally appointed Christians to high offices instead of Muslims from either sect.[47]

Buyid rulers[edit]

Major rulers[edit]

Generally, the three most powerful Buyid amirs at any given time were those in control of Fars, Jibal and Iraq. Sometimes a ruler would come to rule more than one region, but no Buyid rulers ever exercised direct control of all three regions.

Buyids of Fars

Power in Fars seized by the Shabankara Kurdish Chief Fadluya

Buyid era art: Painted, incised, and glazed earthenware. Dated 10th century, Iran. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Buyids of Rey

To the Ghaznavids.

Buyids of Iraq

To the Seljuqs.

Minor rulers[edit]

It was not uncommon for younger sons to found collateral lines, or for individual Buyid members to take control of a province and begin ruling there. The following list is incomplete.

Buyids of Basra

To the Buyids of Fars.

Buyids of Hamadan

To the Kakuyids.

Buyids of Kerman

To the Buyids of Fars.

Buyids of Khuzistan

To the Buyids of Fars.

Family tree[edit]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Buya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imad al-Dawla
934–949
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rukn al-Dawla
935–976
 
 
 
 
 
Mu'izz al-Dawla
945–967
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim
 
Izz al-Dawla
967–978
 
Sanad al-Dawla
 
Marzuban
 
Zubayda
 
Abu Tahir
 
Ali ibn Kama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marzuban ibn Bakhtiyar
 
Salar
 
Unnamed princess
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fakhr al-Dawla
976–997
 
'Adud al-Dawla
949–983
 
Mu'ayyad al-Dawla
980–983
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shams al-Dawla
997–1021
 
Majd al-Dawla
997–1029
 
Sharaf al-Dawla
983–989
 
Samsam al-Dawla
983–998
 
Baha' al-Dawla
998–1012
 
Shahnaz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sama' al-Dawla
1021–1024
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Qawam al-Dawla
1012–1028
 
Sultan al-Dawla
1012–1024
 
Musharrif al-Dawla
1021–1025
 
Jalal al-Dawla
1027–1044
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fana-Khusrau
 
Abu Dulaf
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abu Kalijar
1024–1048
 
Al-Malik al-Aziz
 
 
 
 
 
Abu Mansur Ali
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abu Ali Fana-Khusrau
 
Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun
1048–1062
 
Al-Malik al-Rahim
1048–1055
 
Kamrava
 
Abu'l-Muzaffar Bahram
 
Abu Sa'd Khusrau Shah
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abu'l-Ghana'im al-Marzuban
 
Surkhab
 
 
 
 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 154.
  2. ^ "Persian Prose Literature." World Eras. 2002. HighBeam Research. (September 3, 2012);"Princes, although they were often tutored in Arabic and religious subjects, frequently did not feel as comfortable with the Arabic language and preferred literature in Persian, which was either their mother tongue—as in the case of dynasties such as the Saffarids (861–1003), Samanids (873–1005), and Buyids (945–1055)...". [1]
  3. ^ Abbasids, B.Lewis, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, Ed. H.A.R.Gibb, J.H.Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal and J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 19.
  4. ^ Rene Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes:A History of Central Asia, transl.Naomi Walford, (Rutgers University Press, 2002), 143.
  5. ^ Iranica,Iranica: DEYLAMITES:The most successful actors in the Deylamite expansion were the Buyids. The ancestor of the house, Abū Šojāʿ Būya, was a fisherman from Līāhej, the later region of Lāhījān.
  6. ^ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol. 2, (Brill, 2002), 8.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  7. ^ Ch. Bürgel & R. Mottahedeh 1988, pp. 265-269.
  8. ^ Blair, Sheila (1992), The Monumental Inscriptions From Early Islamic Iran and Transoxiana, Leiden: E.J. Brill, ISBN 90-04-09367-2 
  9. ^ Arthur Goldschmidt, "A Concise History of the Middle East: Seventh Edition ", Westview Press, 2001. pg 87.
  10. ^ Clawson, Patrick; Rubin, Michael (2005), Eternal Iran: continuity and chaos, Middle East in Focus (1st ed.), New York: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 19, ISBN 1-4039-6276-6 
  11. ^ a b Mafizullah, Kabir (1964), The Buwayhid dynasty of Baghdad, 334/946-447/1055, Calcutta: Iran Society 
  12. ^ Wolfgang Felix & Wilferd Madelung, pp. 342–347
  13. ^ Iran Under The Buyids, Heribert Busse, The Cambridge History of Iran, 274.
  14. ^ Lokman I. Meho,Kelly L. Maglaughli (1968), Kurdish culture and society: an annotated bibliography, p. 11, ISBN 9780313315435 
  15. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/azod-al-dawla-abu-soja
  16. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/buyids
  17. ^ Clifford Edmund Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, 154-155.
  18. ^ JAN RYPKA. History of Iranian Literature. Dordrecht: D. REIDEL PUBLISHING COMPANY, 1968. pg 146
  19. ^ Kennedy Hugh, THE prophet and the age of the Caliphates, 211.
  20. ^ Iran Under The Buyids, Heribert Busse, The Cambridge History of Iran, 251-252.
  21. ^ http://books.google.dk/books?id=fWNpIGNFz0IC&pg=PA950&dq=Buyids+encyclopedia+of+islam&hl=da&sa=X&ei=i7kEU9i4OOTx4QTi3IGwBg&ved=0CFsQ6AEwBg#v=snippet&q=Dailamite&f=false
  22. ^ http://books.google.dk/books?id=LmZP3mixescC&pg=PA60&dq=Buyids+daylamite&hl=da&sa=X&ei=d7kEU5bbDKW04ATFlYD4DA&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=Buyids%20daylamite&f=false
  23. ^ a b Nagel 1990, p. 578–586.
  24. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 211.
  25. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 212.
  26. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 255.
  27. ^ a b Kennedy 2004, p. 213.
  28. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 257.
  29. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 256.
  30. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 234.
  31. ^ a b Bosworth 1975, p. 289.
  32. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 290.
  33. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids 994-1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 53,59,234.
  34. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids 994-1040, 53,59,234.
  35. ^ The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World (A.D. 1000-1217), C.E. Bosworth, Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. V, ed. J. A. Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), 37.
  36. ^ André Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol. 2, (Brill, 2002), 9.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  37. ^ Bernard Lewis, The Middle East: A Brief History of the Last 2,000 Years, (New York: Scribner, 1995) p. 89.
  38. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 251.
  39. ^ Sohar and the Daylamī interlude (356–443/967–1051), Valeria Fiorani Piacentini, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, Vol. 35, Papers from the thirty-eighth meeting of the Seminar for Arabian Studies held in London, 22–24 July 2004 (2005), 196.
  40. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 287.
  41. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 244.
  42. ^ Busse, Heribert (1975), "Iran Under the Buyids", in Frye, R. N., The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 265, 298, ISBN 0-521-20093-8 
  43. ^ Sourdel-Thomine, J. "Buwayhids." The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume I. New Ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1960. p. 1353.
  44. ^ Bosworth 1975, p. 252.
  45. ^ a b Momen, Moojan (1985), An Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Yale University Press, pp. 75–76, ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5 
  46. ^ Berkey, Jonathan Porter. The Formation of Islam London: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-521-58813-8. p. 135
  47. ^ Heribert, pp. 287-8

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]