Italian Armed Forces
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2013)|
|Italian Armed Forces
Forze Armate Italiane
Coat of Arms of the Italian Defence Staff
|Founded||4 May 1861|
|Service branches||Esercito Italiano (Army)
Marina Militare (Navy)
Aeronautica Militare (Air Force)
Arma dei Carabinieri (Gendarmerie)
|Minister of Defence||Mario Mauro|
|Chief of Defence||General Biagio Abrate|
|Military age||18 years of age|
|Conscription||voluntary (since 2003)|
|13,791,260 aged 15-59, age 15–49 (2012)|
|10,963,513, age 15–49 (2012)|
|Active personnel||350,000 active personnel
|Budget||€ 14.5 billion (FY 2013)|
|Percent of GDP||1.2% (2013)|
SELEX Sistemi Integrati
|Foreign suppliers|| European Union
|Annual imports|| Japan
€1,168 mil. (2009)
|History||Military history of Italy
|Ranks||Italian Army ranks
Italian Navy ranks
Italian Air Force ranks
The Italian Armed Forces (italian: Forze Armate Italiane) encompass the Italian Army, the Italian Navy and the Italian Air Force. A fourth branch of the armed forces, known as the Carabinieri, take on the role as the nation's military and territorial police force. The President of the Italian Republic heads the armed forces as the President of the Supreme Council of Defence. As of 2012, the total number of active military personnel is 183,000, with an additional 109,499 personnel of the Carabinieri. Italy currently maintains the eleventh highest military budget in the world.
Article 11 of the Constitution of Italy says:
Italy rejects war as an instrument of aggression against the freedom of other peoples and as a means for the settlement of international disputes. Italy agrees, on conditions of equality with other States, to the limitations of sovereignty that may be necessary to a world order ensuring peace and justice among the Nations. Italy promotes and encourages international organisations furthering such ends.
Article 52 says:
The defence of the country is a sacred duty for every citizen. Military service is obligatory within the limits and in the manner set by law. Its fulfilment shall not prejudice a citizen’s job, nor the exercise of political rights. The organisation of the armed forces shall be based on the democratic spirit of the Republic.
And part of article 87 says:
The President [of the Republic] is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, shall preside over the Supreme Council of Defence established by law, and shall make declarations of war as have been agreed by Parliament.
Branches of the Italian Armed Forces
It is the Army (ground force) of the Italian Republic. The Army's history dates back to the unification of Italy in the 1850s and 1860s. It fought in colonial engagements in China, Libya (1911-1912), northern Italy against the Austro-Hungarian Empire during World War I, Abyssinia before World War II, and in World War II in Albania, Greece, north Africa, Russia and Italy itself. During the Cold War the Army prepared itself to defend against a Warsaw Pact invasion from the east. Since the end of the Cold War it has seen extensive peacekeeping service and combat in Afghanistan and Iraq. In July 29, 2004 it became a professional all-volunteer force when conscription was finally ended.
It is the air force of Italy, founded as an independent service arm on March 28, 1923, by King Vittorio Emanuele III as the Regia Aeronautica (which equates to "Royal Air Force"). After World War II, when Italy was made a republic by referendum, the Regia Aeronautica was given its current name.
It is the Navy of Italy, created in 1946 as the Navy of the Italian Republic from the Regia Marina. In modern times, the Marina Militare, being a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), has taken part in many coalition peacekeeping operations. The Guardia Costiera is a component of the Marina Militare.
It is the gendarmerie and military police of Italy. At the Sea Islands Conference of the G8 in 2004, the Carabinieri were given the mandate to establish a Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units (CoESPU) to spearhead the development of training and doctrinal standards for civilian police units attached to international peacekeeping missions.
NATO membership and UN missions
Italy has worked closely with the United States and others on such issues as NATO and UN operations as well as with assistance to Russia and the other CIS nations, Middle East peace process, multilateral talks, Somalia and Mozambique peacekeeping, and combating drug trafficking, trafficking in women and children, and terrorism.
