Women in Italy
Sophia Loren, one of Italy's best known actresses
|Gender Inequality Index|
|Maternal mortality (per 100,000)||4 (2010)|
|Women in parliament||31.4% (2013) |
|Females over 25 with secondary education||68.0% (2010)|
|Women in labour force||37.9% (2011)|
|Global Gender Gap Index|
|Rank||71st out of 136|
For the Roman period, see Women in Ancient Rome.
|Women in society|
There were some distinguished women in Italy before the 1950s, such as Elena Piscopia (the world's first female laureate), Maria Gaetana Agnesi (scholar, mathematician and philosopher) and Maria Montessori (educator).
Today women have equal rights as men, and have mainly the same job, business and education opportunities.
Women in Italy tend to have highly favourable results and mainly excel in secondary and tertiary education. Ever since the Italian economic miracle, women's literacy rate and university enrollment has gone up dramatically in Italy. Women in Italy have a 98% literacy rate, have a basic education and often go to university. 60% of Italian university graduates are female, and women are excellently represented in all academic subjects, including mathematics, information technology and other technological areas which are usually occupied by males.
Female standards at work are generally of a high quality and professional, but is not as excelling as in their education. The probability of a woman getting employed is mainly related to her qualifications, and 80% of women who graduate university go to look for jobs. Women in Italy face a number of challenges. Though gender roles are not as strict as they have been in the past sexual and domestic abuse in Italy is still quite prevalent in Italy. On average women do 3.7 hours more housework than men. Less than half of the parliament is made up of women. Additionally, women in Italy are not adequately represented in the workforce as Italy has one of the lowest rates of employment for women of the countries within the European Union (only 46% of women have jobs). Only 22% of women graduate with a job and are still frequently expected to stay at home and care for the house and children as opposed to earning a salary of becoming a breadwinner and only 5% of senior managerial positions are held by women. Furthermore, there are unequal standards and expectations for the few women who are actually make it into a professional setting. For example, 9% of working Italian mothers have been fired due to pregnancy. Critics say that the existing legislation is adequate and fair but the social climate still does not reflect full equality nor does it protect against abuse. Italian lawmakers are working to further protect and support women as they break gender stereotypes and join the workforce but complete cultural change will take time.
Culture and society
There is, today, a growing acceptance of women, and people (especially in the North) tend to be far more liberal towards women getting jobs, going to university and doing stereotypically male things. However, in some parts of society, women are still stereotyped as being simply housewives and mothers, also reflected in the fact of a higher-than-EU average female unemployment.
- "The Global Gender Gap Report 2013". World Economic Forum. pp. 12–13.
- http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/19/world/europe/a-call-for-aid-not-laws-to-help-women-in-italy.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HXxZrf6FIwY https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condizione_economica_femminile https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feminism_in_Italy http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7337145.stm http://online.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304073204579171840922681228
- Sud Italia, questo non è un Paese per donne. 20/02/2012. Eilmensile.it. access:14/09/2014.
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