List of defunct automobile manufacturers of the United States

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This is a list of defunct automobile manufacturers of the United States. They were discontinued for various reasons, such as bankruptcy of the parent company, mergers, or being phased out.

A[edit]

1911 Abbott-Detroit
1906 Adams-Farwell
Taylor Aerocar III
1912 ALCO
1952 Allstate
Alter Model 4-22
1939 American Bantam
1974 AMC Gremlin
1913 American Underslung
1932 Auburn 8-100A Custom 4-Door Sedan

B[edit]

1909 Babcock
Brewster Convertible Coupe
1919 Briscoe Model B 4/24 Touring
1912 Brush Runabout

C[edit]

1919 Chandler Light Weight Model 19 Touring
Checker Manhattan
Citicar
Columbia Mark III Phaeton
1930 Cord L-29

D[edit]

1939 De Soto Series S-6 Custom De Luxe 4-Door Sedan
1930 Duesenberg J Walker Legrande Torpedo Phaeton
Du Pont Motors automobile
Duryea automobile

E[edit]

1995 Eagle Talon
1904 Eldredge Runabout
1912 E.M.F. Model 30 Roadster

F[edit]

Fiberfab FT Bonito
1925 Flint B-40 Touring

G[edit]

Geo Prizm
1932 Graham Blue Streak 4-Door Sedan

H[edit]

1916 Haynes
1937 Hudson Custom Eight
Hummer H3
1929 Hupmobile Series M De Luxe Century Opera Coupe

I[edit]

1981 Imperial
1911 International Harvester

J[edit]

1928 Jordan sedan

K[edit]

1954 Kaiser Darrin
The 1914 Keystone

L[edit]

1921 LaFayette Four-Door Coupe
1938 La Salle Series Coupe
1919 Lexington Model R-19 Minute Man Six Touring 1919

M[edit]

1929 Marmon Series 8-69 4-Door Sedan
Driver Mel Marquette's wrecked McFarlan racing car at the 1912 Indianapolis 500
1916 Mercer 22/72 Touring
Moon Roadster 6-40

N[edit]

1946 Nash 4-Door Sedan

O[edit]

1957 Oldsmobile Super 88
1910 Overland Model 38 Roadster

P[edit]

1951 Packard 250 convertible
1966 Plymouth Barracuda
2007 Pontiac Solstice GXP
1910 Pope-Waverley coupe

Q[edit]

R[edit]

1906 REO Runabout
1929 Roosevelt 4-Door Sedan
A Royal Tourist of the US Army.

S[edit]

1904 Searchmont 10 HP Type VI 4-passenger Rear-entrance Tonneau
The Smith Flyer
1923 Stanley Steam Car
1935 Stout Scarab
1916 Studebaker Touring
1927 Stutz Vertical Eight AA Limousine

T[edit]

1938 Terraplane sedan
1948 Tucker sedan

U[edit]

V[edit]

1920 Velie Model 34 Touring

W[edit]

1905 White
1920 Willys-Knight advertisement
1908 Winton touring car

X[edit]

Y[edit]

