Murrumbidgee River

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Coordinates: 34°43′43″S 143°13′8″E / 34.72861°S 143.21889°E / -34.72861; 143.21889
Murrumbidgee River
Major perennial river
Murrumbidgee River - October 2008.jpg
Murrumbidgee River at Wagga Wagga
Name origin: Aboriginal Wiradjuri language: "big water"[1]
Nickname: 'bidgee
Country Australia
States New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory
IBRA South Eastern Highlands, Riverina
Districts Monaro, Capital Country, South West Slopes, Riverina, Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area
Municipalities Palerang, Cooma-Monaro, Queanbeyan, Yass Valley, Tumut, Cootamundra, Junee, Coolamon, Wagga Wagga, Narrandera, Leeton, Griffith, Greater Hume, Murrumbidgee
Part of Murray River, Murray-Darling basin
Tributaries
 - left Gudgenby River, Cotter River, Goodradigbee River, Tumut River
 - right Bredbo River, Molonglo River, Yass River, Lachlan River
Cities Cooma, Canberra, Gundagai, Wagga Wagga, Narrandera, Hay, Balranald
Source Peppercorn Hill
 - location Snowy Mountains, NSW
 - elevation 1,560 m (5,118 ft)
 - coordinates 35°35′7″S 148°36′5″E / 35.58528°S 148.60139°E / -35.58528; 148.60139
Mouth confluence with Murray River
 - location near Boundary Bend, NSW/Vic
 - elevation 55 m (180 ft)
 - coordinates 34°43′43″S 143°13′8″E / 34.72861°S 143.21889°E / -34.72861; 143.21889
Length 1,600 km (1,000 mi) approx.
Basin 84,000 km2 (30,000 sq mi) approx.
Reservoirs Tantangara Reservoir, Lake Burrinjuck
Island Pine Island (in flood only)
The Murrumbidgee is a major tributary of the Murray River
[2][3]

Murrumbidgee River (/mʌrəmˈbɪi/[4]), a major tributary of the Murray River within the Murray–Darling basin and the second longest river in Australia. It flows through the Australian state of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. It descends 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) as it flows 900 kilometres (559 mi) in a west-northwesterly direction from the foot of Peppercorn Hill in the Fiery Range of the Snowy Mountains towards its confluence with the Murray River near Boundary Bend.

The word Murrumbidgee means "big water" in the Wiradjuri language, one of the local Aboriginal languages.[1][5]

Flow[edit]

The reaches of the Murrumbidgee in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) are now[when?] affected by the complete elimination[citation needed] of large spring snow melt flows and a reduction of average annual flows of almost 50%, due to Tantangara Dam. Tantangara Dam was completed in 1960 on the headwaters of Murrumbidgee River and diverts approximately 99% of the river's flow at that point into Lake Eucumbene.[6] This had extremely serious effects on native fish populations and other native aquatic life and has led to serious habitat loss. It is said that the Murrumbidgee River through the ACT is only half the river it used to be.[weasel words][7]

The mainstream of the river system flows for 900 kilometres (560 mi).[8] The river's headwaters arise from the wet heath and bog at the foot of Peppercorn Hill situated along Long Plain which is within the Fiery Range of the Snowy Mountains; and about 50 kilometres (31 mi) north of Kiandra. From its headwaters it flows to its confluence with the Murray River. The river flows for 66 kilometres (41 mi) through the Australian Capital Territory near Canberra,[9] picking up the important tributaries of the Gudgenby, Molonglo and Cotter Rivers. The Murrumbidgee drains much of southern New South Wales and all of the Australian Capital Territory, and is an important source of irrigation water for the Riverina farming area.

