|Part of a series on|
Jain metaphysics is the description of the reality according to Jainism, which includes the canonical Jain texts, commentaries and the writings of the Jain philosopher-monks. Jain cosmology considers the loka, or universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having neither beginning nor end. Jain texts describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist. This Universe, according to Jainism, is broad at the top, narrow at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom.
Mahāpurāṇa of Ācārya Jinasena is famous for this quote: "Some foolish men declare that a creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill advised and should be rejected. If God created the world, where was he before the creation? If you say he was transcendent then and needed no support, where is he now? How could God have made this world without any raw material? If you say that he made this first, and then the world, you are faced with an endless regression."
According to Jain cosmology, the universe is made up of six dravya (substances): sentient beings or souls (jīva), non-sentient substance or matter (pudgala), principle of motion (dharma), the principle of rest (adharma), space (ākāśa) and time (kāla). The latter five are united as the ajiva (the non-living). As per the Sanskrit etymology, dravya means substances or entity, but it may also mean real or fundamental categories. Out of the six dravyas, five except time have been described as astikayas, that is, extensions or conglomerates. Since like conglomerates, they have numerous space points, they are described as astikaya. There are innumerable space points in the sentient substance and in the media of motion and rest, and infinite ones in space; in matter they are threefold (i.e. numerable, innumerable and infinite). Time has only one; therefore it is not a conglomerate. Hence the corresponding conglomerates or extensions are called—jivastikaya (soul extension or conglomerate), pudgalastikaya (matter conglomerate), dharmastikaya (motion conglomerate), adharmastikaya (rest conglomerate) and akastikaya (space conglomerates). Together they are called pancastikaya or the five astikayas.
According to Jain philosophy, this universe consists of infinite jivas or souls that are uncreated and always existing. There are two main categories of souls: unliberated mundane embodied souls that are still subject to transmigration and rebirths in this samsara due to karmic bondage and the liberated souls that are free from birth and death. All souls are intrinsically pure but are found in bondage with karma since beginningless time. A soul has to make efforts to eradicate the karmas attain its true and pure form.
The sentient substance (soul) is characterized by the function of understanding, is incorporeal, performs actions (doer), is co-extensive with its own body. It is the enjoyer (of its actions), located in the world of rebirth (samsara) (or) emancipated (moksa) (and) has the intrinsic movement upwards.— Dravyasamgraha—2
Acaranga Sutra describes a pure soul as:
The liberated soul is not long nor small nor round nor triangular nor quadrangular nor circular; it is not black nor blue nor red nor green nor white; neither of good nor bad smell; not bitter nor pungent nor astringent nor sweet; neither rough nor soft; neither heavy nor light; neither cold nor hot; neither harsh nor smooth; it is without body, without resurrection, without contact (of matter), it is not feminine nor masculine nor neuter. The siddha perceives and knows all, yet is beyond comparison. Its essence is without form; there is no condition of the unconditioned. It is not sound, not colour, not smell, not taste, not touch or anything of that kind.— Acaranga Sutra —1.197
The qualities of the soul are cetana (consciousness) and upyoga (knowledge and perception). Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither really destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer respectively to the disappearing of one state and appearing of another state and these are merely the modes of the soul. Thus Jiva with its attributes and modes, roaming in samsara (universe), may lose its particular form and assume a new one. Again this form may be lost and the original acquired.
Pudgala Matter is classified as solid, liquid, gaseous, energy, fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter i.e. ultimate particles. Paramāṇu or ultimate particle (atoms or sub-atomic particles) is the basic building block of all matter. One of the qualities of the paramāṇu and pudgala is that of permanence and indestructibility. It combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. It cannot be created nor destroyed and the total amount of matter in the universe remains the same.
Principle of Motion 
Dharma : Dharma and Adharma are peculiar to the Jain system of thought, depicting the principles of Motion and Rest. They are said to pervade the entire universe. Dharma and Adharma are by themselves not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. Without Dharma motion is not possible. The medium of motion helps matter and the sentient that are prone to motion to move, like water (helps) fish. However, it does not set in motion those that do not move.