Z[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Abbotts were built in Cleveland. Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877-1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.190.
  2. ^ Clymer, p.205; Kimes 1985, p. 18
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw Clymer, p.205.
  4. ^ Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1946-1959 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2008), p.1016.
  5. ^ Built in New York City. Clymer, p.178.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Clymer, p.170.
  7. ^ Clymer, p.31.
  8. ^ Clymer, p.205; Kimes 1985, p. 19
  9. ^ Built in St. Louis by the beer company. Clymer, p.170-1.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Flory, p.1016.
  11. ^ Clymer, p.23 & 205.
  12. ^ Front-wheel drive, built in New York City; allegedly the first FWD car. Clymer, pp.178 & 205.
  13. ^ King-Remick
  14. ^ Distinct from Babcock Electric. Clymer, p.205.
  15. ^ Built in Wisconsin. Clymer, pp.153 & 205.
  16. ^ Builder of cars and trucks in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 205.
  17. ^ Distinct from American Bantam and the bird. Clymer, p.170.
  18. ^ Sold an electric tricycle before 1916. Clymer, pp.38 & 205.
  19. ^ a b c d Flory, p.1016.
  20. ^ Built in York, Pennsylvania. Clymer, p.193.
  21. ^ Distinct from the other three. Clymer, p.205.
  22. ^ Built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 205.
  23. ^ Built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190.
  24. ^ a b c d Clymer, p.170-1.
  25. ^ A six-wheeler "motorcycle", built by Detroit artist & engineer James Scripps Booth. Clymer, p.115.
  26. ^ Clymer, pp. 5, 61, & 205.
  27. ^ Distinct from the British brand. Flory, p.1016.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay Clymer, p.23.
  29. ^ Smith Flyer
  30. ^ Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 205.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm Clymer, p.206.
  32. ^ Automobiles built in Anderson, Indiana. Clymer, pp.5 & 190.
  33. ^ Built in Chicago. Clymer, p.178.
  34. ^ Clymer, pp.16, 170, & 206.
  35. ^ One of three companies by this name. Clymer, pp.23 & 206.
  36. ^ Distinct from Carhartt. Clymer, p.206.
  37. ^ Distinct from Carrol. Clymer,p.206.
  38. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 929
  39. ^ Built in Racine, Wisconsin. Clymer, p.153.
  40. ^ built in Chicago, Ill. Kimes 1985, p. 252
  41. ^ Offered vehicles with electric, steam, or gasoline engines.
  42. ^ Clymer, pp.22 & 178.
  43. ^ Distinct from the three gasoline companies, and from Chicago. Clymer, p.206.
  44. ^ Distinct from the three gasoline companies, and from Chicago Electric. Clymer, p.206.
  45. ^ Founded by J. Walter Christie. Clymer, p.206.
  46. ^ Or Clarksmobile. Clymer, pp.25 & 206.
  47. ^ One of two companies by this name. Clymer, p.23.
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Built in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  49. ^ Built in Little Rock, Arkansas. Clymer, p.178.
  50. ^ a b c Kimes 1985, p. 331
  51. ^ Clipper Division, Studebaker-Packard Corp.; Packard, A History of the Motor Car and the Company (General edition), Beverly Rae Kimes, editor (1978), Automobile Quarterly", ISBN 0-915038-11-0"
  52. ^ Triumph an Tragedy: The Last Real Packards by Richard M. Langworth, in Collectible Automobile, September, 1984 issue; p. 6-25; (ISSN 0742-812X)
  53. ^ Built in St. Louis, Missouri. Clymer, p.178.
  54. ^ Built in Denver, copied from the contemporary Renault. Clymer, p.87.
  55. ^ Founded by J. J. Cole, built in Indianapolis. Clymer, p.104.
  56. ^ Built in Yonkers, New York. Clymer, p.63.
  57. ^ a b One of two companies by this name. Clymer, p.206.
  58. ^ Distinct from Columbia Electric. Clymer, p.206.
  59. ^ Built at 564 Dublin Avenue; Columbus, Ohio. Clymer, p.145.
  60. ^ Distinct from the Mercury. Clymer, p.206.
  61. ^ Built in Plymouth, Ohio, friction transmission, dual chain drive, 1000-6000 lb payload or 9-20 seats. Clymer, p.67.
  62. ^ built in Minneapolis, Minn. & Chicago, Ill. Kimes 1985, p. 357
  63. ^ Formerly Vaughn; builder of the Gas-au-lec, based in Peabody, Massachusetts. Clymer, p.158.
  64. ^ Distinct from the Nash. Clymer, p.206.
  65. ^ Distinct from Crane & Breed. Clymer, p.206.