The river system's current channels are relatively new[when?] with the Upper Murrumbidgee being an anabranch of the Tumut River (that once continued north along Mutta Mutta Creek) when geological uplift near Adaminaby diverted its flow. The contemporary Murrumbidgee starts at Gundagai but generally the stream that now[when?] includes the Upper Murrumbidgee is described as being part of the full river.[10]

In June 2008 the Murray-Darling Basin Commission released a report on the condition of the Murray-Darling basin, with the Goulburn and Murrumbidgee Rivers rated in a very poor condition in the Murray-Darling basin with fish stocks in both rivers were also rated as extremely poor, with 13 of the 22 native fish species found in the Murrumbidgee River.[11]

History[edit]

The Murrumbidgee River runs through the traditional lands of the Ngunnawal, Wiradjuri, Nari Nari and Muthi Muthi Aboriginal tribes.

Exploration[edit]

The Murrumbidgee River was known to Europeans before it was actually discovered by them.  In 1820 the explorer Charles Throsby informed the Governor of New South Wales that he anticipated finding "a considerable river of salt water (except at very wet seasons), called by the natives Mur-rum-big-gee". In the expedition journal, Throsby wrote as a marginal note: "This river or stream is called by the natives Yeal-am-bid-gie ...".[12] The river he had stumbled upon was in fact the Molonglo River, Throsby reached the actual river in April 1821.[13]

In 1823, Brigade-Major John Ovens and Captain Mark Currie reached the upper Murrumbidgee when exploring south of Lake George.[14] In 1829, Charles Sturt and his party rowed and sailed down the length of the river from Narrandera to the Murray, and then down the Murray to the sea. They also rowed, sailing when possible, back up against the current.[15] The Murrumbidgee basin was opened to settlement in the 1830s and soon became an important farming area.

Charles Sturt Monument located at Wagga Beach in Wagga Wagga

Ernest Favenc, when writing on Australian exploration, commented on the relatively tardy European discovery of the river and that the river retained a name used by Indigenous Australians:

Here we may remark on the tenacity with which the Murrumbidgee River long eluded the eye of the white man. It is scarcely probable that Meehan and Hume, who on this occasion were within comparatively easy reach of the head waters, could have seen a new inland river at that time without mentioning the fact, but there is no record traceable anywhere as to the date of its discovery, or the name of its finder. When in 1823 Captain Currie and Major Ovens were led along its bank on to the beautiful Maneroo country by Joseph Wild, the stream was then familiar to the early settlers and called the Morumbidgee. Even in 1821, when Hume found the Yass Plains, almost on its bank, he makes no special mention of the river. From all this we may deduce the extremely probable fact that the position of the river was shown to some stockrider by a native, who also confided the aboriginal name, and so it gradually worked the knowledge of its identity into general belief. This theory is the more feasible as the river has retained its native name. If a white man of any known position had made the discovery, it would at once have received the name of some person holding official sway.[16]

Floods[edit]

Murrumbidgee River in major flood in December 2010 and flood marker showing the height of the 1974 floods in Wagga Wagga

The river has risen above 7 metres (23 ft) at Gundagai nine times between 1852 and 2010, an average of just under once every eleven years. Since 1925, flooding has been minor with the exception of floods in 1974 and in December 2010, when the river rose to 10.2 metres (33 ft) at Gundagai.[17] In the 1852 disaster, the river rose to just over 12.2 m (40 ft). The following year the river again rose to just over 12.5 m (41 ft). The construction of Burrinjuck Dam from 1907 has significantly reduced flooding but, despite the dam, there were major floods in 1925, 1950, 1974 and 2012.[18][19]

The most notable flood was in 1852 when the town of Gundagai was swept away and 89 people, a third of the town's population, were killed. The town was rebuilt on higher ground.[20]

In 1925, four people died and the flooding lasted for eight days.[21][22]

The reduction in floods has consequences for wildlife, birds and trees. There has been a decline in bird populations and black box flood plain eucalypt forest trees are starting to lose their crowns.[23]

