List of organisms by chromosome count

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This page lists the numbers of chromosomes in various plants, animals, protists, and other living organisms, given as the diploid number ("2n"), except as noted otherwise. This is not a comprehensive list, but instead should be seen as a cross-section of different groups.

Organism Group Scientific name Diploid number of chromosomes (2n = x), except as noted Notes
Ciliated protozoa Other eukaryotes Oxytricha trifallax 1,900x = ~30,000,000 [1][2] Macronuclear "nanochromosomes"; ampliploid.
Ciliated protozoa Other eukaryotes Tetrahymena thermophila 10 (in micronucleus) 50x = 12,500 (in macronucleus, except minichromosomes)
10,000x = 10,000 (macronuclear minichromosomes)[3]
Adders-tongue Plants Ophioglossum reticulatum 1260 [4] Number given is maximum, shows many variants.
Black Mulberry Plants Morus nigra 308 [5] In this case, the chromosome number is 22 times the basic number - this is known as docosaploid.
Agrodiaetus butterfly Animals Agrodiaetus shahrami 268 [6] This insect has one of the highest chromosome numbers among all multicellular animals.
Field Horsetail Plants Equisetum arvense 216
Rattlesnake fern Plants Botrypus virginianus 184[7]
Northern Lamprey Animals Petromyzontinae 174[1]
Carp Animals 104
Red viscacha rat Animals Tympanoctomys barrerae 102 [8] Highest number known in mammals, thought to be a tetraploid[9] or allotetraploid.[10]
Kamraj (fern) Plants Helminthostachys zeylanica 94
Aquatic Rat Animals Anotomys leander 92[11] Previously thought to be the highest number in mammals, tied with Ichthyomys pittieri.
Shrimp Animals Penaeus semisulcatus 86–92 [12]
Pittier's crab-eating rat Animals Ichthyomys pittieri 92[11] Previously thought to be the highest number in mammals, tied with Anotomys leander.
Grape fern Plants Sceptridium 90
Hedgehog Genus Atelerix (African hedgehogs) Animals 90
Moonworts Plants Botrychium 90
Hedgehog Genus Erinaceus (Woodland hedgehogs) Animals 88
Nagaho-no-natsu-no-hana-warabi Plants Botrypus strictus 88 B. strictus and B. virginianus have been shown to be paraphyletic in the genus Botrypus
Pigeon Animals Columbidae 80
Turkey Animals Meleagris 80[13]
African Wild Dog Animals Lycaon pictus 78[14]
Chicken Animals Gallus gallus domesticus 78
Coyote Animals Canis latrans 78[14]
Dhole Animals Cuon alpinus 78
Dingo Animals Canis lupus dingo 78[14]
Dog Animals Canis lupus familiaris 78[15] 76 autosomal and 2 sexual.[16]
Dove Animals Columbidae 78[17] Based on African collared dove
Golden Jackal Animals Canis aureus 78[14]
Wolf Animals Canis lupus 78
Maned Wolf Animals Chrysocyon brachyurus 76
American Black Bear Animals Ursus americanus 74
Asiatic Black Bear Animals Ursus thibetanus 74
Brown Bear Animals Ursus arctos 74
Polar Bear Animals Ursus maritimus 74
Sloth Bear Animals Melursus ursinus 74
Sun Bear Animals Helarctos malayanus 74
Bat-eared Fox Animals Otocyon megalotis 72[14]
Black nightshade Plants Solanum nigrum 72[18]
White-tailed deer Animals Odocoileus virginianus 70
Elk (Wapiti) Animals Cervus canadensis 68
Red Deer Animals Cervus elaphus 68
Gray Fox Animals Urocyon cinereoargenteus 66[14]
Raccoon Dog Animals Nyctereutes procyonoides 66 Some variation in the number of chromosomes between individuals [19]
Chinchilla Animals Chinchilla lanigera 64 [20]
Echidna Animals 63/64 63 (X1Y1X2Y2X3Y3X4Y4X5, male) and 64 (X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4X5X5, female)[21]
Fennec Fox Animals Vulpes zerda 64[14]
Horse Animals Equus ferus caballus 64
Spotted Skunk Animals Spilogale x 64
Mule Animals 63 semi-infertile (odd number of chromosomes - between donkey (62) and horse (64) makes meiosis much more difficult)
Donkey Animals Equus africanus asinus 62
Giraffe Animals Giraffa camelopardalis 62
Gypsy moth Animals 62
Bengal Fox Animals Vulpes bengalensis 60
American Bison Animals Bison bison 60
Cow Animals Bos primigenius 60
Goat Animals 60
Yak Animals 60
Woolly Mammoth Animals Mammuthus primigenius 58 extinct; tissue from a frozen carcass
Elephant Animals 56
Gaur Animals Bos gaurus 56
Capuchin Monkey Animals Cebus x 54[22]
Hyrax Animals Hyracoidea 54[23] Hyraxes are considered to be the closest living relative to the Elephant.[24]
Sheep Animals 54
Silkworm Animals Bombyx mori 54
Cotton Plants Gossypium hirsutum 52[25] 2n=4x; Cultivated upland cotton is derived from an allotetraploid
Platypus Animals Ornithorhynchus anatinus 52 [26] Ten sex chromosomes.
