List of birds of Gibraltar
This is a list of the bird species recorded in Gibraltar. The avifauna of Gibraltar include a total of 311 species, of which seven have been introduced by humans and 128 are rare or accidental in Gibraltar. Five species are globally threatened. The majority of the introduced species are wanderers from introduced populations in Spain.
This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 5th edition with a few changes to match the list of the Gibraltar Ornithological & Natural History Society. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect the Clements' taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Gibraltar.
The following tags have been used to highlight categories. The commonly occurring, native, species do not fall into any of these categories.
- (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Gibraltar
- (I) Introduced - a species which occurs in Gibraltar as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions
Divers, known as loons in North America, are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Europe. They are the size of a large duck or small goose, but to which they are completely unrelated. There are 5 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Red-throated diver, Gavia stellata (A)
- Black-throated diver, Gavia arctica (A)
- Great northern diver, Gavia immer (A)
Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Shearwaters and petrels
The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Cape petrel, Daption capense (A)
- Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea
- Great shearwater, Puffinus gravis
- Sooty shearwater, Puffinus griseus
- Balearic shearwater, Puffinus mauretanicus
- Levantine shearwater, Puffinus yelkouan
- Macaronesian shearwater, Puffinus baroli (A)
The storm petrels are relatives of the petrels and are the smallest seabirds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Northern gannet, Morus bassanus
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Colouration varies, with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Herons, egrets and bitterns
The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to have shorter necks and be more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills. There are 61 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Grey heron, Ardea cinerea
- Purple heron, Ardea purpurea
- Little heron, Egretta garzetta
- Squacco heron, Ardeola ralloides (A)
- Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis
- Black-crowned night-heron, Nycticorax nycticorax
- Little bittern, Ixobrychus minutus (A)
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Ibises and spoonbills
Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Greater flamingo, Phoenicopterus roseus
Ducks, geese and swans
The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Greylag goose, Anser anser (A)
- Common shelduck, Tadorna tadorna (A)
- Eurasian wigeon, Anas penelope (A)
- Gadwall, Anas strepera (A)
- Eurasian teal, Anas crecca (A)
- Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (A)
- Northern pintail, Anas acuta (A)
- Garganey, Anas querquedula (A)
- Tufted duck, Aythya fuligula (A)
- Greater scaup, Aythya marila (A)
- Common scoter, Melanitta nigra
- Red-breasted merganser, Mergus serrator (A)
The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.
- Osprey, Pandion haliaetus
Hawks, kites and eagles
Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 24 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- European honey-buzzard, Pernis apivorus
- Black-shouldered kite, Elanus caeruleus (A)
- Red kite, Milvus milvus
- Black kite, Milvus migrans
- Lammergeier, Gypaetus barbatus (A)
- Egyptian vulture, Neophron percnopterus
- Rüppell's vulture, Gyps ruepellii (A)
- Griffon vulture, Gyps fulvus
- Eurasian black vulture, Aegypius monachus
- Short-toed snake eagle, Circaetus gallicus
- Western marsh-harrier, Circus aeruginosus
- Northern harrier, Circus cyaneus
- Pallid harrier, Circus macrourus (A)
- Montagu's harrier, Circus pygargus
- Eurasian sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus
- Northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis
- Eurasian buzzard, Buteo buteo
- Long-legged buzzard, Buteo rufinus (A)
- Lesser spotted eagle, Aquila pomarina (A)
- Greater spotted eagle, Aquila clanga (A)
- Spanish imperial eagle, Aquila adalberti (A)
- Golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos (A)
- Bonelli's eagle, Aquila fasciatus
- Booted eagle, Aquila pennatus
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons. There are 62 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Lesser kestrel, Falco naumanni
- Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus
- Red-footed falcon, Falco vespertinus (A)
- Eleonora's falcon, Falco eleonorae
- Merlin, Falco columbarius
- Eurasian hobby, Falco subbuteo
- Lanner falcon, Falco biarmicus
- Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus
Pheasants and partridges
The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Barbary partridge, Alectoris barbara
- Common quail, Coturnix coturnix
- Common pheasant, Phasianus colchicus (I, A)
Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Common crane, Grus grus
Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which include the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Purple swamphen, Porphyrio porphyrio (A)