  66. ^ Clymer, pp.170 & 206.
  67. ^ Built in Ohio and Pennsylvania. Clymer, pp.190 & 206.
  68. ^ Distinct from the racers. Clymer, p.206.
  69. ^ One of two companies by this name. Clymer, pp.158 & 206.
  70. ^ Named for the horse, built in Minneapolis. Clymer, p.178.
  71. ^ Built in St. Louis, Missouri. Clymer, p.93.
  72. ^ a b Clymer, pp.5 & 206.
  73. ^ Clymer, p.170
  74. ^ a b c d e f g h Kimes(1985), p. 403
  75. ^ Distinct from the tractor. Clymer, p.206.
  76. ^ Built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 206.
  77. ^ Built in Auburn, Indiana. Distinct from DeSoto. Clymer, p.178.
  78. ^ Distinct from DeSoto. Clymer, p.178.
  79. ^ Offered an electric phaeton before 1916. Clymer, pp.38 & 205.
  80. ^ Distinct from Diamond T. Clymer, p.206.
  81. ^ Clymer, p.206. Tourist was a model.
  82. ^ a b Clymer, p.5.
  83. ^ Clymer, p.206. By Alberto Santos-Dumont
  84. ^ Clymer, p.206. Founder was later the author of Dyke's Automobile and Gasoline Engine Encyclopedia.
  85. ^ Conceived by Buckminster Fuller.
  86. ^ Built in Wisconsin, distinct from the Michigan company. Clymer, p.153.
  87. ^ Steam and electric cars, built in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  88. ^ Clymer, p.206. No connection to Eaton's.
  89. ^ Distinct from either of the two Economys. Clymer, p.206.
  90. ^ Clymer, p.38.
  91. ^ Clymer, p.206. No connection to Electric Launch Company.
  92. ^ Clymer, pp.23 & 207. Distinct from Elite.
  93. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch Clymer, p.207.
  94. ^ Clymer, p.170-1 & 207.
  95. ^ Built in Cincinnati, Ohio. Clymer, p.104.
  96. ^ Later Halladay or Streator, eventually Barley. Clymer, p.207.
  97. ^ Car and truck maker, based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  98. ^ Built in Chicago. Clymer, p.104.
  99. ^ Clymer, p.207. Not to be confused with the Fords.
  100. ^ Built in Newark, Ohio by Halladay
  101. ^ Built in Lewistown, Pennsylvania by Moller
  102. ^ Distinct from Federal steam automobile company. Clymer, p.207.
  103. ^ Clymer, p.207. Not to be confused with the header maker.
  104. ^ http://www.earlyamericanautomobiles.com/1904.htm
  105. ^ http://www.northfield.org/files/REGuide031908.pdf
  106. ^ Built in Cheboygan, Michigan, it weighed 900 pd and cost US$450. Clymer, p.166.
  107. ^ Distinct from the other one. Clymer, p.207.
  108. ^ An electric car. Clymer, p.40.
  109. ^ a b One of three companies by this name. Clymer, p.207.
  110. ^ Built in Massillon, Ohio; called their car the Jewel. Clymer, p.63.
  111. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 1289
  112. ^ Clymer, p.16.
  113. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 593
  114. ^ Built in Clintonville, Wisconsin, with four-wheel drive. Clymer, p.153.
  115. ^ a b Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  116. ^ Clymer, p.51.
  117. ^ Distinct from the steamer. Clymer, p.207.
  118. ^ Made by the multinational as experimental models.
  119. ^ Clymer, p.207. Distinct from the multinational
  120. ^ Gasoline and steam. Clymer, pp.23 & 190.
  121. ^ Flory, p.1016, credits them only for 1950.
  122. ^ Supposedly from Atlanta, Georgia. Clymer, p.207.
  123. ^ Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland 1916-1922. Clymer, p.190.
  124. ^ a b Clymer, p.178.
  125. ^ Clymer, pp.14 & 22.
  126. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 1447
  127. ^ One of two companies by this name. Clymer, p.207.
  128. ^ Truck maker, based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  129. ^ Clymer, pp.170 & 190.
  130. ^ No relation to the school. Clymer, p.170.
  131. ^ http://www.marion.lib.in.us/commhist/indtrucks/report.html
  132. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 652,761
  133. ^ Distinct from Hatfield Motor Vehicle Company and Hatfield Company (truck manufacturer). Kimes 1985, p. 682
  134. ^ An aircooled, built in Wisconsin, sold for US$2000. Clymer, p.23.
  135. ^ Clymer, p.112.
  136. ^ Clymer, p.207. Distinct from Hewitt-Lindstrom.
  137. ^ Steam and gasoline, based in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.23 & 190.
  138. ^ Distinct from the Australian company.
  139. ^ Clymer, p.207. Distinct from Holley.
  140. ^ Clymer, pp.170-1 & 207.
