List of birds of Gibraltar
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Gibraltar. The avifauna of Gibraltar includes a total of 311 species, of which seven have been introduced by humans, and 128 are rare or accidental in Gibraltar. Five species are globally threatened.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of Clements's 5th edition with a few changes to match the list of the Gibraltar Ornithological & Natural History Society. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect the Clements taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Gibraltar.
The following tags have been used to highlight certain relevant categories. The commonly occurring, native, species do not fall into any of these categories.
- (A) Accidental A species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Gibraltar.
- (I) Introduced A species which occurs in Gibraltar as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions. The majority of these are wanderers from introduced populations in Spain.
Divers, known as loons in North America, are group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Europe. They are the size of a large duck or small goose, which they somewhat resembles in shape when swimming, but they completely unrelated to these waterfowl. There are 5 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Red-throated Diver Gavia stellata (A)
- Black-throated Diver Gavia arctica (A)
- Great Northern Diver Gavia immer (A)
Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Shearwaters and petrels
The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with a medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Cape Petrel Daption capense (A)
- Cory's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea
- Great Shearwater Puffinus gravis
- Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus
- Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus
- Levantine Shearwater Puffinus yelkouan
- Macaronesian Shearwater Puffinus baroli (A)
The storm petrels are relatives of the petrels, and are the smallest of sea-birds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Northern Gannet Morus bassanus
The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Herons, egrets and bitterns
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Grey Heron Ardea cinerea
- Purple Heron Ardea purpurea
- Little Egret Egretta garzetta
- Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides (A)
- Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis
- Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax
- Little Bittern Ixobrychus minutus (A)
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Ibises and spoonbills
The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (1.5 m) high, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus
Ducks, geese and swans
The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Greylag Goose Anser anser (A)
- Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna (A)
- Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope (A)
- Gadwall Anas strepera (A)
- Eurasian Teal Anas crecca (A)
- Mallard Anas platyrhynchos (A)
- Northern Pintail Anas acuta (A)
- Garganey Anas querquedula (A)
- Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula (A)
- Greater Scaup Aythya marila (A)
- Common Scoter Melanitta nigra
- Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator (A)
The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
- Osprey Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, kites and eagles
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 24 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- European Honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus
- Black-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus (A)
- Red Kite Milvus milvus
- Black Kite Milvus migrans
- Lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus (A)
- Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus
- Rüppell's Vulture Gyps ruepellii (A)
- Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus
- Eurasian Black Vulture Aegypius monachus
- Short-toed Snake Eagle Circaetus gallicus
- Western Marsh-Harrier Circus aeruginosus
- Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus
- Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus (A)
- Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus
- Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus
- Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis
- Eurasian Buzzard Buteo buteo
- Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus (A)
- Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina (A)
- Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga (A)
- Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila adalberti (A)
- Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos (A)
- Bonelli's Eagle Aquila fasciatus
- Booted Eagle Aquila pennatus
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni
- Eurasian Kestrel Falco tinnunculus
- Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus (A)
- Eleonora's Falcon Falco eleonorae
- Merlin Falco columbarius
- Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo
- Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus
- Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus
Pheasants and partridges
The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they may vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Barbary Partridge Alectoris barbara
- Common Quail Coturnix coturnix
- Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus (I, A)
Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Common Crane Grus grus
Rails, crakes, gallinules, and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio (A)
- Allen's Gallinule Porphyrio alleni (A)
- Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus (A)
- Eurasian Coot Fulica atra (A)
Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips, and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays. There are 26 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Great Bustard Otis tarda (A)
- Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus
Avocets and stilts
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Stone Curlew Burhinus oedicnemus
Pratincoles and coursers
Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long, pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola (A)
Plovers and lapwings
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus
- European Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria (A)
- Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola (A)
- Common Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula (A)
- Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus
Sandpipers and allies
The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 18 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Eurasian Woodcock Scolopax rusticola (A)
- Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus (A)
- Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago (A)
- Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa (A)
- Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica (A)
- Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
- Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata (A)
- Common Redshank Tringa totanus (A)
- Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus (A)
- Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos
- Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres
- Red Knot Calidris canutus (A)
- Sanderling Calidris alba (A)
- Little Stint Calidris minuta (A)
- Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea (A)
- Dunlin Calidris alpina (A)
- Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus (A)
- Grey Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius
The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Great Skua Stercorarius skua
- Pomarine Skua Stercorarius pomarinus
- Arctic Skua Stercorarius parasiticus
Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Common Gull Larus canus (A)
- Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii
- Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis (A)
- Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus (A)
- Iceland Gull Larus glaucoides (A)
- Herring Gull Larus argentatus (A)
- Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus
- Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis
- Grey-headed Gull Larus cirrocephalus (A)
- Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus
- Slender-billed Gull Larus genei (A)
- Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus
- Laughing Gull Larus atricilla (A)
- Little Gull Larus minutus
- Sabine's Gull Xema sabini (A)
- Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla
Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Gull-billed Tern Sterna nilotica
- Caspian Tern Sterna caspia
- Lesser Crested Tern Sterna bengalensis
- Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis
- Royal Tern Sterna maxima (A)
- Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii (A)
- Common Tern Sterna hirundo
- Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea (A)
- Little Tern Sterna albifrons
- Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybridus (A)
- White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus (A)
- Black Tern Chlidonias niger
Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits, however they are not related to the penguins bnd differ in being able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest. There are 24 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Pin-tailed Sandgrouse Pterocles alchata (A)
Pigeons and doves
- Rock Pigeon Columba livia
- Stock Dove Columba oenas (A)
- Common Wood Pigeon Columba palumbus (A)
- European Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur
- Eurasian Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto
The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Barn Owl Tyto alba
Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- European Scops-Owl Otus scops
- Eurasian Eagle-Owl Bubo bubo
- Tawny Owl Strix aluco
- Little Owl Athene noctua
- Long-eared Owl Asio otus (A)
- Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus (A)
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Alpine Swift Tachymarptis melba
- Common Swift Apus apus
- Pallid Swift Apus pallidus
- Little Swift Apus affinis (A)
- White-rumped Swift Apus caffer (A)
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis
The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colorful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- European Roller Coracias garrulus
Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Hoopoe Upupa epops
Woodpeckers and allies
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla
- Great Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos major (A)
- European Green Woodpecker Picus viridis (A)
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra (A)
- Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla
- Lesser Short-toed Lark Calandrella rufescens (A)
- Crested Lark Galerida cristata
- Thekla Lark Galerida theklae
- Wood Lark Lullula arborea
- Eurasian Skylark Alauda arvensis
Swallows and martins
The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Sand Martin Riparia riparia
- Eurasian Crag Martin Ptyonoprogne rupestris
- Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica
- Red-rumped Swallow Cecropis daurica
- Common House Martin Delichon urbica
Wagtails and pipits
The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- White Wagtail Motacilla alba
- Western Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava
- Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea
- Richard's Pipit Anthus richardi (A)
- Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris
- Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis
- Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis
- Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus (A)
- Rock Pipit Anthus petrosus (A)
- Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta (A)
The kinglets or crests are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice. There are 7 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 80 species worldwide (of which all but one are New World species) and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Winter Wren Troglodytes troglodytes
The accentors are in the only bird family, Prunellidae, which is completely endemic to the Palearctic. They are small, fairly drab species superficially similar to sparrows. There are 13 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Thrushes and allies
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 176 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Common Rock Thrush Monticola saxatilis
- Blue Rock Thrush Monticola solitarius
- Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus
- Eurasian Blackbird Turdus merula
- Fieldfare Turdus pilaris
- Redwing Turdus iliacus
- Song Thrush Turdus philomelos
- Mistle Thrush Turdus viscivorus (A)
Cisticolas and allies
The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 1 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis
Old World warblers
