Rose Wilder Lane

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Rose Wilder-Lane
Born (1886-12-05)December 5, 1886
De Smet, Dakota Territory
Died October 30, 1968(1968-10-30) (aged 81)
Danbury, Connecticut
Occupation Writer, political theorist
Nationality American
Period 1914–1963
Notable works The Discovery of Freedom
Spouse Gillette Lane (1909–1918) (divorced)

Rose Wilder-Lane (December 5, 1886 – October 30, 1968) was an American journalist, travel writer, novelist, and political theorist. She is noted – with Ayn Rand and Isabel Paterson – as one of the founding mothers of the American libertarian movement.[1]

Early life[edit]

Rose Wilder was the first child of Laura Ingalls Wilder and Almanzo Wilder and the only child of her parents to survive into adulthood. Rose's early years were a difficult time for her parents due to successive crop failures, illnesses and chronic economic hardships. During her childhood, the Wilders moved several times, living with relatives in Minnesota and then Florida, and briefly returning to De Smet, South Dakota, before settling in Mansfield, Missouri in 1894. There, her parents would eventually establish a dairy farm and fruit orchards. Rose attended secondary school in Mansfield and Crowley, Louisiana, graduating in 1904 with a class of seven.[2] Her intellect and ambition were demonstrated by her ability to compress three years of Latin into one, and by graduating at the top of her high school class in Crowley. Despite her academic success, she was unable to attend college due to her parents' financial situation.[citation needed]

Early career, marriage and divorce[edit]

After high school graduation, Lane returned to her parents' farm and learned telegraphy at the Mansfield railroad station where the station master was the father of a school friend. At age seventeen, she was working for Western Union in Kansas City as a telegrapher for $2.50 a week. She worked as a telegrapher in Missouri, Indiana, and California for the next five years.[3]

In March 1909, Rose Wilder married salesman, promoter and occasional newspaperman Gillette Lane. Rose Lane soon left her job with Western Union and embarked on travels with Rose Wilder-Lane to promote his various schemes, traversing the US including Kansas City, Ohio, New York and Maine. While staying in Salt Lake City the following November, public records indicate Rose gave birth to a premature, stillborn son (born 3 months early). [4] The topic is mentioned only briefly in a handful of existing letters written by Rose Wilder-Lane. The letters were written years after the infant's death to express sympathy and understanding to close friends who were also dealing with the loss of a child.

For the next few years, Rose Wilder-Lane and her husband continued to live a nomadic lifestyle, traveling around the United States to work together and separately on various promotional and advertising projects. While letters to her parents described a happy-go-lucky existence, her subsequent diary entries and numerous autobiographical magazine articles later described her mindset at this time as depressed and disillusioned with her marriage. She felt her intellectual interests did not mesh with the life she was living with Gillette. One account even had her attempting suicide by drugging herself with chloroform, only to awake with a headache and a renewed sense of purpose in life.[citation needed]

Keenly aware of her lack of a formal education, during these years Rose Wilder-Lane read voraciously and taught herself several languages. Her writing career began around 1910, with occasional freelance newspaper jobs that earned much needed extra cash. Between 1912 and 1914, she – one of the earliest female real estate agents in California – and Gillette sold farm land in what is now the San Jose/Silicon Valley area of northern California. Conditions often required them to work separately to earn separate commissions, and Lane turned out to be the better salesperson. The marriage foundered; there were several periods of separation, and eventually an amicable divorce. Her diaries reveal subsequent romantic involvements with several men in the years following her her divorce, but she never remarried, and eventually made the conscious choice to remain single and free of romantic attachments.

The threat of America's entry into World War I had seriously weakened the real estate market, so in early 1915 Rose accepted a friend's offer of a stopgap job as an editorial assistant on the staff of the San Francisco Bulletin. The stopgap turned into a watershed. She immediately caught the attention of her editors not only through her talents as a writer in her own right, but also as a highly skilled editor for other writers. Before long, her photo and byline were running in the Bulletin daily. She easily churned out formulaic romantic fiction serials that would run for weeks at a time. Her first-hand accounts of the lives of Henry Ford, Charlie Chaplin, Jack London, and Herbert Hoover were published in book form.

Also in 1915, Rose's mother visited San Francisco for several months. Together they attended the Panama-Pacific International Exposition; many details of this visit and Rose Wilder-Lane's daily life in 1915 are preserved in Wilder's letters to Almanzo and are available in West from Home, published by Lane's heir in 1974. Although Rose's diaries indicate she was separated from Gillette in 1915, Wilder's letters do not indicate this. Gillette was recorded as living with Rose, although unemployed and looking for work during Laura's two month visit. It seems the separation was either covered up, or had not yet involved separate households. [5]

Freelance writing career[edit]

By 1918, Rose Wilder-Lane's marriage was officially ended and she had quit her job with the San Francisco Bulletin (after its managing editor, Fremont Older, whom she respected, resigned) to launch a career as a freelance writer. From this period through the early 1940s, her work regularly appeared in leading publications such as Harper's, Saturday Evening Post, Sunset, Good Housekeeping, and Ladies' Home Journal. Several of her short stories were nominated for O. Henry Prizes and a few novels became top sellers.

