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The Hindu god Shiva shares several features with the Rudra: the theonym Shiva originated as an epithet of Rudra, the adjective shiva ("kind") being used euphemistically of Rudra, who also carries the epithet ghora ("terrible"). Usage of the epithet came to exceed the original theonym and by the post-Vedic period (in the Sanskrit Epics), and the name Rudra has been taken as a synonym for the god Shiva and the two names are used interchangeably.
The etymology of the theonym Rudra is somewhat uncertain. It is usually derived from the root rud- which means "to cry, howl." According to this etymology, the name Rudra has been translated as "the roarer". An alternative etymology suggested by Prof. Pischel derives Rudra as "the red one, the brilliant one" from a lost root rud-, "to be red" or "to be ruddy" or respectively, according to Grassman, "to shine". A Rigvedic verse "rukh draavayathi, iti rudraha" where 'rukh' means sorrow/misery, 'draavayathi' means to drive out or eliminate and 'iti' means that which or he who, implies 'Rudra' to be the eliminator of evil and usherer of peace.
Stella Kramrisch notes a different etymology connected with the adjectival form raudra, which means wild, i.e. of rudra nature, and translates the name Rudra as "the wild one" or "the fierce god". R. K. Sharma follows this alternate etymology and translates the name as "the terrible" in his glossary for the Shiva Sahasranama. The commentator Sāyaṇa suggests six possible derivations for rudra. However, another reference states that Sayana suggested ten derivations.
The adjective shivam in the sense of "propitious" or "kind" is applied to the name Rudra in RV 10.92.9. According to Gavin Flood, Shiva used as a name or title (Sanskrit śiva, "the kindly/auspicious one") occurs only in the late Vedic Katha Aranyaka, whereas Axel Michaels asserts that Rudra was called Shiva for the first time in the Śvetāśvatara Upanishad.
Rudra is called "the archer" (Sanskrit: Śarva) and the arrow is an essential attribute of Rudra. This name appears in the Shiva Sahasranama, and R. K. Sharma notes that it is used as a name of Shiva often in later languages. The word is derived from the Sanskrit root śarv- which means "to injure" or "to kill" and Sharma uses that general sense in his interpretive translation of the name Śarva as "One who can kill the forces of darkness". The names Dhanvin ("bowman") and Bāṇahasta ("archer", literally "Armed with arrows in his hands") also refer to archery.
In other contexts the word rudra can simply mean "the number eleven". The word "rudraksha" (Sanskrit: rudrākşa = rudra and akşa "eye"), or "eye of Rudra", is used as a name both for the berry of the Rudraksha tree, and a name for a string of the prayer beads made from those seeds.
Epithets of fierceness and fright
In the Rigveda Rudra's role as a frightening god is apparent in references to him as ghora ("terrible"), or simply as asau devam ("that god"). He is "fierce like a formidable wild beast" (RV 2.33.11). Chakravarti sums up the perception of Rudra by saying: "Rudra is thus regarded with a kind of cringing fear, as a deity whose wrath is to be deprecated and whose favor curried."
RV 1.114 is an appeal to Rudra for mercy, where he is referred to as "mighty Rudra, the god with braided hair."
In RV 7.46, Rudra is described as armed with a bow and fast-flying arrows. As quoted by R. G. Bhandarkar, the hymn says Rudra discharges "brilliant shafts which run about the heaven and the earth" (RV 7.46.3), which may be a reference to the destructive power of lightning.
Rudra was believed to cause diseases, and when people recovered from them or were free of them, that too was attributed to the agency of Rudra. He is asked not to afflict children with disease (RV 7.46.2) and to keep villages free of illness (RV 1.114.1). He is said to have healing remedies (RV 1.43.4), as the best physician of physicians (RV 2.33.4), and as possessed of a thousand medicines (RV 7.46.3). This is described in Shiva's alternative name Vaidyanatha (Lord of Remedies).
Epithets of supreme rule
The verse RV 6.49.10 calls Rudra as "The Father of the Universe" (bhuvanasya pitaraṃ).
bhuvanasya pitaraṃ ghīrbhirābhī rudraṃ divā vardhayā rudramaktau
bṛhantaṃ ṛṣvamajaraṃ suṣumnaṃ ṛdhagh ghuvema kavineṣitāsaḥ (RV 6.49.10)
Rudra by day, Rudra at night we honour with these our songs, the Universe's Father.