Principle of Rest 
Adharma : Without adharma, rest and stability is not possible in the universe. The principle of rest helps matter and the sentient that are liable to stay to stay without moving, like the shade helps travellers. It does not stabilize those that move.
Akasa : Space is a substance that accommodates the living souls, the matter, the principle of motion, the principle of rest and time. It is all-pervading, infinite and made of infinite space-points.
Kāla is a real entity according to Jainism and all activities, changes or modifications can be achieved only through the progress of time.
According to Jainism, time is beginningless and eternal. The Kālacakra, the cosmic wheel of time, rotates ceaselessly. The wheel of time is divided into two half-rotations, Utsarpiṇī or ascending time cycle and Avasarpiṇī, the descending time cycle, occurring continuously after each other. Utsarpiṇī is a period of progressive prosperity and happiness where the time spans and ages are at an increasing scale, while Avsarpiṇī is a period of increasing sorrow and immorality with decline in timespans of the epochs. Each of this half time cycle consisting of innumerable period of time (measured in Sagaropama and Palyopama years)[note 1] is further sub-divided into six aras or epochs of unequal periods. Currently, the time cycle is in avasarpiṇī or descending phase with the following epochs.
|Name of the Ara||Degree of happiness||Duration of Ara||Average Height of People||Average Lifespan of People|
|Suṣama-suṣamā||Utmost happiness and no sorrow||400 trillion sāgaropamas||Six Miles Tall||Three Palyopama Years|
|Suṣamā||Moderate happiness and no sorrow||300 trillion sāgaropamas||Four Miles Tall||Two Palyopama Years|
|Suṣama-duḥṣamā||Happiness with little sorrow||200 trillion sāgaropamas||Two Miles Tall||One Palyopama Years|
|Duḥṣama-suṣamā||Sorrow with little happiness||100 trillion sāgaropamas||1500 Meters||705.6 Quintillion Years|
|Duḥṣamā||Sorrow||21,000 Years||6 Feet||130 Years Maximum|
|Duḥṣama- duḥṣamā||Extreme sorrow and misery||21,000 Years||1 Hatha||16-20 Years|
- Suṣama-suṣamā - During the first ara of the Avsarpini, people lived for three palyopama years. During this ara people were on average six miles tall. They took their food on every fourth day; they were very tall and devoid of anger, pride, deceit, greed and other sinful acts. Various kinds of the kalpa trees fulfilled their wishes and needs like food, clothing, homes, entertainment, jewels etc.
- Suṣamā - During the second ara the people lived for two palyopama years. During this ara people were on average 4 miles tall. They took their food at an interval of three days, but the kalpa trees supplied their wants, less than before. The land and water became less sweet and fruitful than they were during the first ara.
- Suṣama-duḥṣamā - During the third ara, the age limit of the people became one palyopama year. During this are people were on average 2 miles tall. They took their food on every second day. The earth and water as well as height and strength of the body went on decreasing and they became less than they were during the second ara. The first three ara the children were born as twins, one male and one female, who married each other and once again gave birth to twins. On account of happiness and pleasures, the religion, renunciation and austerities was not possible. At the end of the third ara, the wish-fulfilling trees stopped giving the desired fruits and the people started living in the societies. The first Tirthankara, Ṛṣabhdeva was born at the end of this ara. He taught the people the skills of farming, commerce, defence, politics and arts(intotal 72 arts for men and 64 arts for women) and organised the people in societies. That is why he is known as the father of human civilisation.
- Duḥṣama-suṣamā - During the fourth ara, people lived for 705.6 Quintillion Years. During this are people were on average 1500 Meters tall. The fourth ara was the age of religion, where the renunciation, austerities and liberation was possible. The 63 Śalākāpuruṣas, or the illustrious persons who promote the Jain religion, regularly appear in this ara. The balance 23 Tīrthaṅkars, including Lord Māhavīra appeared in this ara. This ara came to an end 3 years and 8 months after the nirvāṇa of Māhavīra.