- Allen's gallinule, Porphyrio alleni (A)
- Common moorhen, Gallinula chloropus (A)
- Eurasian coot, Fulica atra (A)
Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays. There are 26 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Great bustard, Otis tarda (A)
- Eurasian oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus
Avocets and stilts
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Stone curlew, Burhinus oedicnemus
Pratincoles and coursers
Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long, pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Collared pratincole, Glareola pratincola (A)
Plovers and lapwings
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water. There are 66 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Northern lapwing, Vanellus vanellus
- European golden plover, Pluvialis apricaria (A)
- Grey plover, Pluvialis squatarola (A)
- Common ringed plover, Charadrius hiaticula (A)
- Kentish plover, Charadrius alexandrinus
Sandpipers and allies
Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 18 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Eurasian woodcock, Scolopax rusticola (A)
- Jack snipe, Lymnocryptes minimus (A)
- Common snipe, Gallinago gallinago (A)
- Black-tailed godwit, Limosa limosa (A)
- Bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica (A)
- Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus
- Eurasian curlew, Numenius arquata (A)
- Common redshank, Tringa totanus (A)
- Green sandpiper, Tringa ochropus (A)
- Common sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos
- Ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres
- Red knot, Calidris canutus (A)
- Sanderling, Calidris alba (A)
- Little stint, Calidris minuta (A)
- Curlew sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea (A)
- Dunlin, Calidris alpina (A)
- Red-necked phalarope, Phalaropus lobatus (A)
- Grey phalarope, Phalaropus fulicarius
Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Great skua, Stercorarius skua
- Pomarine skua, Stercorarius pomarinus
- Arctic skua, Stercorarius parasiticus
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds that includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Common gull, Larus canus (A)
- Audouin's gull, Larus audouinii
- Ring-billed gull, Larus delawarensis (A)
- Great black-backed gull, Larus marinus (A)
- Iceland gull, Larus glaucoides (A)
- Herring gull, Larus argentatus (A)
- Lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus
- Yellow-legged gull, Larus michahellis
- Grey-headed gull, Larus cirrocephalus (A)
- Black-headed gull, Larus ridibundus
- Slender-billed gull, Larus genei (A)
- Mediterranean gull, Larus melanocephalus
- Laughing gull, Larus atricilla (A)
- Little gull, Larus minutus
- Sabine's gull, Xema sabini (A)
- Black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla
Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Gull-billed tern, Sterna nilotica
- Caspian tern, Sterna caspia
- Lesser crested tern, Sterna bengalensis
- Sandwich tern, Sterna sandvicensis
- Royal tern, Sterna maxima (A)
- Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii (A)
- Common tern, Sterna hirundo
- Arctic tern, Sterna paradisaea (A)
- Little tern, Sterna albifrons
- Whiskered tern, Chlidonias hybridus (A)
- White-winged tern, Chlidonias leucopterus (A)
- Black tern, Chlidonias niger
Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits, however they are not related to the penguins and differ in being able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest. There are 24 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Pin-tailed sandgrouse, Pterocles alchata (A)
Pigeons and doves
- Rock pigeon, Columba livia
- Stock dove, Columba oenas (A)
- Common wood pigeon, Columba palumbus (A)
- European turtle dove, Streptopelia turtur
- Eurasian collared dove, Streptopelia decaocto
The Cuculidae family includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These are birds of variable sizes with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. There are 138 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Barn owl, Tyto alba
The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- European scops-owl, Otus scops
- Eurasian eagle-owl, Bubo bubo
- Tawny owl, Strix aluco
- Little owl, Athene noctua
- Long-eared owl, Asio otus (A)
- Short-eared owl, Asio flammeus (A)
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Alpine swift, Tachymarptis melba
- Common swift, Apus apus
- Pallid swift, Apus pallidus
- Little swift, Apus affinis (A)
- White-rumped swift, Apus caffer (A)
Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Common kingfisher, Alcedo atthis
The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colourful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- European roller, Coracias garrulus
Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Hoopoe, Upupa epops
Woodpeckers and allies
Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Eurasian wryneck, Jynx torquilla
- Great spotted woodpecker, Dendrocopos major (A)
- European green woodpecker, Picus viridis (A)
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Calandra lark, Melanocorypha calandra (A)
- Greater short-toed lark, Calandrella brachydactyla
- Lesser short-toed lark, Calandrella rufescens (A)
- Crested lark, Galerida cristata
