List of birds of Gibraltar

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Large numbers of black kites and other birds of prey migrate via the Straits of Gibraltar.

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Gibraltar. The avifauna of Gibraltar include a total of 311 species, of which seven have been introduced by humans and 128 are rare or accidental in Gibraltar. Five species are globally threatened. The majority of the introduced species are wanderers from introduced populations in Spain.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 5th edition with a few changes to match the list of the Gibraltar Ornithological & Natural History Society. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect the Clements' taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Gibraltar.

The following tags have been used to highlight categories. The commonly occurring, native, species do not fall into any of these categories.

  • (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Gibraltar
  • (I) Introduced - a species which occurs in Gibraltar as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions


Table of contents

Non-passerines: Divers • Grebes • Shearwaters and petrels • Storm petrels • Gannets • Cormorants • Herons, egrets and bitterns • Storks • Ibises and spoonbills • Flamingos • Ducks, geese and swans • Osprey • Hawks, kites and eagles • Falcons • Pheasants and partridges • Cranes • Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots • Bustards • Oystercatchers • Avocets and stilts • Thick-knees • Pratincoles and coursers • Plovers and lapwings • Sandpipers and allies • Skuas • Gulls • Terns • Auks • Sandgrouse • Pigeons and doves • Cuckoos • Barn owls • Typical owls • Nightjars • Swifts • Kingfishers • Bee-eaters • Rollers • Hoopoes • Woodpeckers and allies

Passerines: Larks • Swallows and martins • Wagtails and pipits • Kinglets • Wrens • Accentors • Thrushes and allies • Cisticolas and allies • Old World warblers • Old World flycatchers and chats • Long-tailed tits • Tits • Wallcreeper • Treecreepers • Old World orioles • Shrikes • Crows, jays, ravens and magpies • Starlings • Weavers and allies • Waxbills and allies • Buntings and New World sparrows • Cardinals and allies • New World blackbirds • Finches • Sparrows

See also       References

Divers[edit]

Order: Gaviiformes. Family: Gaviidae

Divers, known as loons in North America, are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Europe. They are the size of a large duck or small goose, but to which they are completely unrelated. There are 5 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Grebes[edit]

Black-necked grebe, an occasional winter visitor.

Order: Podicipediformes. Family: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Shearwaters and petrels[edit]

Cory's shearwater, can occur in large numbers offshore.

Order: Procellariiformes. Family: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Storm petrels[edit]

European storm petrel, present offshore during the summer.

Order: Procellariiformes. Family: Hydrobatidae

The storm petrels are relatives of the petrels and are the smallest seabirds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Gannets[edit]

Northern gannet, regular offshore.

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both are medium to large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Cormorants[edit]

European shag, a small population breeds on sea cliffs.

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Phalacrocoracidae

Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Colouration varies, with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Herons, egrets and bitterns[edit]

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to have shorter necks and be more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills. There are 61 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Storks[edit]

White stork, large flocks migrate across the straits.

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Ibises and spoonbills[edit]

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Threskiornithidae

Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Flamingos[edit]

Greater flamingo, irregular on passage.

Order: Phoenicopteriformes. Family: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Ducks, geese and swans[edit]

Order: Anseriformes. Family: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Osprey[edit]

Osprey, a regular migrant.

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

Hawks, kites and eagles[edit]

European honey-buzzard, large numbers pass over in spring and autumn.

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 24 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Falcons[edit]

Peregrine falcon, a breeding resident.

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons. There are 62 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Pheasants and partridges[edit]

Common quail, a scarce migrant.

Order: Galliformes. Family: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Cranes[edit]

Common crane, occasional on migration.

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots[edit]

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which include the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Bustards[edit]

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Otididae

Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays. There are 26 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Oystercatchers[edit]

Eurasian oystercatcher, a scarce migrant.

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Avocets and stilts[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Thick-knees[edit]

Stone curlew, occasional passage migrant.

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Pratincoles and coursers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long, pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Plovers and lapwings[edit]

Northern lapwing, an irregular winter visitor.

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water. There are 66 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Sandpipers and allies[edit]

Common sandpiper, a passage migrant which sometimes overwinters.

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Scolopacidae

Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 18 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Skuas[edit]

Great skua, common offshore.

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Stercorariidae

Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Gulls[edit]

A yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) on a guano encrusted rooftop in Gibraltar

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds that includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Terns[edit]

Sandwich tern, regularly seen offshore.

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Sternidae

Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Auks[edit]

Razorbill, common at sea in winter.