Major flooding occurred during March 2012 along the Murrumbidgee River including Wagga Wagga, where the river peaked at 10.56 metres (34.6 ft) on 6 March 2012.[24] This peak was 0.18 metres (0.59 ft) below the 1974 flood level of 10.74 metres (35.2 ft).[19]

Wetlands[edit]

Major wetlands along the Murrumbidgee or associated with the Murrumbidgee catchment include:[25]

Tributaries[edit]

Bridge over the Murrumbidgee at Carrathool, New South Wales.
Swimming hole on the Murrumbidgee at Hay, New South Wales
Aerial photo of Tuggeranong Town Centre, with Murrumbidgee River behind, Bullen Range is behind and Tidbinbilla Tracking Station is visible too.

The Murrumbidgee River has about 90 named tributaries in total; 24 rivers, and numerous creeks and gullies. The ordering of the basin, from source to mouth, of the major tributaries is:

Rivers of the Murrumbidgee River basin
Catchment river Elevation at
confluence[26]
River mouth Coordinates[27][28] River length[26]
Tributary
Tributary
Tributary
Murrumbidgee River 55 m (180 ft) Murray 34°43′43″S 143°13′8″E / 34.72861°S 143.21889°E / -34.72861; 143.21889 (Murrumbidgee River) ~900 km (559 mi)
Numeralla River 706 m (2,316 ft) Murrumbidgee 36°3′56″S 149°9′1″E / 36.06556°S 149.15028°E / -36.06556; 149.15028 (Numeralla River) 94 km (58 mi)
Kybeyan River 745 m (2,444 ft) Numeralla 36°13′13″S 149°21′25″E / 36.22028°S 149.35694°E / -36.22028; 149.35694 (Kybeyan River) 36 km (22 mi)
Big Badja River 735 m (2,411 ft) Numeralla 36°10′27″S 149°20′52″E / 36.17417°S 149.34778°E / -36.17417; 149.34778 (Big Badja River) 94 km (58 mi)
Bredbo River Murrumbidgee
Strike-a-Light River Bredbo
Gudgenby River Murrumbidgee
Naas River Gudgenby
Orroral River Gudgenby
Cotter River Murrumbidgee
Paddys River Cotter
Tidbinbilla River Paddys
Gibraltar Creek Paddys
Molonglo River Murrumbidgee
Jerrabomberra Creek Molonglo
Sullivans Creek Molonglo
Queanbeyan River Molonglo
Goodradigbee River 345 m (1,132 ft) Murrumbidgee 35°00′S 148°38′E / 35.000°S 148.633°E / -35.000; 148.633 (Goodradigbee River) 105 km (65 mi)
Yass River Murrumbidgee
Tumut River Murrumbidgee
Goobarragandra River Tumut
Doubtful Creek Tumut
Lachlan River 68 m (223 ft) Murrumbidgee 34°22′S 143°47′E / 34.367°S 143.783°E / -34.367; 143.783 (Lachlan River) ~1,440 km (895 mi)
Crookwell River 430 m (1,411 ft) Lachlan 34°16′39″S 149°7′53″E / 34.27750°S 149.13139°E / -34.27750; 149.13139 (Crookwell River) 78 km (48 mi)
Abercrombie River 378 m (1,240 ft) Lachlan
Bolong River Abercrombie
Isabella River Abercrombie
Boorowa River 303 m (994 ft) Lachlan
Belubula River 263 m (863 ft) Lachlan

Population centres[edit]

River crossings[edit]

The list below notes past and present bridges that cross over the Murrumbidgee River. There were numerous other crossings before the bridges were constructed and many of these still exist today.