- Duḥṣama - According to Jain cosmology, currently we are in the 5th ara. As of 2011, exactly 2,535 years have elapsed and 18,465 years are still left. It is an age of sorrow and misery. The maximum age a person can live to in this ara is 130 years. The maximum height a person can be in this ara is six feet. No liberation is possible, although people practice religion in lax and diluted form. At the end of this ara, even the Jain religion will disappear, only to appear again with the advent of 1st Tirthankara in the next cycle.
- Duḥṣama - duḥṣama - The sixth ara will be the age of intense misery and sorrow, making it impossible to practice religion in any form. The age, height and strength of the human beings will decrease to a great extent. In this ara people will live for no more than 16–20 years. This trend will start reversing at the onset of utsarpiṇī kāl.
In utsarpiṇī the order of the aras is reversed. Starting from Duḥṣama- duḥṣamā, it ends with Suṣama-suṣamā and thus this never ending cycle continues. Each of these aras progress into the next phase seamlessly without any apocalyptic consequences. The increase or decrease in the happiness, life spans and length of people and general moral conduct of the society changes in a phased and graded manner as the time passes. No divine or supernatural beings are credited or responsible with these spontaneous temporal changes, either in a creative or overseeing role, rather human beings and creatures are born under the impulse of their own karmas.
These substances have some common attributes or gunas such as:
- Astitva (existence): indestructibility; permanence; the capacity by which a substance cannot be destroyed.
- Vastutva (functionality): capacity by which a substance has function.
- Dravyatva (changeability): capacity by which it is always changing in modifications.
- Prameyatva (knowability): capacity by which it is known by someone, or of being the subject-matter of knowledge.
- Agurulaghutva (individuality): capacity by which one attribute or substance does not become another and the substance does not lose the attributes whose grouping forms the substance itself.
- Pradeshatva (spatiality): capacity of having some kind of location in space.
There are some specific attributes that distinguish the dravyas from each other:
- Chetanatva (consciousness) and amurtavta (immateriality) are common attributes of the class of substances soul or jiva.
- Achetanatva (non-consciousness) and murtatva (materiality) are attributes of matter.
- Achetanatva (non-consciousness) and amurtavta (immateriality) are common to Motion, Rest, Time and Space.
The modes are of two types – intrinsic mode (arth paryaya) and extrinsic mode (vyanjana paryaya). The intrinsic or substantive (attributive) mode is the intrinsic change in a substance which is subtle and continues without any external influence. The extrinsic mode (spatial modification) is the gross mode of existence which is stable and lasts for some time. The jiva and pudgala have both kinds of modes whereas the other four substances have got only intrinsic modes.
Jain cosmology 
The early Jains contemplated the nature of the earth and universe and developed a detailed hypothesis on the various aspects of astronomy and cosmology. According to the Jain texts, the universe is divided into 3 parts:
- Urdhva Loka – the realms of the gods or heavens
- Madhya Loka – the realms of the humans, animals and plants
- Adho Loka – the realms of the hellish beings or the infernal regions
The following Upanga āgamas describe the Jain cosmology and geography in a great detail:
- Sūryaprajñapti – Treatise on Sun
- Jambūdvīpaprajñapti - Treatise on the island of Roseapple tree; it contains a description of Jambūdvī and life biographies of Ṛṣabha and King Bharata
- Candraprajñapti - Treatise on moon
Additionally, the following texts describe the Jain cosmology and related topics in detail:
- Trilokasāra – Essence of the three worlds (heavens, middle level, hells)
- Trilokaprajñapti – Treatise on the three worlds
- Trilokadipikā – Illumination of the three worlds
- Tattvārthasūtra – Description on nature of realities
- Kṣetrasamasa – Summary of Jain geography
- Bruhatsamgrahni – Treatise on Jain cosmology and geography
Urdhva Loka, the upper world 
Upper World (Udharva loka) is divided into different abodes and are the realms of the heavenly beings (demi-gods) who are non-liberated souls.