Spectacled Bear Animals Tremarctos ornatus 52
Kit Fox Animals 50
Pineapple Plants Ananas comosus 50[25]
Striped skunk Animals Mephitis mephitis 50
Water Buffalo (swamp type) Animals Bubalus bubalis 50
Zebrafish Animals Danio rerio 50[27]
Beaver (Eurasian) Animals Castor fiber 48
Chimpanzee Animals Pan troglodytes 48[28]
Deer Mouse Animals Peromyscus maniculatus 48
Gorilla Animals Gorilla 48
Hare[29][30] Animals Lepus 48
Orangutan Animals Pongo x 48
Potato Plants Solanum tuberosum 48[25] This is a tetraploid; wild relatives mostly have 2n=24.[25]
Tobacco Plants Nicotiana tabacum 48[25] Cultivated species is a tetraploid.[25]
Water Buffalo (river type) Animals Bubalus bubalis 48
Human Animals Homo sapiens 46[31] 44 autosomal and 2 sex
Reeves's Muntjac Animals Muntiacus reevesi 46
Sable Antelope Animals Hippotragus niger 46
Dolphin Animals Delphinidae Delphis 44
Eurasian Badger Animals Meles meles 44
Rabbit Animals Lepus curpaeums 44
Fossa Animals Cryptoprocta ferox 42
Giant Panda Animals Ailuropoda melanoleuca 42
Oats Plants Avena sativa 42[25] This is a hexaploid with 2n=6x=42. Diploid and tetraploid cultivated species also exist.[25]
Raccoon Dog Animals Nyctereutes viverrinus 42 some sources say sub-species differ with 38, 54, and even 56 chromosomes
Rat Animals Rattus norvegicus 42 [32]
Rhesus Monkey Animals 42[33]
Wheat Plants Triticum aestivum 42[25] This is a hexaploid with 2n=6x=42. Durum wheat is Triticum turgidum var. durum, and is a tetraploid with 2n=4x=28.[25]
Wolverine Animals Gulo gulo 42
Beaver (American) Animals Castor canadensis 40
European Polecat Animals Mustela putorius 40
Ferret Animals Mustela putorius furo 40
Hyena Animals 40
Mango Plants Mangifera indica 40[25]
Mouse Animals Mus musculus 40[34]
Trans-Pecos Ratsnake Animals Bogertophis subocularis 40[35]
American Marten Animals Martes americana 38
Baja California Ratsnake Animals Bogertophis rosaliae 38[36]
Beech Marten Animals Martes foina 38
Cat Animals Felis catus 38
Coatimundi Animals 38
European Mink Animals Mustela lutreola 38
Fisher Animals 38 a type of marten
Lion Animals Panthera leo 38
Oriental Small-clawed Otter Animals Aonyx cinerea 38
Pig Animals Sus 38
Pine Marten Animals Martes martes 38
Raccoon Animals Procyon lotor 38[37]
Sable Animals Martes zibellina 38
Sea Otter Animals Enhydra lutris 38
Tanuki/Raccoon Dog Animals Nyctereutes procyonoides albus 38
Tiger Animals Panthera tigris 38
Earthworm Animals Lumbricus terrestris 36
Long-nosed Cusimanse (a type of mongoose) Animals 36
Meerkat Animals Suricata suricatta 36
Red Panda Animals Ailurus fulgens 36
Starfish Animals Asteroidea 36
Tibetan sand fox Animals Vulpes ferrilata 36
Yellow Mongoose Animals Cynictis penicillata 36
Porcupine Animals Erethizon dorsatum 34 [20]
Red Fox Animals Vulpes vulpes 34[14] Plus 3-5 microsomes.