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Alcidae

Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits, however they are not related to the penguins and differ in being able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest. There are 24 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Sandgrouse[edit]

Order: Pterocliformes. Family: Pteroclidae

Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Pigeons and doves[edit]

Eurasian collared dove, a recent colonist which is now common.

Order: Columbiformes. Family: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Cuckoos[edit]

Common cuckoo, an occasional passage migrant.

Order: Cuculiformes. Family: Cuculidae

The Cuculidae family includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These are birds of variable sizes with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. There are 138 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Barn owls[edit]

Order: Strigiformes. Family: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Typical owls[edit]

Eurasian eagle-owl, has recently returned as a breeding bird.

Order: Strigiformes. Family: Strigidae

The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Nightjars[edit]

European nightjar, occasional on passage.

Order: Caprimulgiformes. Family: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Swifts[edit]

Common swift, a very common summer visitor.

Order: Apodiformes. Family: Apodidae

Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Kingfishers[edit]

Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Bee-eaters[edit]

European bee-eater, common in spring and autumn.

Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Meropidae

The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colourful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Rollers[edit]

Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Coraciidae

Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Hoopoes[edit]

Hoopoe, common on passage.

Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Upupidae

Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Woodpeckers and allies[edit]

Order: Piciformes. Family: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Larks[edit]

Greater short-toed lark, passes through in small numbers.

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Swallows and martins[edit]

Barn swallow, a very common migrant which has bred in the past.

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. Their feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Wagtails and pipits[edit]

White wagtail, regular from autumn to spring and has bred.

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Motacillidae

Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Kinglets[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Regulidae

The kinglets, also called crests, are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice. There are 7 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Wrens[edit]

Winter wren, a common breeding resident.

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Troglodytidae

The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and thin down-turned bills. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 80 species worldwide (of which all but one are New World species) and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Accentors[edit]

Aplpine accentor, an occasional winter visitor.

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Prunellidae

The accentors are in the only bird family, Prunellidae, which is completely endemic to the Palearctic. They are small, fairly drab species superficially similar to sparrows. There are 13 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Thrushes and allies[edit]

Female blue rock thrush, breeds in dry, rocky areas

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 176 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Cisticolas and allies[edit]

Zitting cisticola, common from autumn to spring with some staying to breed.

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Old World warblers[edit]

Blackcap, a resident and also a common winter visitor.

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Sylviidae

The Sylviidae family is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. They mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent, Africa. Most have generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide and 31 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Old World flycatchers and chats[edit]

Spotted flycatcher, a common passage migrant.

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Muscicapidae

Old World flycatchers and chats are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, and they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There are 274 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Long-tailed tits[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Aegithalidae

The long-tailed tits are a group of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They make woven bag nests in trees. Most eat a mixed diet which includes insects. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Tits[edit]

Blue tit, a common resident.

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, eating a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are 59 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Wallcreeper[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Tichodromidae

The wallcreeper is a small bird related to the nuthatch family, which has stunning crimson, grey and black plumage.

Treecreepers[edit]

Short-toed treecreeper, an occasional visitor

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Old World orioles[edit]

Golden oriole, a scarce migrant.

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Oriolidae

The Old World orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Shrikes[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Crows, jays, ravens and magpies[edit]

Common raven, resident in very small numbers.

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence. There are 120 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Starlings[edit]

European starling, winter visitor in varying numbers.

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Weavers and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Waxbills and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colour and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Buntings and New World sparrows[edit]

Corn bunting, an occasional visitor.

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed eaters with distinctively shaped bills. In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are 275 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Cardinals and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Cardinalidae

The cardinals are a family of robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumage. There are 43 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

New World blackbirds[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Icteridae

The icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. There are 98 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.

Finches[edit]

European serin, a breeding resident more common in winter.

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Gibraltar.

Sparrows[edit]

House sparrow, a common resident in built-up areas.

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, but they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Clements, James F. (2000). Birds of the World: a Checklist. Cornell University Press. p. 880. ISBN 0-934797-16-1. 
  • Garcia, Ernest; Paterson, Andrew (2001). Where to Watch Birds in Southern & Western Spain (2nd ed. ed.). London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-5301-9. 
  • Garcia, Ernest (2006). "The Gibraltar Bird List". Gibraltar Ornithological and Natural History Society. Retrieved 15 January 2008. 
  • Lepage, Denis. "Checklist of birds of Gibraltar". Bird Checklists of the World. Avibase. Retrieved 26 April 2007. 

External links[edit]