  141. ^ a b Clymer, pp.23 & 207.
  142. ^ a b Clymer, pp.5 & 23.
  143. ^ Clymer, pp.170 & 207.
  144. ^ no relation with Jackson car. Kimes 1985, p. 742
  145. ^ In Boston. Kimes 1985, pp. 769, 1407
  146. ^ a b In New York City. Kimes 1985, p. 769
  147. ^ Clymer, p.207; Kimes 1985, p. 769
  148. ^ In Toledo, Ohio. Clymer, p.23; Kimes 1985, p. 769
  149. ^ In Buffalo, New York. Kimes 1985, p. 769
  150. ^ a b Clymer, pp.18 & 23.
  151. ^ Built in Wisconsin. Clymer, pp.23 & 153.
  152. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de Clymer, p.208.
  153. ^ Clymer, p.208. Not to be confused with this one.
  154. ^ Also sold commercial vans of 1, 2, 3, & 6 tons. Clymer, p.53.
  155. ^ Clymer, p.131.
  156. ^ One of three companies by this name. Clymer, p.208.
  157. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 769
  158. ^ Flory, pp.1011-12.
  159. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 774
  160. ^ Based in Toledo, Ohio. Clymer, p.158.
  161. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 782
  162. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  163. ^ a b c Built in Wisconsin. Clymer, p.153.
  164. ^ Clymer, p.208. Electrette was a model.
  165. ^ Clymer, p.208. Distinct from LaSalle.
  166. ^ Distinct from Lewis Motocycle. Clymer, p.208.
  167. ^ a b c Horseless Age 1895.
  168. ^ A four-wheeler, despite the name. Clymer, p.8.
  169. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 828
  170. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 635
  171. ^ Before 1912, the cars were called Sears. Clymer, p.90.
  172. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 859–860
  173. ^ a b Kimes 1975, p. 1004
  174. ^ began with steam autos
  175. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Clymer, p.22.
  176. ^ Standard Catalogue of American Cars, p.890
  177. ^ Based in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 208.
  178. ^ Clymer, p.23. Distinct from Mason (automobile company).
  179. ^ Clymer, p.208. Distinct from Mason (steam automobile company).
  180. ^ Truck maker, Based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  181. ^ Built in Waterloo, Iowa. Clymer, p.93.
  182. ^ Clymer, p.84.
  183. ^ Built in Wisconsin by Joe Merkel, who later built the Merkel Motorcycle. Clymer, p.153.
  184. ^ Distinct from the steamer and the Ford division. Clymer, p.23.
  185. ^ Clymer, p.208. Distinct from the Nash
  186. ^ Built in Waltham, Massachusetts. Clymer, p.145.
  187. ^ Built in Moline, Illinois. Clymer, p.93.
  188. ^ Built in Racine, Wisconsin. Clymer, pp.36 & 153.
  189. ^ Clymer, p.57.
  190. ^ Clymer, p.208. One of two companies by this name, distinct from Moline-Knight.
  191. ^ Clymer, p.190.
  192. ^ Clymer, p.208. Not to be confused with Moggie.
  193. ^ Clymer, pp.22 & 208.
  194. ^ Lewis, Mary Beth. "Ten Best First Facts", in Car and Driver, 1/88, p.92.
  195. ^ Flory, p.1016, dates it to 1950.
  196. ^ Built in Traverse City, Michigan. Clymer, pp.170 & 178.
  197. ^ Not to be confused with the producers of the Ruxton.
  198. ^ Clymer, pp.170-1 & 208.
  199. ^ Often misspelled as Neilson (Clymer, p.208)
  200. ^ a b c Kimes 1975, p. 1003
  201. ^ Clymer, p.208. Not to be confused with the motorcycle.
  202. ^ Kimes 1975, p. 1005
  203. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds Clymer, p.209.
  204. ^ Built in Milwaukee. Clymer, p.153.
  205. ^ Catalog of American Cars 1805-1945 (1985), p.1013
  206. ^ Clymer, pp.170 & 209.
  207. ^ Based in Cleveland. Same as Ottoker? Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  208. ^ Based in Cleveland. Distinct from Owen Magnetic. Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  209. ^ built in Salem, Mass.; 1 gasoline & 2 electric cars Kimes 1985, p. 1063
  210. ^ Built in Indianapolis, Indiana. Clymer, p.102.
  211. ^ Built in Chicago. Clymer, p.151.
  212. ^ a b Standard Catalogue of American Cars, p.1125
  213. ^ Clymer, p.42.
  214. ^ a b c Standard Catalogue of American Cars, p.1126
  215. ^ Clymer, pp.6 & 153.
  216. ^ Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.5, 178, & 190.
  217. ^ Friction-drive, built in Wisconsin. Clymer, p.153.
  218. ^ Freund, Klaus, ed. (August 1981). Auto Katalog 1982 (in German) 25. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. p. 165. 