Alfalfa Plants Medicago sativa 32[25] Cultivated alfalfa is tetraploid, with 2n=4x=32. Wild relatives have 2n=16.[25]
American Badger Animals Taxidea taxus 32
European honey bee Animals Apis mellifera 32 32 for females, males are haploid and thus have 16.
Yeast Other eukaryotes Saccharomyces cerivisiae 32
American Mink Animals Neovison vison 30
Pill millipede Animals Arthrosphaera magna attems 30 [38]
Bittersweet nightshade Plants Solanum dulcamara 24[39][40]
Husk Tomato Plants Physalis pubescens 24[41]
Silverleaf nightshade Plants Solanum elaeagnifolium 24[42]
Rice Plants Oryza sativa 24[25]
Snail Animals 24
Bean Plants Phaseolus sp. 22[25] All species in the genus have the same chromosome number, including P. vulgaris, P. coccineus, P. acutifolis,and P. lunatus.[25]
Virginia Opossum Animals Didelphis virginiana 22[43]
Cannabis Plants Cannabis sativa 20
Maize Plants Zea mays 20[25]
Cabbage Plants Brassica oleracea 18[25] Broccoli, cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, brussels sprouts, and cauliflower are all the same species and have the same chromosome number.[25]
Radish Plants Raphanus sativus 18[25]
Kangaroo Animals 16 This includes several members genus Macropus, but not the red kangaroo (M. rufus, 20)[44]
Koala Animals Phascolarctos cinereus 16
Barley Plants Hordeum vulgare 14[25]
Pea Plants Pisum sativum 14[25]
Rye Plants Secale cereale 14[25]
Tasmanian devil Animals Sarcophilus harrisii 14
Slime mold Other eukaryotes Dictyostelium discoideum 12 [45]
Swamp wallaby Animals Wallabia bicolor 10/11 11 for male, 10 for female[46]
Nematode Animals Caenorhabditis elegans 12/11 12 for hermaphrodites, 11 for males
Thale Cress Plants Arabidopsis thaliana 10
Fruit fly Animals Drosophila melanogaster 8[47] 6 autosomal, and 2 sexual
Hawkweed Plants 8
Indian muntjac Animals Muntiacus muntjak 6/7[48] female/male
Mosquito Animals Aedes aegypti 6[49] The 2n=6 chromosome number is conserved in the entire family Culicidae, except in Chagasia bathana which has 2n=8.[49]
Spider mite Animals 4–14[50] Spider mites (family Tetranychidae) are typically haplodiploidy (males are haploid, while females are diploid)[50]
Jack jumper ant Animals Myrmecia pilosula 2[51] 2 for females, males are haploid and thus have 1; smallest number possible. Other ant species have more chromosomes.[51]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Estienne C. Swart,John R. Bracht,Vincent Magrini,Patrick Minx,Xiao Chen,Yi Zhou,Jaspreet S. Khurana,Aaron D. Goldman,Mariusz Nowacki,Klaas Schotanus,Seolkyoung Jung,Robert S. Fulton,Amy Ly,Sean McGrath,Kevin Haub,Jessica L. Wiggins,Donna Storton,John C. Matese,Lance Parsons,Wei-Jen Chang,Michael S. Bowen,Nicholas A. Stover,Thomas A. Jones,Sean R. Eddy,Glenn A. Herrick,Thomas G. Doak,Richard K. Wilson,Elaine R. Mardis,Laura F. Landweber (2013-01-29). "The Oxytricha trifallax Macronuclear Genome: A Complex Eukaryotic Genome with 16,000 Tiny Chromosomes". PLOS. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001473. Retrieved 2014-04-29. 
  2. ^ "You Have 46 Chromosomes. This Pond Creature Has 15,600", National Geographic, [1].
  3. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3746294/
  4. ^ Gerardus J. H. Grubben (2004). Vegetables. PROTA. p. 404. ISBN 978-90-5782-147-9. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  5. ^ Kichisaburō Minamizawa (1997). Moriculture. CRC Press. p. 170. ISBN 9789054102878. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  6. ^ Lukhtanov et al. (2005). "Reinforcement of pre-zygotic isolation and karyotype evolution in Agrodiaetus butterflies". Nature 436 (3704): 385–389. doi:10.1038/nature03704. 