Under long-standing bilateral agreements flowing from NATO membership, Italy hosts important U.S. military forces at Vicenza – home of 173d Airborne Brigade – and Livorno (USA); Aviano (USAF); and Sigonella, Nisida, and Gaeta – home port for the U.S. Navy Sixth Fleet. The United States has about 16,000 military personnel stationed in Italy. Italy hosts the NATO Defence College at Cecchignola, near Rome. Italy did take part in the 1990–91 Gulf War but solely through the deployment of eight Italian Air Force Panavia Tornado IDS bomber jets to Saudi Arabia; Italian Army troops were subsequently deployed to assist Kurdish refugees in northern Iraq following the conflict.
As part of Operation Enduring Freedom in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks, Italy contributed to the international operation in Afghanistan. Italian forces have contributed to ISAF, the NATO force in Afghanistan, and a Provincial reconstruction team and five Italian soldiers have died under ISAF. Italy has sent 411 troops, based on one infantry company from the 2nd Alpini Regiment tasked to protect the ISAF HQ, one engineer company, one NBC platoon, one logistic unit, as well as liaison and staff elements integrated into the operation chain of command. Italian forces also command a multinational engineer task force and have deployed a platoon of Italian military police. Three AB 212 helicopters also were deployed to Kabul and four Tornado.
The Italian Army did not take part in combat operations of the 2003 Second Gulf War, dispatching troops only after May 1, 2003 – when major combat operations were declared over by the U.S. President George W. Bush. Subsequently Italian troops arrived in the late summer of 2003, and began patrolling Nasiriyah and the surrounding area. On 26 May 2006, Italian foreign minister Massimo D'Alema announced that the Italian forces would be reduced to 1,600 by June; Italian participation in the military operations in Iraq was concluded by the end of 2006, with full withdrawal of Italian military personnel except for a small group of about 30 soldiers engaged in providing security for the Italian embassy in Baghdad, and about 87 soldiers stationing in bases in the Persian Gulf (but not in Iraqi territory). As of June 2006 32 Italian troops have been killed in Iraq – with the greatest single loss of life coming on November 12, 2003 – a suicide car bombing of the Italian Carabinieri Corps HQ left a dozen Carabinieri, five Army soldiers, two Italian civilians, and eight Iraqi civilians dead.
Since the second post-war the Italian armed force has become more and more engaged in international peace support operations, mainly under the auspices of the United Nations. The Italian armed forces are currently participating in 23 missions.
- United Nations
- UNMOGIP, from 1951 (India and Pakistan) – 4 out of 38 soldiers from 8 countries
- UNTSO, from 1958 (Israel, Egypt, Syria and Lebanon) – 8 out of 145 soldiers from 23 countries
- UNIFIL, from 1978 (Lebanon) – 1,100 out of 12,056 soldiers from 36 countries
- MINURSO, from 1991 (Western Sahara) – 5 out of 237 soldiers from 29 countries
- UNFICYP, from 2005 (Cyprus) – 4 out of 918 soldiers from 20 countries
- UNAMID, from 2008 (Sudan) – 3 out of 23,129 soldiers from 51 countries
- European Union
- EUPM, from 2003 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) – 3 out of 490 soldiers from 33 countries
- EUFOR Althea, from 2004 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) – 5 out of 2,150 soldiers from 25 countries
- EUBAM Rafah, from 2005 (Rafah Border Crossing) – 1 out of 22 soldiers from 9 countries
- EUMM Georgia, from 2008 (Georgia, South Ossetia and Abkhazia) – 15 out of 370 soldiers from 26 countries
- EUTM Somalia, from 2010 (Somalia) – 11 soldiers
- Operation Atalanta, from 2008 (Gulf of Aden) – 8 soldiers
- KFOR, from 1999 (Kosovo) – 670 out of 5,500 soldiers from 30 countries
- ISAF, from 2001 (Afghanistan) – 4,250 out of 130,670 soldiers from 49 countries
- NATO HQ – Skopjie, from 2002 (Macedonia) – 1 out of 12 officers from 7 countries