The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide and 31 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Cetti's Warbler Cettia cetti (A)
- Grasshopper Warbler Locustella naevia
- Savi's Warbler Locustella luscinioides (A)
- Moustached Warbler Acrocephalus melanopogon (A)
- Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (A)
- Eurasian Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus
- Blyth's Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum (A)
- Great Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus (A)
- Western Olivaceous Warbler Hippolais opaca
- Melodious Warbler Hippolais polyglotta
- Icterine Warbler Hippolais icterina (A)
- Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus
- Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita
- Iberian Chiffchaff Phylloscopus ibericus
- Mountain Chiffchaff Phylloscopus sindianus (A)
- Western Bonelli's Warbler Phylloscopus bonelli
- Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix
- Pallas's Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus (A)
- Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus (A)
- Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis (A)
- Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla
- Garden Warbler Sylvia borin
- Greater Whitethroat Sylvia communis
- Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca (A)
- Western Orphean Warbler Sylvia hortensis
- Subalpine Warbler Sylvia cantillans
- Sardinian Warbler Sylvia melanocephala
- Spectacled Warbler Sylvia conspicillata
- Tristram's Warbler Sylvia deserticola (A)
- Dartford Warbler Sylvia undata
- Marmora's Warbler Sylvia sarda (A)
Old World flycatchers and chats
Old World flycatchers and chats are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There 274 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata
- European Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca
- Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva (A)
- European Robin Erithacus rubecula
- Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos
- Bluethroat Luscinia svecica
- Rufous-tailed Scrub-Robin Cercotrichas galactotes
- Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros
- Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus
- Whinchat Saxicola rubetra
- European Stonechat Saxicola rubicola
- Black Wheatear Oenanthe leucura (A)
- Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe
- Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe hispanica
- Desert Wheatear Oenanthe deserti (A)
Long-tailed tits are a group of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They make woven bag nests in trees. Most eat a mixed diet that includes insects. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Long-tailed Tit Aegithalos caudatus (A)
The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are species 59 worldwide and 4 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Coal Tit Periparus ater (A)
- Crested Tit Lophophanes cristatus (A)
- Great Tit Parus major
- Eurasian Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus
The Wallcreeper is a small bird with stunning crimson, grey and black plumage, related to the nuthatch family.
- Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria
Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Short-toed Treecreeper Certhia brachydactyla
Old World orioles
The Old World Orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus
Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio (A)
- Southern Grey Shrike Lanius meridionalis (A)
- Masked Shrike Lanius nubicus (A)
- Woodchat Shrike Lanius senator
Crows, jays, ravens and magpies
The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Eurasian Jay Garrulus glandarius
- Eurasian Magpie Pica pica
- Red-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (A)
- Yellow-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax graculus
- Eurasian Jackdaw Corvus monedula
- House Crow Corvus splendens (A)
- Carrion Crow Corvus corone (A)
- Common Raven Corvus corax
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Weavers and allies
The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Village Weaver Ploceus cucullatus (I, A)
- Red-headed Quelea Quelea erythrops (I, A)
- Red-billed Quelea Quelea quelea (I, A)
- Black-winged Bishop Euplectes hordeaceus (I, A)
Waxbills and allies
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Buntings and New World sparrows
The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 9 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella
- Pine Bunting Emberiza leucocephalos (A)
- Cirl Bunting Emberiza cirlus
- Rock Bunting Emberiza cia
- Ortolan Bunting Emberiza hortulana
- Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus (A)
- Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra
- White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis (A)
- Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis (A)
Cardinals and allies
The cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages. There are 43 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Indigo Bunting Passerina cyanea (A)
New World blackbirds
The icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. There are 98 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus (A)
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs
- Brambling Fringilla montifringilla
- Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus (A)
- Red Crossbill Loxia curvirostra
- European Greenfinch Carduelis chloris
- Eurasian Siskin Carduelis spinus
- European Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis
- Eurasian Linnet Carduelis cannabina
- European Serin Serinus serinus
- Eurasian Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula
- Hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes (A)
- Trumpeter Finch Bucanetes githaginea (A)
Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- House Sparrow Passer domesticus
- Spanish Sparrow Passer hispaniolensis
- Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus
- List of birds
- Lists of birds by region
- List of mammals in Gibraltar
- List of reptiles and amphibians in Gibraltar
- Clements, James F. (2000). Birds of the World: a Checklist. Cornell University Press. p. 880. ISBN 0-934797-16-1.
- Garcia, Ernest; Paterson, Andrew (2001). Where to Watch Birds in Southern & Western Spain (2nd ed. ed.). London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-5301-9.
- Garcia, Ernest (2006). "The Gibraltar Bird List". Gibraltar Ornithological and Natural History Society. Retrieved 15 January 2008.
- Lepage, Denis. "Checklist of birds of Gibraltar". Bird Checklists of the World. Avibase. Retrieved 26 April 2007.