Downstream from Wagga Wagga[edit]

Crossing Image Coordinates Built Location Description Notes
Balranald Bridge 1973 Balranald Sturt Highway
Matthews Bridge Matthews Bridge at Maude.JPG 1957 Maude
Hay Bridge HayMurrumbidgeeRiverBridge.JPG 1973 Hay Cobb Highway
Carrathool Bridge CarrathoolBridge004.JPG 1924 Carrathool
Darlington Point Bridge DarlingtonPointBridge.JPG Darlington Point Kidman Way
Euroley Bridge 2003 Yanco
Narrandera Rail Bridge Narrandera Tocumwal railway line
Narrandera Bridge NarranderaMurrumbidgeeBridge.JPG Newell Highway
Collingullie Bridge BridgeOverMurrumbidgeeRiverNearCollingullie.jpg Collingullie

Wagga Wagga to Burrinjuck[edit]

Crossing Image Coordinates Built Location Description Notes
Gobbagombalin Bridge Gobba Bridge - Olympic Highway 03.jpg 1997 Wagga Wagga Olympic Highway
Wirajuri Bridge Wiradjuri Bridge 2003.jpg 1995 Hampden Avenue, replaced the Hampden Bridge
Hampden Bridge Hampden bridge-wagga1.jpg 1895 disused
Murrumbidgee River
Rail Bridge
Murrumbidgee Railway Bridge.jpg 2006 Main Southern railway line. Replaced the previous bridge built in 1881
Eunony Bridge Aerial view of the Eunony Bridge over the Murrumbidgee River.jpg Eunony Bridge Road
Low Bridge Mundarlo - Murrumbidgee River Crossing.jpg Mundarlo
Sheahan Bridge Sheahan Bridge, across Murrumbidgee River, Gundagai, NSW.JPG 1977 Gundagai Hume Freeway; looking south from Gundagai, bridge in midground
Gundagai Rail Bridge Ancien pont ferroviaire sur le Murrumbidgee à Gundagai.JPG 1902 Tumut railway line, now disused
Prince Alfred Bridge Prince Alfred Bridge.jpg 1867 Prince Alfred Road, former Hume Highway.
Gobarralong Bridge Gobarralong Bridge, Murrumbidgee River, New South Wales.JPG Gobarralong
Jugiong Bridge Murrumbidgee River at Jugiong, NSW, Australia (Bundarbo Road Bridge).JPG Jugiong

Upstream from Burrinjuck[edit]

Crossing Image Coordinates Location Description Notes
Taemas Bridge Taemas Bridge, NSW, approach from the south.jpg Wee Jasper 1930
Uriarra Crossing Uriarra Crossing, ACT.JPG Uriarra
Cotter Road bridge MurrumbidgeeCotter junction.jpg Australian Capital Territory Cotter Road, near the confluence with the Cotter River
Point Hut crossing Point Hut Crossing, ACT.JPG Gordon
Tharwa Bridge Tharwa bridge.JPG Tharwa 1895
Angle Crossing Angle Crossing on Murrumbidgee River, ACT.jpg Williamsdale Angle Crossing Road, a ford
Billilingra Bridge Bridge across Murrumbidgee River, Billilingra Road, Billingra, NSW.JPG Billilingra
Binjura Bridge Bridge across Murrumbidgee River, Mittagang Road, near Cooma, NSW.jpg Binjura
Bolaro Bridge Bridge across Murrumbidgee River, Bolaro, New South Wales.JPG Bolaro
Yaouk Bridge Murrumbidgee River at Yaouk, NSW, Australia.JPG Yaouk
Tantangara Bridge Bridge across the Murrumbidgee River, Tantangara, NSW.JPG Tantangara Tantangara Road, immediately downstream from the Tantangara Reservoir wall
Tantangara Dam Tantangara Dam, on Murrumbidgee River, NSW.JPG Tantangara Tantangara Reservoir was constructed between 1958 and 1960. No public access to the dam to cross the river.
Long Plain Bridge Murrumbidgee River crossing, Long Plain Road, New South Wales.JPG Long Plain

Images[edit]