- Thekla lark, Galerida theklae
- Wood lark, Lullula arborea
- Eurasian skylark, Alauda arvensis
Swallows and martins
The Hirundinidae family is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. Their feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Sand martin, Riparia riparia
- Eurasian crag martin, Ptyonoprogne rupestris
- Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica
- Red-rumped swallow, Cecropis daurica
- Common house martin, Delichon urbica
Wagtails and pipits
Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- White wagtail, Motacilla alba
- Western yellow wagtail, Motacilla flava
- Grey wagtail, Motacilla cinerea
- Richard's pipit, Anthus richardi (A)
- Tawny pipit, Anthus campestris
- Tree pipit, Anthus trivialis
- Meadow pipit, Anthus pratensis
- Red-throated pipit, Anthus cervinus (A)
- Rock pipit, Anthus petrosus (A)
- Water pipit, Anthus spinoletta (A)
The kinglets, also called crests, are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice. There are 7 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and thin down-turned bills. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 80 species worldwide (of which all but one are New World species) and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Winter wren, Troglodytes troglodytes
The accentors are in the only bird family, Prunellidae, which is completely endemic to the Palearctic. They are small, fairly drab species superficially similar to sparrows. There are 13 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Thrushes and allies
The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 176 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Common rock thrush, Monticola saxatilis
- Blue rock thrush, Monticola solitarius
- Ring ouzel, Turdus torquatus
- Eurasian blackbird, Turdus merula
- Fieldfare, Turdus pilaris
- Redwing, Turdus iliacus
- Song thrush, Turdus philomelos
- Mistle thrush, Turdus viscivorus (A)
Cisticolas and allies
The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Zitting cisticola, Cisticola juncidis
Old World warblers
The Sylviidae family is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. They mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent, Africa. Most have generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide and 31 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Cetti's warbler, Cettia cetti (A)
- Grasshopper warbler, Locustella naevia
- Savi's warbler, Locustella luscinioides (A)
- Moustached warbler, Acrocephalus melanopogon (A)
- Sedge warbler, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (A)
- Eurasian reed-warbler, Acrocephalus scirpaceus
- Blyth's reed-warbler, Acrocephalus dumetorum (A)
- Great reed-warbler, Acrocephalus arundinaceus (A)
- Western olivaceous warbler, Hippolais opaca
- Melodious warbler, Hippolais polyglotta
- Icterine warbler, Hippolais icterina (A)
- Willow warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus
- Common chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita
- Iberian chiffchaff, Phylloscopus ibericus
- Mountain chiffchaff, Phylloscopus sindianus (A)
- Western Bonelli's warbler, Phylloscopus bonelli
- Wood warbler, Phylloscopus sibilatrix
- Pallas's warbler, Phylloscopus proregulus (A)
- Yellow-browed warbler, Phylloscopus inornatus (A)
- Arctic warbler, Phylloscopus borealis (A)
- Blackcap, Sylvia atricapilla
- Garden warbler, Sylvia borin
- Greater whitethroat, Sylvia communis
- Lesser whitethroat, Sylvia curruca (A)
- Western Orphean warbler, Sylvia hortensis
- Subalpine warbler, Sylvia cantillans
- Sardinian warbler, Sylvia melanocephala
- Spectacled warbler, Sylvia conspicillata
- Tristram's warbler, Sylvia deserticola (A)
- Dartford warbler, Sylvia undata
- Marmora's warbler, Sylvia sarda (A)
Old World flycatchers and chats
Old World flycatchers and chats are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, and they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There are 274 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Spotted flycatcher, Muscicapa striata
- European pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca
- Red-breasted flycatcher, Ficedula parva (A)
- European robin, Erithacus rubecula
- Common nightingale, Luscinia megarhynchos
- Bluethroat, Luscinia svecica
- Rufous-tailed scrub-robin, Cercotrichas galactotes
- Black redstart, Phoenicurus ochruros
- Common redstart, Phoenicurus phoenicurus
- Whinchat, Saxicola rubetra
- European stonechat, Saxicola rubicola
- Black wheatear, Oenanthe leucura (A)
- Northern wheatear, Oenanthe oenanthe
- Black-eared wheatear, Oenanthe hispanica
- Desert wheatear, Oenanthe deserti (A)
The long-tailed tits are a group of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They make woven bag nests in trees. Most eat a mixed diet which includes insects. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Long-tailed tit, Aegithalos caudatus (A)
The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, eating a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are 59 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Coal tit, Periparus ater (A)
- Crested tit, Lophophanes cristatus (A)
- Great tit, Parus major
- Eurasian blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus
The wallcreeper is a small bird related to the nuthatch family, which has stunning crimson, grey and black plumage.