Him great and lofty, blissful, undecaying let us call specially as the Sage impels us
The verse RV 2.33.9 calls Rudra as "The Lord or Sovereign of the Universe" (īśānādasya bhuvanasya).
sthirebhiraṅghaiḥ pururūpa ughro babhruḥ śukrebhiḥ pipiśehiraṇyaiḥ
īśānādasya bhuvanasya bhūrerna vā u yoṣad rudrādasuryam (RV 2.33.9)
With firm limbs, multiform, the strong, the tawny adorns himself with bright gold decorations:
The strength of Godhead never departs from Rudra, him who is Sovereign of this world, the mighty.
|Sanskrit||Modern translation||English translation|
|sahasravṛdiyaṃ bhữmiḥ||yam bhUmi: sahasravrt||This world is desired as a place of abode by thousands of JeevarAsis|
|paraṃ vyoma sahasravṛt||param vyOma: sahasravrt||The upper world is similarly desired by the thousands of devAs.|
|aśvinã bhujyữ nãsatyã||bhujyU na asatyA viSvasya jagata: patI aSvinA||The earth and the heaven (Svarga lOkam) are like the twin gods, Asvini devAs, who banish diseases and bless us with bhOgams; Asvini devAs are the protectors of the universe and their sankalpam (volition) never fails.|
|jãyã bhữmiḥ patirvyoma||bhUmi: jAyA vyOma pati: taa mithunam aturyathu:||BhU lOkam is the wife and the Heaven is the husband; they are united like a couple.|
|putro bṛhaspatỉ rudraḥ||putra: brhaspatI rudra:||We have to consider Brhaspati and Rudran (aging here) as their sons|
|saramã iti strỉpumam||saramA iti||The raised platform for the Yaagam, Yaaga meDai (Yajn~a Vedi) should be considered as a lady.|
|iti strI pumam||Thus we are instructed about the male-female aspects of the Earth and the Heaven.|
|[Now comes the prayer to the abhimAna devatais for BhUmi and the upper world.]|
|śukraṃ vãmanyadyajataṃ vãmanyat||vAm anyat Sukram vAm anyat yajatam||Among your forms, one is the day with white hue, the other is the night with dark hue.|
|viṣurữpe ahanỉ dyauriva sthaḥ||vishurUpe ahanI dyau iva stha:||Both of You stay steady as the Sooryan in the sky with equal, unique and alternating forms.|
Relation to other deities
Rudra is used both as a name of Shiva and collectively ("the Rudras") as the name for the Maruts. Gavin Flood characterizes the Maruts as "storm gods", associated with the atmosphere. They are a group of gods, whose number varies from two to sixty, sometimes also rendered as eleven, thirty-three or a hundred and eighty in number (i. e. three times sixty, see RV 8.96.8.).
Rudra is mentioned along with a litany of other deities in RV 7.40.5. Here is the reference to Rudra, whose name appears as one of many gods who are called upon:
|“||This Varuṇa, the leader of the rite, and the royal Mitra and Aryaman, uphold my acts, and the divine unopposed Aditi, earnestly invoked: may they convey us safe beyond evil. I propitiate with oblations the ramifications (vayāḥ) of that divine attainable Viṣṇu, the showerer of benefits. Rudra, bestow upon us the magnificence of his nature. The Aśvins have come down to our dwelling abounding with (sacrificial) food.||”|
One scholiast[clarification needed] interpretation of the Sanskrit word vayāḥ, meaning "ramifications" or "branches", is that all other deities are, as it were branches of Vishnu, but Ralph T. H. Griffith cites Ludwig as saying "This [...] gives no satisfactory interpretation" and cites other views which suggest that the text is corrupt at that point.