- NATO HQ – Sarajevo, from 2004 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) – 2 out of 42 officers from 10 countries
- Operation Active Endeavour, from 2001 (Mediterranean and Strait of Gibraltar) – 17 soldiers
- Operation Ocean Shield, from 2009 (Gulf of Aden) – 240 soldiers
- Multinational force
- International cooperation and technical assistance
Ranks and badges
|Corpi dello Stato italiano||Esercito Italiano||Marina Militare||Aeronautica Militare||Arma dei Carabinieri||Guardia di Finanza||Polizia di Stato||Polizia Penitenziaria||Corpo Forestale dello Stato||Corpo Nazionale dei Vigili del Fuoco|
|Under the authority of||Ministry of Defense||Ministry of Defense||Ministry of Defense||Ministry of Defense||Ministry of Economy and finance||Ministry of interior||Ministry of justice||Ministry of Agriculture, Food and forestal||Ministry of interior|
|Codici NATO||Ufficiali generali e corrispettivi|
|OF-8||||||||comandante generale||comandante generale|
generale di corpo d'armata
ammiraglio di squadra
(ammiraglio ispettore capo)
generale di squadra aerea
(generale ispettore capo)
vice comandante generale
comandante in seconda
capo del corpo
generale di divisione
ammiraglio di divisione
generale di divisione aerea
generale di brigata
generale di brigata aerea
|Ufficiali superiori e corrispettivi|
|OF-5||colonnello||capitano di vascello||primo dirigente|
|OF-4||tenente colonnello||capitano di fregata||vice questore aggiunto||direttore vice dirigente|
|OF-3||maggiore||capitano di corvetta|
|Ufficiali inferiori e corrispettivi|
primo tenente di vascello
tenente di vascello
|Ufficiali subalterni e corrispettivi|
|OF-1||tenente||sottotenente di vascello||
r.o. / r.d.s.
r.o. / r.d.s.
ruolo direttivo speciale
|Nessun grado corrispettivo|
|Codici NATO||Esercito Italiano||Marina Militare||Aeronautica Militare||Arma dei Carabinieri||Guardia di Finanza||Polizia di Stato||Polizia Penitenziaria||Corpo Forestale dello Stato||Corpo Nazionale dei Vigili del Fuoco|
Non-commissioned officers (inspectors and superintendents) and fees
Template: See also in the Carabinieri Corps, the Guardia di Finanza and the police force of the state to civil order, the non-commissioned officers is replaced by the role of surveyors and supervisors role, but represent two distinct categories.
The codes range from NATO OR-8 and OR-9 for inspectors and OR-5 to OR-7 for superintendents.
Degrees and qualifications of the class
NB For the Body of the Fire Brigade were introduced, with DMInterno 10/02/2012, the new grades shoulder, more in line with those of other military state. Those reported here for the qualifications above department head shall remain valid but as degrees wrist uniform representation.
Category of graded, the category of enlisted men and fees
Template: See also The troop is the lowest category in the hierarchy Italian military and until the entry into force of Legislative Decree no. # 66 of 15 March 2010 contained the volunteers in service learning (VSP), which instead are now part the "category of graded", while volunteers in firm fixed (VFP), students and military service are part of the "class of enlisted men." The military service, suspended from 1 January 2005, can be restored in the event of war or serious international crisis as well as the provisions of Article .1929 D.Lgs.66/2010.
There are two types of volunteers in fixed stops, the VFP1 (volunteer stops in 1 year) and VFP4 (volunteer stops in 4 years). VFP4 can become a military VFP1 who completed the stale and, of course, has exceeded the competition to become VFP4. In turn: VSP can become a military VFP4 who completed the stale and, of course, is eligible to become a VSP. A soldier can then become VSP, passing by the firm voluntary service permanently, after at least 5 years of service.
The categories of stops in certain of the Italian armed forces have changed over time various names, including Volunteer in Stop Overexposure (VFP), in Stops Annual Volunteer (VFA) and Volunteer in Short Stop (VFB), now deleted.