  219. ^ Based in Cleveland.Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  220. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from the GM division.
  221. ^ Clymer, pp.13 & 23.
  222. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Porter Motor Company.
  223. ^ Flory, p.1016. Distinct from Powell Manufacturing Company?
  224. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Randall (automobile company).
  225. ^ Distinct from the pickup. Clymer, p.209.
  226. ^ Cars & trucks, based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  227. ^ Clymer, p.149.
  228. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Reading Steamer.
  229. ^ Clymer, p.209. Said to be the cheapest car ever built.
  230. ^ Producer of four-axle Octoauto and twin rear axle Sextoauto in Columbus, Indiana. Clymer, p.122-4.
  231. ^ 1895 car produced by Remington Arms Company. Clymer, p.209.
  232. ^ Based in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  233. ^ Clymer, pp.22 & 209.
  234. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Rogers (steam automobile company) and Rogers (automobile company).
  235. ^ Clymer, pp.23 & 209.
  236. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Rogers Steamobile (automobile company). One of three companies by this name. Clymer, p.209.
  237. ^ Rolls Royce
  238. ^ Royal Princess was the gasoline-powered car.
  239. ^ a b Kimes (1985), p. 1273
  240. ^ Kimes (1985), p. 431
  241. ^ A tricycle. Clymer, p.8.
  242. ^ Clymer, p.209. Same as Dumont (automobile company); both names used without permission from Alberto Santos-Dumont?
  243. ^ Clymer, p.8.
  244. ^ Clymer, pp.90 & 209.
  245. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from the Chrysler.
  246. ^ Built in Buffalo, New York. Clymer, p.5.
  247. ^ Built by William H. Sharp. Clymer, p.88.
  248. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw Clymer, p.210.
  249. ^ Distinct from Spencer (steam automobile company). Clymer, p.210.
  250. ^ Distinct from Spencer (automobile company). Clymer, pp.23 & 210.
  251. ^ One of two companies with this name. Clymer, p.210.
  252. ^ Distinct from Stanley Motor Carriage Company. Clymer, p.210.
  253. ^ Clymer, p.210. Distinct from Stearns (automobile).
  254. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 512
  255. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 1351
  256. ^ One of three companies by this name. Clymer, p.210.
  257. ^ One of three companies by this name. Clymer, pp.23 & 210.
  258. ^ Originally Erie.
  259. ^ Production was continued in Canada until 1966.
  260. ^ Flory, p.1016. Fitting Cadillac V8s into Studebakers was common in the '50s, under the nickname Studillac, as well as into Fords as Fordillacs; it appears Flory has mistaken it.
  261. ^ Clymer, pp.38 & 210.
  262. ^ Clymer, p.210. Not to be confused with the Dodge, Plymouth, Studebaker, Nash Motors, Chevrolet, or GMC.
  263. ^ Clymer,p.52.
  264. ^ Clymer, p.210. Not to be confused with Summit Racing Equipment.
  265. ^ Clymer, p.190, locates them in Cleveland.
  266. ^ Clymer, pp.170 & 210.
  267. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 1417–1419
  268. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 1423–1424
  269. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 1463, 45
  270. ^ Clymer, p.22; Kimes 1985, pp. 769, 1472
  271. ^ Clymer, p.210. Not to be confused with the sportscar or the motorcycle.
  272. ^ Distinct from Victor (steam automobile company). Clymer, p.210.
  273. ^ Clymer, pp.23. Distinct from Victor (automobile company).
  274. ^ Kimes, Beverly R. (editor), and Clark, Henry A. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1945. Krause Publications, 1985. ISBN 0-87341-045-9. p 1455
  275. ^ Built in Painesville, Ohio. Clymer, p.135.
  276. ^ Detroit-based builder of "generic" cars without badges so dealers could badge them as desired. Clymer, p.146.
  277. ^ Clymer, p.210. Distinct from Ward (electric automobile company)
  278. ^ Clymer, p.210. Distinct from Ward (automobile company)
  279. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 1491
  280. ^ Built by Reo.
  281. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 1519
  282. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 1521