- Wallcreeper, Tichodroma muraria
Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Short-toed treecreeper, Certhia brachydactyla
Old World orioles
The Old World orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Eurasian golden oriole, Oriolus oriolus
Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Red-backed shrike, Lanius collurio (A)
- Southern grey shrike, Lanius meridionalis (A)
- Masked shrike, Lanius nubicus (A)
- Woodchat shrike, Lanius senator
Crows, jays, ravens and magpies
The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence. There are 120 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Eurasian jay, Garrulus glandarius
- Eurasian magpie, Pica pica
- Red-billed chough, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (A)
- Yellow-billed chough, Pyrrhocorax graculus
- Eurasian jackdaw, Corvus monedula
- House crow, Corvus splendens (A)
- Carrion crow, Corvus corone (A)
- Common raven, Corvus corax
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Weavers and allies
The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Village weaver, Ploceus cucullatus (I, A)
- Red-headed quelea, Quelea erythrops (I, A)
- Red-billed quelea, Quelea quelea (I, A)
- Black-winged bishop, Euplectes hordeaceus (I, A)
Waxbills and allies
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colour and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Gibraltar.
Buntings and New World sparrows
The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed eaters with distinctively shaped bills. In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are 275 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Yellowhammer, Emberiza citrinella
- Pine bunting, Emberiza leucocephalos (A)
- Cirl bunting, Emberiza cirlus
- Rock bunting, Emberiza cia
- Ortolan bunting, Emberiza hortulana
- Reed bunting, Emberiza schoeniclus (A)
- Corn bunting, Emberiza calandra
- White-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis (A)
- Dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis (A)
Cardinals and allies
The cardinals are a family of robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumage. There are 43 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Indigo bunting, Passerina cyanea (A)
New World blackbirds
The icterids are a group of small to medium-sized, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. There are 98 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Gibraltar.
- Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus (A)
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- Common chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs
- Brambling, Fringilla montifringilla
- Common rosefinch, Carpodacus erythrinus (A)
- Red crossbill, Loxia curvirostra
- European greenfinch, Carduelis chloris
- Eurasian siskin, Carduelis spinus
- European goldfinch, Carduelis carduelis
- Eurasian linnet, Carduelis cannabina
- European serin, Serinus serinus
- Eurasian bullfinch, Pyrrhula pyrrhula
- Hawfinch, Coccothraustes coccothraustes (A)
- Trumpeter finch, Bucanetes githaginea (A)
Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, but they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Gibraltar.
- House sparrow, Passer domesticus
- Spanish sparrow, Passer hispaniolensis
- Eurasian tree sparrow, Passer montanus
- List of birds
- Lists of birds by region
- List of mammals of Gibraltar
- List of reptiles and amphibians of Gibraltar
- Clements, James F. (2000). Birds of the World: a Checklist. Cornell University Press. p. 880. ISBN 0-934797-16-1.
- Garcia, Ernest; Paterson, Andrew (2001). Where to Watch Birds in Southern & Western Spain (2nd ed. ed.). London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-5301-9.
- Garcia, Ernest (2006). "The Gibraltar Bird List". Gibraltar Ornithological and Natural History Society. Retrieved 15 January 2008.
- Lepage, Denis. "Checklist of birds of Gibraltar". Bird Checklists of the World. Avibase. Retrieved 26 April 2007.