Upper World is divided into sixteen Devalokas, nine Graiveyaka, nine Anudish and five Anuttar abodes. Sixteen Devaloka abodes are Saudharma, Aishana, Sanatkumara, Mahendra, Brahma, Brahmottara, Lantava, Kapishta, Shukra, Mahashukra, Shatara, Sahasrara, Anata, Pranata, Arana and Achyuta. Nine Graiveyak abodes are Sudarshan, Amogh, Suprabuddha, Yashodhar, Subhadra, Suvishal, Sumanas, Saumanas and Pritikar. Nine Anudish are Aditya, Archi, Archimalini, Vair, Vairochan, Saum, Saumrup, Ark and Sphatik. Five Anuttar are Vijaya, Vaijayanta, Jayanta, Aparajita and Sarvarthasiddhi.
The sixteen heavens in Devalokas are also called Kalpas and the rest are called Kalpatit. Those living in Kalpatit are called Ahamindra and are equal in grandeur. There is increase with regard to the lifetime, influence of power, happiness, lumination of body, purity in thought-colouration, capacity of the senses and range of clairvoyance in the Heavenly beings residing in the higher abodes. But there is decrease with regard to motion, stature, attachment and pride. The higher groups, dwelling in 9 Greveyak and 5 Anutar Viman. They are independent and dwelling in their own vehicles. The anuttara souls attain liberation within one or two lifetimes. The lower groups, organized like earthly kingdoms - rulers (Indra), counselors, guards, queens, followers, armies etc.
Above the Anutar vimans, at the apex of the universe, is the Siddhasila, the realms of the liberated souls also known as the Siddhas, the perfected omniscient and blissful beings, who are venerated by the Jains.
Madhya Loka, the middle world 
Madhya Loka, at the centre of the universe consists of 900 yojans above and 900 yojans below earth surface. It is inhabited by:
- Jyotishka devas (luminous gods) - 790 to 900 yojans above earth
- Human, Tiryanch (Animals, birds, plants) on the surface
- Vyantar devas (Intermediary gods)- 100 yojan below the ground level
Madhyaloka consists of many continent-islands surrounded by oceans, first eight whose names are :-
Continent/ Island Ocean Jambūdvīpa Lavanoda (Salt - ocean) Ghatki Khand Kaloda (Black sea) Puskarvardvīpa Puskaroda (Lotus Ocean) Varunvardvīpa Varunoda (Varun Ocean) Kshirvardvīpa Kshiroda (Ocean of milk) Ghrutvardvīpa Ghrutoda (Butter milk ocean) Ikshuvardvīpa Iksuvaroda (Sugar Ocean) Nandishwardvīpa Nandishwaroda
Mount Meru is at the centre of the world surrounded by Jambūdvīpa, in form of a circle forming a diameter of 100,000 yojans. There are two sets of sun, moon and stars revolving around Mount Meru; while one set works, the other set rests behind the Mount Meru.
Jambūdvīpa continent has 6 mighty mountains, dividing the continent into 7 zones (Ksetra). The names of these zones are:
- Bharat Kshetra
- Mahavideh Kshetra
- Airavat Kshetra
- Hairanyvat Kshetra
- Haimava Kshetra
- Hari Kshetra
The three zones i.e. Bharat Kshetra, Mahavideh Kshetra and Airavat Kshetra are also known as Karma bhoomi because practice of austerities and liberation is possible and the Tirthankaras preach the Jain doctrine. The other four zones, Ramyak, Hairanyvat Kshetra, Haimava Kshetra and Hari Kshetra are known as akarmabhoomi or bhogbhumi as humans live a sinless life of pleasure and no religion or liberation is possible.
Adho Loka, the lower world 
The lower world consists of seven hells which is inhabited by Bhavanpati demigods and the hellish beings. Hellish beings reside in the following hells -
- Ratna prabha-dharma.