Sources[edit]

  • Automobile Quarterly (eds.). The American Car Since 1775. Kutztown, PA: Automobile Quarterly, Inc., 1971. ISBN 0-525-05300-X
  • Bird, Anthony and Douglas-Scott Montagu of Beaulieu, Edward: Steam Cars, 1770-1970, Littlehampton Book Services Ltd., 1971. ISBN 030493707X: ISBN 978-0304937073
  • Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877-1925. New York: Bonanza Books, 1950.
  • Clymer, Floyd and Gahagan, Harry W.: Floyd Clymer's Steam Car Scrapbook, Literary Licensing, LLC, 2012. ISBN 1258426994; ISBN 978-1258426996
  • Georgano, Nick (Ed.). The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000. ISBN 1-57958-293-1
  • Evans, Richard J.: Steam Cars (Shire Album), Shire Publications Ltd (booklet) 1985. ISBN 0852637748; ISBN 978-0852637746
  • Headfield, John: American Steam-Car Pioneers: A Scrapbook (1st edition). Newcomen Society in North, 1984. ISBN 9994065904; ISBN 978-9994065905
  • Kimes, Beverly R. (editor), and Clark, Henry A. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1945. Krause Publications, 1975. ISBN 0-87341-111-0
  • Kimes, Beverly R. (editor), and Clark, Henry A. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1945. Krause Publications, 1985. ISBN 0-87341-045-9
  • Kimes, Beverly R., and Clark, Henry A. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1942 (3rd edition). Iola, WI: Krause, 1996. ISBN 0-87341-428-4
  • Kirsch, David A.: The Electric Vehicle and the Burden of History. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick NJ and London, 2000. ISBN 0-8135-2809-7

See also[edit]