In the various recensions of the Yajurveda is included a litany of stanzas praising Rudra: (Maitrāyaṇī-Saṃhitā 2.9.2, Kāṭhaka-Saṃhitā 17.11, Taittirīya-Saṃhitā 4.5.1, and Vājasaneyi-Saṃhitā 16.1–14). This litany is subsequently referred to variously as the Śatarudriyam, the Namakam (because many of the verses commence with the word namaḥ [`homage`]), or simply the Rudram. This litany was recited during the Agnicayana ritual ("the piling of Agni"), and it later became a standard element in Rudra liturgy.
A selection of these stanzas, augmented with others, is included in the Paippalāda-Saṃhitā of the Atharvaveda (PS 14.3—4). This selection, with further PS additions at the end, circulated more widely as the Nīlarudram (or Nīlarudra Upaniṣad).
Ancient scripts in Sanskrit from Shiva Puran describe his meditational forms:
|“||I worship Him, who is the embodiment of Pure Consciousness, in whom doubts are dried and actions cease, who is beyond all change, time and destruction, who is full, pure, mute and eternal, who is Satchidananda (Existence-Absolute, Knowledge-Absolute and Bliss-Absolute), who is the incommunicable place personified, who is all-effulgence and effulgence embodied, who is the beneficent One, the radiant vision of Infinite Beauty and Beautitude. O my Lord! Victory on Thee. Thou art the incarnation of Rudra, Raudra and Bhadra. Thou art that Mahabhairava, Kalabhairava. Thy garlands are the necklaces of skulls and Thou holdest the divine weapons Khatvanga, sword, skin (Charma), noose, hook, drum, trident, bow, arrow, club, Sakti (a weapon) and the like in Thy hands.O thousand-faced God! Thou art fearful to look at with Thy terrible teeth and Thy pealing laughter pierces through all the worlds. Serpents are Thy ear-rings, Thy garlands and bracelets. Thou wearest elephant-skin on Thy body. Thou art the conqueror of death, the destroyer of the three cities, O three-eyed God!||”|
- Basham (1989), p. 15.
- Majumdar (1951), p. 162.
- Zimmer (1972), p. 181
- Griffith (1973), p. 75, note 1.
- AB Keith. "Yajur Veda". All Four Vedas. Islamic Books. p. 45. GGKEY:K8CQJCCR1AX.
- For an overview of the Śatarudriya see: Kramrisch, pp. 71-74.
- For a full translation of the complete hymn see: Sivaramamurti (1976)
- Chakravarti, p. 4.
- Kramrisch, p. 5.
- Majumdar, p. 162.
- Citation to M. Mayrhofer, Concise Etymological Sanskrit Dictionary, s.v. "rudra", is provided in: Kramrisch, p. 5.
- Sharma, p. 301.
- Chakravarti, p. 5.
- Sri Rudram and Purushasukram, by Swami Amiritananda, pp. 9-10, Sri Ramakrishna Math.
- Kramrisch, p. 7. For the text of RV 10.92.9, see: Arya and Joshi, vol. 4, p. 432.
- Flood (2003), p. 73.
- Michaels, p. 217.
- Apte, p. 910.
- For archer and arrow associations, see: Kramrisch, chapter 2; for the arrow as an "essential attribute" of Rudra's, see: Kramrisch, p. 32.
- Sharma, p. 306.
- Chidbhavananda, p. 33.
- For translation of Bāṇahasta as "Armed with arrows in his hands", see: Sharma, p. 294.
- Apte, p. 804.
- For the three Rigvedic hymns devoted to Rudra, see: Chakravarti, p. 1.
- For citation of the four Rigvedic hymns (1.43, 1.114, 2.33, and 7.46) see: Michaels, p. 216 and p. 364, note 50.
- E.g., Rudra is included in a litany given in RV 7.40.5.
- Arya and Joshi, vol. 2, p. 81.
- Chakravarti, p. 8.
- Doniger, pp. 224-225.
- Bhandarkar, p. 146.
- For association between Rudra and disease, with Rigvedic references, see: Bhandarkar, p. 146.
- The Hymns of the Rig Veda, trans. Ralph T. H. Griffith (1896)
- The Hymns of the Rig Veda, trans. Ralph T. H. Griffith (1896)
- Taittiriya Aranyaka, Subramania Sarma: http://www.sanskritweb.net/yajurveda/ta-deva.pdf
- SriHayagrivan – AruNa praSnam, vol. 2
- For the terms "Maruts" and "Rudras" as equivalent, see: Flood (1996), p. 46.