- Sharkara prabha-vansha.
- Valuka prabha-megha.
- Pank prabha-anjana.
- Dhum prabha-arista.
- Tamah prabha-maghavi.
- Mahatamah prabha-maadhavi
Jain metaphysics is based on seven (sometimes nine, with subcategories) truths or fundamental principles also known as tattva or navatattva, which are an attempt to explain the nature and solution to the human predicament. The first two are the two ontological categories of the soul jīva and the non-soul ajīva, namely the axiom that they exist. The third truth is that through the interaction, called yoga, between the two substances, soul and non-soul, karmic matter flows into the soul (āsrava), clings to it, becomes converted into karma and the fourth truth acts as a factor of bondage (bandha), restricting the manifestation of the consciousness intrinsic to it. The fifth truth states that a stoppage (saṃvara) of new karma is possible through asceticism through practice of right conduct, faith and knowledge. An intensification of asceticism burns up the existing karma – this sixth truth is expressed by the word nirjarā. The final truth is that when the soul is freed from the influence of karma, it reaches the goal of Jaina teaching, which is liberation or mokṣa. Some authors add two additional categories: the meritorious and demeritorious acts related to karma (puṇya and pāpa). These nine categories of cardinal truth, called navatattva, form the basis of entire Jain metaphysics. The knowledge of these reals is essential for the liberation of the soul.
Jainism believes that the souls (jīva) exist as a reality, having a separate existence from the body that houses it. Jīva is characterised by cetana (consciousness) and upayoga (knowledge and perception). Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither really destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer respectively to the disappearing of one state of soul and appearance of another state, these being merely the modes of the soul.
Ajīva are the five non-living substances that make up the universe along with the jīva. They are:
- Pudgala (Matter) –Matter is classified as solid, liquid, gaseous, energy, fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter or ultimate particles. Paramānu or ultimate particles are considered the basic building block of all matter. One of the qualities of the Paramānu and Pudgala is that of permanence and indestructibility. It combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. According to Jainism, it cannot be created nor destroyed.
- Dharma-tattva (Medium of Motion) and Adharma-tattva (Medium of rest) – They are also known as Dharmāstikāya and Adharmāstikāya. They are unique to Jain thought depicting the principles of motion and rest. They are said to pervade the entire universe. Dharma-tattva and adharma-tattva are by themselves not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. Without dharmāstikāya motion is not possible and without adharmāstikāya rest is not possible in the universe.
- Ākāśa (Space) – Space is a substance that accommodates souls, matter, the principle of motion, the principle of rest, and time. It is all-pervading, infinite and made of infinite space-points.
- Kāla (Time) – Time is a real entity according to Jainism and all activities, changes or modifications can be achieved only through time. In Jainism, the time is likened to a wheel with twelve spokes divided into descending and ascending halves with six stages, each of immense duration estimated at billions of sagaropama or ocean years. According to Jains, sorrow increases at each progressive descending stage and happiness and bliss increase in each progressive ascending stage.
The āsrava is the influx of karmas. It occurs when the karmic particles are attracted to the soul on account of vibrations created by activities of mind, speech and body. Tattvārthasūtra, 6:1–2 states: "The activities of body, speech and mind is called yoga. This three-fold action results in āsrava or influx of karma." 
The karmas have effect only when they are bound to the consciousness. This binding of the karma to the consciousness is called bandha. However, the yoga or the activities alone do not produce bondage. Out of the many causes of bondage, passion is considered as the main cause of bondage. The karmas are literally bound on account of the stickiness of the soul due to existence of various passions or mental dispositions.
Saṃvara is stoppage of karma. The first step to emancipation or the realization of the self is to see that all channels through which karma has been flowing into the soul have been stopped, so that no additional karma can accumulate. This is referred to as the stoppage of the inflow of karma (saṃvara). There are two kinds of saṃvara: that which is concerned with mental life (bhava-saṃvara), and that which refers to the removal of karmic particles (dravya- saṃvara). This stoppage is possible by self-control and freedom from attachment. The practice of vows, carefulness, self-control, observance of ten kinds of dharma, meditation, and the removal of the various obstacles, such as hunger, thirst, and passion stops the inflow of karma and protect the soul from the impurities of fresh karma.
