List of languages by number of native speakers in India
India is home to several hundred languages. Most Indians speak a language belonging to the families of the Indo-Aryan branch of Indo-European (ca. 74%), the Dravidian (ca. 24%), the Austroasiatic (Munda) (ca. 1.2%), or the Tibeto-Burman (ca. 0.6%), with some languages of the Himalayas still unclassified. The SIL Ethnologue lists 415 living languages for India.
Hindi and English are the official languages of the Republic of India used by the Central Government. Apart from these, there are 22 constitutionally recognized official languages, used by respective state governments.
Hindi is the most widely spoken language in northern parts of India. The Indian census takes the widest possible definition of "Hindi" as a broad variety of "Hindi languages". According to 2001 Census even though 45% of Indian population know Hindi, only 25% of them have declared Hindi as their native language. Indian English is recorded as the native language of 226,449 Indians in the 2001 census.
Thirteen languages account for more than 1% of Indian population each, and between themselves for over 95%; all of them are "scheduled languages of the constitution". Scheduled languages spoken by fewer than 1% of Indians are Santali (0.64%), Nepali (0.28%), Sindhi (0.25%), Manipuri (0.14%), Bodo (0.13%), Dogri (0.01%), and Sanskrit (In the 2001 census of India, only 14,135 people reported Sanskrit as their native language ) The largest language that is not "scheduled" is Bhili (0.95%), followed by Gondi (0.27%), Kumaoni (0.21%), Tulu (0.17%) and Kurukh (0.10%).
List by number of native speakers
Ordered by number of speakers as first language. Indian population in 1991 exhibited 19.4% of bilingualism and 7.2% of trilingualism, so that the total percentage of "native languages" is at about 127%.
More than one million speakers
The 2001 census recorded 29 individual languages as having more than 1 million native speakers (0.1% of total population).
(total population 1,028,610,328 )
(total population 838,583,988)
|Encarta 2007 estimate
|1||Hindi languages||422,048,642||41.03%||329,518,087||39.29%||366 M|
* Excludes figures of Paomata, Mao-Maram and Purul sub-divisions of Senapati district of Manipur for 2001.
** The percentage of speakers of each language for 2001 has been worked out on the total population of India excluding the population of Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul subdivisions of Senapati district of Manipur due to cancellation of census results.
100,000 to one million speakers
- In 1991, there were 90,000,000 "users" of English. (Census of India Indian Census, Issue 10, 2003, pp. 8–10, (Feature: Languages of West Bengal in Census and Surveys, Bilingualism and Trilingualism) and Tropf, Herbert S. 2004. India and its Languages. Siemens AG, Munich.)
- Paul, Lewis M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D. Fennig, eds. (2015). "Summary by country". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (Eighteenth Edition ed.). SIL International.
- Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2000, Census of India, 2001
- Comparative Speaker's Strength of Scheduled Languages -1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001, Census of India, 1991
- "Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People – Table – MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2007-12-03.
- includes Western Hindi apart from Urdu, Eastern Hindi, Bihari languages except for Maithili, Rajasthani languages and Pahari languages, whether or not they were reported as "Hindi".
- Data table of Census of India, 2001
- Language Maps from Central Institute of Indian Languages
- Scheduled Languages in descending order of speaker's strength – 2001
- Comparative ranking of scheduled languages in descending order of speaker's strength-1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001
- Census data on Languages
- "Major Indian Languages". Discover India. Archived from the original on 1 January 2007.
- Ethnologue report
- Central Institute of Indian Languages