  7. ^ Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds (1993). "Flora of North America". Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. Retrieved 2012-01-06. 
  8. ^ Contreras LC, Torres-Mura JC, Spotorno AE (1990). "The largest known chromosome number for a mammal, in a South American desert rodent". Experientia 46 (5): 506–508. doi:10.1007/BF01954248. PMID 2347403. 
  9. ^ Gallardo MH, Bickham JW, Honeycutt RL, Ojeda RA, Köhler N (1999). "Discovery of tetraploidy in a mammal". Nature 401 (6751): 341. Bibcode:1999Natur.401..341G. doi:10.1038/43815. 
  10. ^ Gallardo, M.H.; González, CA; Cebrián, I (2006), "Molecular cytogenetics and allotetraploidy in the red vizcacha rat, Tympanoctomys barrerae (Rodentia, Octodontidae)", Genomics (August 2006) 88 (2): 214–221, doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2006.02.010, PMID 16580173, retrieved 21 August 2014 
  11. ^ a b Schmid, M.; Fernández-Badillo, A.; Feichtinger, W.; Steinlein, C.; Roman, J.I. (1988). "On the highest chromosome number in mammals". Cytogenetics and Genome Research 49 (4): 305–8. doi:10.1159/000132683. PMID 3073914. 
  12. ^ Hosseini S-J, Elahi E, Raie RM (2004). "The Chromosome Number of the Persian Gulf Shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus". Iranian Int. J. Sci 5 (1): 13–23. 
  13. ^ Muhammad L Aslam, John WM Bastiaansen, Richard PMA Crooijmans, Addie Vereijken, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Martien AM Groenen. "A SNP based linkage map of the turkey genome reveals multiple intrachromosomal rearrangements between the Turkey and Chicken genomes". BMC Genomics. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Hoffmann, Michael J.; Dave Mech (2004). Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. World Conservation Union. ISBN 2-8317-0786-2. [page needed]
  15. ^ Lindblad-Toh K, Wade CM, Mikkelsen TS, et al. (December 2005). "Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog". Nature 438 (7069): 803–19. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..803L. doi:10.1038/nature04338. PMID 16341006. 
  16. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/guide/dog/
  17. ^ Guttenbach M, Nanda I, Feichtinger W, Masabanda JS, Griffin DK, Schmid M (2003). "Comparative chromosome painting of chicken autosomal paints 1-9 in nine different bird species". Cytogenetics and Genome Research 103 (1-2): 173–84. doi:10.1159/000076309. PMID 15004483. 
  18. ^ Smith, Hugh (1927). "Chromosome counts in the varieties of Solanum tuberosum and allied wild species". Genetics 12: 84–92. 
  19. ^ Måkinen, Auli (1986). "A chromosome-banding study in the Finnish and the Japanese raccoon dog". Hereditas 105. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5223.1986.tb00647.x. 
  20. ^ a b http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=3180kk1kk0873012&size=largest
  21. ^ Rens, W., et al (2007). "The multiple sex chromosomes of platypus and echidna are not completely identical and several share homology with the avian Z". Genome Biology 8 (11): R243. doi:10.1186/gb-2007-8-11-r243. PMC 2258203. PMID 18021405. 
  22. ^ Barnabe, Renato Campanarut; Guimarães, Marcelo Alcindo de Barros Vaz; Oliveira, CláUdio Alvarenga de; Barnabe, Alexandre Hyppolito (2002). "Analysis of some normal parameters of the spermiogram of captive capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella Linnaeus, 1758 )". Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 39. doi:10.1590/S1413-95962002000600010. 
  23. ^ O'Brien, Stephen J., Meninger, Joan C., Nash, William G. (2006). Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. John Wiley & sons. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-471-35015-6. 
  24. ^ "Hyrax: The Little Brother of the Elephant", Wildlife on One, BBC TV.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Simmonds, NW (ed.) (1976). Evolution of crop plants. New York: Longman. ISBN 0-582-44496-9. [page needed]
  26. ^ Warren et al. (2008). "Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution". Nature 453 (7192). Bibcode:2008Natur.453..175W. doi:10.1038/nature06936. PMC 2803040. PMID 18464734. 
  27. ^ http://genome.cshlp.org/content/10/12/1890.long
  28. ^ Young WJ, Merz T, Ferguson-Smith MA, Johnston AW (June 1960). "Chromosome number of the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes". Science 131 (3414): 1672–3. Bibcode:1960Sci...131.1672Y. doi:10.1126/science.131.3414.1672. PMID 13846659. 