- Flood (1996), pp. 45-46.
- Macdonell, p. 256.
- Flood (1996), p. 46.
- Arya and Joshi, vol. 2, p. 78. For Shiva as the head or father of the group see: Apte, p. 804. For Rudra as the head of a host of "storm spirits, the Maruts" see: Basham (1989), p. 14.
- RV 7.40.4–5 as translated in Arya and Joshi, pp. 243-244.
- For the scholiast interpretation of vayāḥ as "ramifications" or "branches" see: Arya and Joshi, p. 244.
- The citation continues as follows: "This, Ludwig remarks, gives no satisfactory interpretation; but I am unable to offer anything better at present. Grassman alters vayāḥ into vayāma: 'we with our offering approach the banquet of this swift-moving God, the bounteous Viṣṇu; i. e. come to offer him sacrificial food.'" in: Griffith, p. 356, note 5.
- See Lubin 2007
- Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965). The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary (fourth revised & enlarged ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0567-4.
- Arya, Ravi Prakash; Joshi, K. L. (2001). Ṛgveda Saṃhitā: Sanskrit Text, English Translation, Notes & Index of Verses (four volumes (2003 reprint) ). Parimal Sanskrit Series No. 45 (Second revised ed.). Delhi: Parimal Publications. ISBN 81-7110-138-7. This revised edition updates H. H. Wilson's translation by replacing obsolete English forms with more modern equivalents, giving the English translation along with the original Sanskrit text in Devanagari script, along with a critical apparatus.
- Basham, A. L.; Zysk, Kenneth (ed.) (1989). The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507349-5.
- Bhandarkar, Ramakrishna Gopal (1913). Vaisnavism, Śaivism, and Minor Religious Systems. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0122-X. Third AES reprint edition, 1995.
- Chakravarti, Mahadev (1994). The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through The Ages. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0053-2. (Second Revised Edition; Reprint, Delhi, 2002).
- Chidbhavananda, Swami (1997). Siva Sahasranama Stotram: With Navavali, Introduction, and English Rendering. Sri Ramakrishna Tapovanam. ISBN 81-208-0567-4. (Third edition). The version provided by Chidbhavananda is from chapter 17 of the Anuśāsana Parva of the Mahābharata.
- Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0.
- Flood, Gavin (Editor) (2003). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-4051-3251-5.
- Griffith, Ralph T. H. (1973). the Hymns of the Ṛgveda. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0046-X. New Revised Edition
- Kramrisch, Stella (1981). The Presence of Śiva. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01930-4.
- Lubin, Timothy (2007). “The Nīlarudropaniṣad and the Paippalādasaṃhitā: A Critical Edition and Translation of the Upaniṣad and Nārāyaṇa's Dīpikā,” in: The Atharvaveda and its Paippalāda Śākhā: Historical and Philological Papers on a Vedic Tradition, ed. A. Griffiths and A. Schmiedchen, pp. 81–139. (Indologica Halensis 11). Aachen: Shaker Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8322-6255-6
- Macdonell, Arthur Anthony (1996). A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. ISBN 81-215-0715-4.
- Majumdar, R. C. (general editor) (1951). The History and Culture of the Indian People: (Volume 1) The Vedic Age. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.
- Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism: Past and Present. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08953-1.
- Sharma, Ram Karan (1996). Śivasahasranāmāṣṭakam: Eight Collections of Hymns Containing One Thousand and Eight Names of Śiva. With Introduction and Śivasahasranāmākoṣa (A Dictionary of Names). Delhi: Nag Publishers. ISBN 81-7081-350-6. This work compares eight versions of the Śivasahasranāmāstotra. The Preface and Introduction (in English) by Ram Karan Sharma provide an analysis of how the eight versions compare with one another. The text of the eight versions is given in Sanskrit.
- Zimmer, Heinrich (1972). Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01778-6.
- Rudra-sampradaya; Vaniquotes (His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda's compiled teachings)
- "Rgveda-Samhita". Parimal Publications. 2004. Retrieved 15 November 2012.