Nirjarā is the shedding or destruction of karmas that has already accumulated. Nirjarā is of two types: the psychic aspect of the removal of karma (bhāva-nirjarā) and destruction of the particles of karma (dravya-nirjarā). Karma may exhaust itself in its natural course when its fruits are completely exhausted. In this, no effort is required. The remaining karma has to be removed by means of penance (avipaka-nirjarā). The soul is like a mirror which looks dim when the dust of karma is deposited on its surface. When karma is removed by destruction, the soul shines in its pure and transcendent form. It then attains the goal of mokṣa.
Mokṣa means liberation, salvation or emancipation of soul. It is a blissful state of existence of a soul, completely free from the karmic bondage, free from samsara, the cycle of birth and death. A liberated soul is said to have attained its true and pristine nature of infinite bliss, infinite knowledge and infinite perception. Such a soul is called siddha or paramatman and considered as supreme soul or God. In Jainism, it is the highest and the noblest objective that a soul should strive to achieve. It fact, it is the only objective that a person should have; other objectives are contrary to the true nature of soul. With right faith, knowledge and efforts all souls can attain this state. That is why, Jainism is also known as mokṣamārga or the “path to liberation”.
Pāpa and Punya 
In many texts punya or spiritual merit and papa or spiritual demerit are counted among the fundamental reals. But in Tattvārthasūtra the number of tattvas is seven because both punya and papa are included in āsrava or bandha. Both punya and papa are of two types — dravya type (physical type) and a bhava type (mental type).
See also 
- As per the Jain cosmology Sirsapahelika is the highest measurable number in Jainism which is 10^194 years. Higher than that is palyopama (pit measured years) which is explained by an analogy of a pit. Accordingly, a hollow pit of 8 x 8 x 8 miles tightly filled with hair particles of seven day old newly born. [A single hair form the above cut into eight pieces seven times = 20,97,152 Particles]. 1 Particle emptied after every 100 years, the time taken to empty the whole pit = 1 Palyopama. (1 Palyopama = countless years.) Hence palyopama is at least 10^194 years. Sagrapoma is 10 Quadrillion Palyopama, that means a Sagrapoma is more than 10^210 Years
- “This universe is not created nor sustained by anyone; It is self sustaining, without any base or support” “Nishpaadito Na Kenaapi Na Dhritah Kenachichch Sah Swayamsiddho Niradhaaro Gagane Kimtvavasthitah” [Yogaśāstra of Ācārya Hemacandra 4.106] Tr by Dr. A. S. Gopani
- See Hemacandras description of universe in Yogaśāstra “…Think of this loka as similar to man standing akimbo…”4.103-6
- Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010) p. 1 of Introduction
- Grimes, John (1996). Pp.118–119
- Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010) p.12–13
- J. C. Sikdar (2001) p. 1107
- Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010) p. 4
- Jacobi, Hermann (1884) verse 197
- Nayanar, Prof. A. Chakravarti (2005). verses 16–21
- Grimes, John (1996). P.249
- Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010) p.10
- Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010) p.11
- Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010) p.11–12
- Jaini (1998)
- Glasenapp (1999) Pp. 271-272
- Glasenapp (1999) Pp.272
- Dundas (1999) p.40
- Acarya Nemicandra; J. L. Jaini (1927) p. 4 (of introduction)
- Shah, Natubhai (1998). p. 25
- Schubring, Walther (1995)Pp. 204-246
- CIL. "Indian Cosmology Reflections in Religion and Metaphysics". Ignca.nic.in. Retrieved 2012-02-25.
- Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal - Asiatic Society of Bengal - Google Books. Books.google.com. 1834. Retrieved 2012-02-25.