Distances along the river[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Murrumbidgee River". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Retrieved 8 June 2008. 
  2. ^ "Our Catchment". Murrumbidgee Catchment Management Authority. Government of New South Wales. 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  3. ^ "Map of Murrumbidgee River". Bonzle.com. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  4. ^ Macquarie ABC Dictionary. The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. 2003. pp. 647, 853. ISBN 1-876429-37-2. 
  5. ^ Room, Adrian (2003). Placenames of the World. McFarland. p. 246. ISBN 0-7864-1814-1. 
  6. ^ Lintermans, Mark. "The re-establishment of endangered Macquarie perch Macquaria australasica in the Queanbeyan River, New South Wales, with an examination of dietary overlap with alien trout" (PDF). Environment ACT and Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology. Retrieved 8 June 2008. 
  7. ^ Lintermans, Mark (2000). The Status of Fish in the Australian Capital Territory: A Review of Current Knowledge and Management Requirements. Technical Report No. 15.. Canberra: Environment ACT. 
  8. ^ "Murrumbidgee River Catchment". Catchment Case Studies. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. 1995. Archived from the original on 19 April 2006. Retrieved 13 July 2006. 
  9. ^ "Interim recreation study for the natural areas of the ACT" (PDF). ACT Government. April 2004. p. 23. Archived from the original on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2008. 
  10. ^ Sharp, K. R (2004). "Cenozoic volcanism, tectonism, and stream derangement in the Snowy Mountains and northern Monaro of New South Wales". Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 51: 67–83. doi:10.1046/j.1400-0952.2003.01045.x. 
  11. ^ "Sustainable Rivers Audit" (PDF). Murray-Darling Basin Commission. June 2008. pp. 14, 50. Retrieved 21 June 2008. 
  12. ^ Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia, 1931 (ABS cat. no. 1301.0)
  13. ^ Reed, A. W., Place-names of New South Wales: Their Origins and Meanings, (Reed: 1969).
  14. ^ Discovery of the Monaro
  15. ^ Sturt, Charles (2004) [1833]. Two Expeditions into the Interior of Southern Australia (txt). Project Gutenberg EBook. Retrieved 2006-08-26. 
  16. ^ Favenc, Ernest (2004) [1908]. "Chapter 4". The Explorers of Australia and their Life-work (txt). Project Gutenberg EBook. Retrieved 2006-08-26. 
  17. ^ "Evacuation begins". The Daily Advertiser. 5 December 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2010. 
  18. ^ Butcher, Cliff (2002). "Chapter 9 Floods". Gundagai: A track winding back. Gundagai, NSW, Australia: A. C. Butcher. pp. 84–98. ISBN 0-9586200-0-8. 
  19. ^ a b "Murrumbidgee River & Floods". Wagga Wagga City Council. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  20. ^ "1852, June, Gundagai flood". News. Ministry of Police and Emergency Services. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  21. ^ "Diastrous Floods - Many Families Homeless - Four Men Drowned". The Argus (Melbourne). 29 May 1925. p. 11. Retrieved 18 July 2014. 
  22. ^ Australian Government Emergency Management database[dead link][dead link]
  23. ^ Troy, Michael (23 October 2001). "Report warns of damage to Murrumbidgee River" (transcript). 7.30 Report (Australia: ABC1). Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  24. ^ Kwek, Glenda (7 March 2012). "Wagga 'dodges a bullet' as severe weather warning issued for Sydney". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  25. ^ NSW Department of Natural Resources Murrumbidgee Region[dead link][dead link]
  26. ^ a b "Search Rivers and Creeks". Bonzle Digital Atlas of Australia. 
  27. ^ "Place name search". Geographical Name Register. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. 
  28. ^ "Gazetteer of Australia Place Name Search". Geoscience Australia. Australian Government. 
  29. ^ Heaton, J.H.,1984, The Bedside Book of Colonial Doings, Published in 1879 as 'Australian Dictionary of Dates' containing the History of Australasia from 1542 to May, 1879, Angus & Robertson Publishers Sydney, pp.215-216

External links[edit]