In the Carabinieri Corps and the Guardia di Finanza, the graduates are respectively replaced by the role and the role of police pinned and pinned and financiers.
In the police force of the State civil graduates are replaced by the role of agents and assistants.
The degrees of the categories of graduates, the police and pinned, the pinned and financiers, agents and assistants, are all identified with the NATO code OR-4, while the titles of rank are enclosed in separate NATO codes (OR-1, OR -2 and OR-3) and are currently used only in the Army, Navy and Air Force.
Degrees and qualifications of the categories
- (Italian) Rapporto annuale 2009 in materia di controllo del transito dei materiali d’armamento. Presidency of the Council of Ministers, 29 March 2010.
- IISS 2010, pp. 141-145
- G-8 Action Plan: Expanding global capability for peace support operations. Carabinieri, June 2004.
- (Italian) Stato di previsione per la Difesa per l’anno 2012. Italian Ministry of Defence, April 2012.
- Grado riservato al militare nominato capo di stato maggiore della difesa.
- Grado riservato al Capo di stato maggiore dell'esercito
- Grado riservato al:
- Grado riservato al capo di stato maggiore dell'aeronautica
- La controspallina della qualifica di commissario del ruolo ordinario della Polizia di Stato, è indossata esclusivamente dai soli frequentatori del corso di formazione presso la Scuola Superiore di Polizia, ovvero, dall'inizio del 1º anno, detto 1° ciclo, previo superamento del giudizio di idoneità, fino alla fine del 2º anno, o 2° ciclo, ovvero all'esame finale del corso di formazione. I commissari che abbiano superato l'esame finale e che, anche in relazione agli esiti del tirocinio operativo, siano stati dichiarati idonei al servizio di Polizia, sono confermati nel ruolo dei commissari con qualifica di commissario capo, secondo l´ordine della graduatoria di fine corso.
- Questa controspallina della qualifica di commissario del ruolo direttivo speciale della Polizia di Stato, è indossata esclusivamente dai vincitori del concorso interno per commissari riservato agli appartenenti del ruolo di ispettori superiori. Cfr. decreto legislativo 5 ottobre 2000, n.334.
- La controspallina della qualifica di commissario del ruolo ordinario del Corpo forestale dello Stato, è indossata esclusivamente dai soli frequentatori del corso di formazione presso la Scuola Superiore di Polizia, ovvero, dall'inizio del 1º anno, detto 1° ciclo, previa superamento del giudizio di idoneità, fino alla fine del 2º anno, o 2° ciclo, ovvero all'esame finale del corso di formazione. I commissari che abbiano superato l'esame finale e che, anche in relazione agli esiti del tirocinio operativo, siano stati dichiarati idonei al servizio, sono confermati nel ruolo dei commissari con qualifica di commissario capo, secondo l'ordine della graduatoria di fine corso.
- Questa controspallina della qualifica di commissario del ruolo direttivo speciale del Corpo forestale dello Stato, è indossata esclusivamente dai vincitori del concorso interno per commissari riservato agli appartenenti del ruolo di ispettori superiori..
- La qualifica di vice commissario abolita per il ruolo ordinario, è rimasta per quella del ruolo direttivo speciale riservato agli ispettori superiori, qualifica che si ricopre durante il corso di formazione.
- sostituto ufficiale di pubblica sicurezza
- Per il personale Volontario del C.N.V.V.F. il grado corrisponde a quello di Tecnico Antincendi e viene riportata la dicitura volontario alla base del grado
- Per il personale Volontario del C.N.V.V.F. viene riportata la dicitura volontario alla base del grado
- Esiste anche una versione della spallina con una placca vuota simile a quella di agente scelto, ma senza alcun grado
- Italian rank insignia
- (Italian) Official Site of Italian Ministry of Defense
- (Italian) Official Site of Italian Army
- (Italian) Official Site of Italian Navy
- (Italian) Official Site of Italian Air Force
- (Italian) Official Site of Carabinieri