- *Soni, Jayandra; E. Craig (Ed.) (1998). "Jain Philosophy". Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (London: Routledge). Retrieved 2008-03-05.
- Nayanar, Prof. A. Chakravarti (2005). Pañcāstikāyasāra of Ācārya Kundakunda. New Delhi: Today & Tomorrows Printer and Publisher. ISBN 81-7019-436-9. , Gāthā 16
- Nayanar, Prof. A. Chakravarti (2005). Pañcāstikāyasāra of Ācārya Kundakunda. New Delhi: Today & Tomorrows Printer and Publisher. ISBN 81-7019-436-9. , Gāthā 18
- Shah, Natubhai (1998). Jainism: The World of Conquerors. Volume I and II. Sussex: Sussex Academy Press. ISBN 1-898723-30-3.
- James, Edwin Oliver (1969). Creation and Cosmology: A Historical and Comparative Inquiry. Netherland: BRILL. ISBN 90-04-01617-1. p. 45
- Jaini, Padmanabh (1998). The Jaina Path of Purification. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1578-5. p. 112
- Kuhn, Hermann (2001). Karma, The Mechanism : Create Your Own Fate. Wunstorf, Germany: Crosswind Publishing. ISBN 3-9806211-4-6. p. 26
- Tatia, Nathmal (tr.) (1994). Tattvārtha Sūtra: That which Is of Vācaka Umāsvāti (in Sanskrit - English). Lanham, MD: Rowman Altamira. ISBN 0-7619-8993-5. p. 151
- T. G. Kalghatgi, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 3/4, (Jul. - Oct., 1965), pp. 229-242 University of Hawai Press
- Sanghvi, Sukhlal (1974). Tattvārthasūtra of Vācaka Umāsvāti (in trans. K. K. Dixit). Ahmedabad: L. D. Institute of Indology.
- Acarya Nemicandra; Nalini Balbir (2010). Dravyasamgrha: Exposition of the Six Substances. Pandit Nathuram Premi Research Series (vol-19) (in Prakrit and English). Mumbai: Hindi Granth Karyalay. ISBN 978-81-88769-30-8.
- Grimes, John (1996). A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English. New York: SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-3068-5.
- Jacobi, Hermann (1884). In (ed.) F. Max Müller. The Ācāranga Sūtra. Sacred Books of the East vol.22, Part 1 (in English: translated from Prakrit). Oxford: The Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-7007-1538-X. Note: ISBN refers to the UK:Routledge (2001) reprint. URL is the scan version of the original 1884 reprint.
- Nayanar, Prof. A. Chakravarti (2005). Pañcāstikāyasāra of Ācārya Kundakunda. New Delhi: Today & Tomorrows Printer and Publisher. ISBN 81-7019-436-9.
- Sikdar, J. C. (2001). "Concept of matter". In (ed.) Nagendra Kr. Singh. Encyclopedia of Jainism. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. ISBN 81-261-0691-3.
- Dundas, Paul; John Hinnels ed. (2002). The Jains. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26606-8.
- Glasenapp, Helmuth von; (Tr.) Shridhar B. Shrotri (1999). Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation (in English, translated from German). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-1376-6.
- Gopani, A. S.; Surendra Bothara ed. (1989). Yogaśāstra (Sanskrit) of Ācārya Hemacandra. Jaipur: Prakrit Bharti Academy.
- Jaini, Padmanabh (1998). The Jaina Path of Purification. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1578-5.
- Nayanar, Prof. A. Chakravarti (2005). Pañcāstikāyasāra of Ācārya Kundakunda. New Delhi: Today & Tomorrows Printer and Publisher. ISBN 81-7019-436-9.
- Schubring, Walther (1995). "Cosmography". In (ed.) Wolfgang Beurlen. The Doctrine of the Jainas. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-0933-5.
- Shah, Natubhai (1998). Jainism: The World of Conquerors. Volume I and II. Sussex: Sussex Academy Press. ISBN 1-898723-30-3.