  29. ^ T.J. Robinson, F. Yang, W.R. Harrison (2002). "Chromosome painting refines the history of genome evolution in hares and rabbits (order Lagomorpha)". Cytogenics and Genetic Research 96 (1-4): 223–227. doi:10.1159/000063034. PMID 12438803. 
  30. ^ "Rabbits, Hares and Pikas. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan". pp. 61–94.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  31. ^ "Human Genome Project". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  32. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/GCF_000001895.5
  33. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2267682/
  34. ^ The Jackson Laboratory: Mice with chromosomal aberrations.
  35. ^ [2]: Chromosomes of Elaphe subocularis (Reptilia: Serpentes), with the description of an in vivo technique for preparation of snake chromosomes.
  36. ^ [3]: Mengden, Greg. 1985. In Dowling, H.G. and. RM. Price. 1988. A proposed new genus for Elaphe subocularis and Elaphe rosaliae. The Snake 20(1): 53, 61.
  37. ^ Perelman PL, Graphodatsky AS, Dragoo JW, Serdyukova NA, Stone G, Cavagna P, Menotti A, Nie W, O'Brien PC, Wang J, Burkett S, Yuki K, Roelke ME, O'Brien SJ, Yang F, Stanyon R (2008). "Chromosome painting shows that skunks (Mephitidae, Carnivora) have highly rearranged karyotypes". Chromosome Res. 16 (8): 1215–31. doi:10.1007/s10577-008-1270-2. PMID 19051045. 
  38. ^ Achar, K.P. (1986). "Analysis of male meiosis in seven species of Indian pill-millipede". Caryologia (39): 89–101. 
  39. ^ Abrams, L. (1951). Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States. Volume 3. Stanford University Press. p. 866. 
  40. ^ Stance, C. (1997). New Flora of the British Isles. Second Edition. Cambridge, UK. p. 1130. 
  41. ^ Liang, X; Bing, W. (April 2004). "[Karyotype analysis of Physalis pubescens chromosome](article in Chinese)". Zhong Yao Cai. 27 (4): 238–239. 
  42. ^ Heiser, Charles B.; Whitaker, Thomas W. (1948). "Chromosome Number, Polyploidy, and Growth Habit in California Weeds". American Journal of Botany 35 (3): 179–186. doi:10.2307/2438241. 
  43. ^ Biggers JD, Fritz HI, Hare WC, McFeely RA (June 1965). "Chromosomes of American Marsupials". Science 148 (3677): 1602–3. Bibcode:1965Sci...148.1602B. doi:10.1126/science.148.3677.1602. PMID 14287602. 
  44. ^ Rofe, R. H. (December 1978). "G-banded chromosomes and the evolution of macropodidae". Australian mammology 2: 50–63. ISSN 0310-0049. Retrieved July 15, 2011. 
  45. ^ "First of six chromosomes sequenced in Dictyostelium discoideum". Genome News Network. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  46. ^ Toder (Jun 1997). "Comparative chromosome painting between two marsupials: origins of an XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system.". Mammalian Genome 8 (6): 418–22. doi:10.1007/s003359900459. PMID 9166586. 
  47. ^ "Drosophila Genome Project". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2009-04-14. 
  48. ^ Wurster, Doris H. and Kurt Benirschke (12 June 1970). "Indian Momtjac, Muntiacus muntiak: A Deer with a Low Diploid Chromosome Number". Science 168 (3937): 1364–1366. Bibcode:1970Sci...168.1364W. doi:10.1126/science.168.3937.1364. PMID 5444269. 
  49. ^ a b Francesco Giannelli; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Friedmann, Theodore (1999). Advances in Genetics, Volume 41 (Advances in Genetics). Boston: Academic Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-12-017641-6. 
  50. ^ a b Helle, W.; Bolland, H. R.; Gutierrez, J. (1972). "Minimal chromosome number in false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae)". Experientia 28 (6): 707. doi:10.1007/BF01944992. 
  51. ^ a b Crosland, M.W.J., Crozier, R.H. (1986). "Myrmecia pilosula, an ant with only one pair of chromosomes". Science 231 (4743): 1278. Bibcode:1986Sci...231.1278C. doi:10.1126/science.231.4743.1278. PMID 17839565. 

External links/sources[edit]