Rose Wilder was also the first biographer of Herbert Hoover, writing The Making of Herbert Hoover in 1920 in collaboration with Charles K. Field, editor of Sunset magazine. She was a friend and defender of his for the remainder of her life, and many of her personal papers are now in the Rose Wilder-Lane Collection at the Herbert Hoover Library in West Branch, Iowa. Rose Wilder's papers contain little actual correspondence between them, however the Hoover Post-Presidential Individual series contains a file of Rose's correspondence that spans from 1936–1963.[6]

In the late 1920s, Rose Wilder was reputed to be one of the highest-paid female writers in America, and counted among her friends figures such as Herbert Hoover, Sinclair Lewis, Isabel Paterson, Dorothy Thompson, and Lowell Thomas. Despite this success, her compulsive generosity with her family and friends often found her strapped for cash and forced to work on material that paid well, but did not engage her growing interests in political theory and world history. She suffered from periodic bouts of self-doubt and depression in mid-life, diagnosing herself as manic-depressive (now more commonly known as bipolar disorder). During these times of depression, when she was unable to move ahead with her own writing, she would easily find work as a ghostwriter or "silent" editor for other well-known writers.

Rose Wilder's occasional work as a traveling war correspondent began with a stint with the American Red Cross Publicity Bureau in post-WWI Europe and continued though 1965, when at the age of 78, she was reporting from Vietnam for Woman's Day magazine, providing "a woman's point of view." She traveled extensively in Europe and Asia as part of the Red Cross. In 1926, she, Helen Dore Boylston and their French maid traveled from France to Albania in a car they had named "Zenobia". An account of the journey, Travels With Zenobia: Paris to Albania by Model T Ford was published in 1983. She became enamored with Albania, and lived there for several long periods during the 1920s, spaced between sojourns to Paris and her parents' Rocky Ridge Farm in Missouri. She informally adopted a young Albanian boy named Rexh Meta, who she claimed saved her life on a dangerous mountain trek; she later sponsored his education at Oxford University in England.

In 1928, Rose Wilder returned to the United States to live on her parents' farm. Confident in her sales of her books and short stories, as well as her growing stock market investments, she spent freely, building a new home for her parents on the property and modernizing the farmhouse for herself and a steady stream of visiting literary friends.

Literary collaboration[edit]

Rose Wilder's exact role in Wilder's famous Little House book series (the basis for the television show, Little House On the Prairie) has remained unclear. A contributing factor was the stock market crash of 1929, which wiped out both Rose Wilder's savings, as well as money her parents had invested under her advice. The ensuing Great Depression further reduced the market for her writing, and she found herself isolated and depressed at Rocky Ridge Farm, struggling to maintain her commitments to support herself, her adopted children (she had by now taken in two local orphaned brothers at this time, committing to pay for their educations) and her elderly parents, who had retired from active farming with her encouragement and financial support. Her ghostwriting jobs increased at this time, because her depression tended to affect her ability to generate ideas for her own writing projects.

In late 1930, Wilder approached her with a rough, first-person narrative manuscript outlining her hardscrabble pioneer childhood, Pioneer Girl. Rose Wilder, using her well-developed sense of what was marketable, took notice. She recognized that an American public weary of the Depression would respond warmly to the story of the loving, self-sufficient and determined Ingalls family overcoming obstacles while maintaining their sense of independence, as told through the eyes of the spunky "Laura" as she matured from ages five to eighteen. Despite her efforts to market Pioneer Girl through her publishing connections, the manuscript was resoundingly rejected, although one editor recommended crafting a novel for children out of the beginning. Wilder and Lane worked on this project, thus producing Little House in the Big Woods, which was accepted by Harper and Row in late 1931. Its success resulted in the decision to continue the series, following young Laura into young adulthood.

It remains unclear whether Wilder was a naturally skilled novelist who never discovered her talents until her sixties, with Lane's only contribution to Wilder's success being her encouragement and her established connections in the publishing world, or if Lane essentially took Wilder's unpublishable raw manuscripts in hand and completely (and silently) ghostwrote the series of books we know today. The truth appears to lie somewhere between these two positions – Wilder's writing career as a rural journalist and a credible essayist began more than two decades before the Little House series, and Lane's formidable editing and ghostwriting skills are well-documented. The existing written evidence (including ongoing correspondence between the women concerning the development of the multi-volume series, Lane's extensive personal diaries detailing the time she spent working on the manuscripts, and Wilder's own initial draft manuscripts) tends to reveal an ongoing mutual collaboration that involved Lane more extensively in the earlier books, and to a much lesser extent by the time the series ended, as Wilder's confidence in her own writing ability increased. Lane insisted to the end that her role was little more than that of an adviser to Wilder despite much documentation to the contrary.

Whatever the extent of Lane's help to Wilder in writing the books, it certainly played some role. Wilder did not keep copies of her correspondence with Lane, but Lane kept carbon copies of virtually everything she ever wrote – including the correspondence with Wilder concerning the Little House books. The correspondence shows that she sometimes adamantly refused to accept some of Lane's suggestions, and at other times gratefully accepted them. Lane's diaries show reactions to her time spent on the project ranging from anger and frustration over the time lost for her own paying work, to elation at the success of the books and the prestige and income they brought to Wilder.

Regardless, Rose Wilder's editing skills brought the dramatic pacing, literary structure, and characterization critically needed to make the stories publishable in book form.

Successful novels[edit]

In fact, this collaboration benefited Rose Wilder's career as much as her mother's – many of her most popular short stories and her two most commercially successful novels were written at this time and were fueled by material which was taken directly from Wilder's recollections of Ingalls-Wilder family folklore – Let the Hurricane Roar (later retitled Young Pioneers) and Free Land, both addressed the difficulties of homesteading in the Dakotas in the late 19th century, and how the "free land" in fact cost many homesteaders their life savings. The Saturday Evening Post paid Rose Wilder top fees to serialize both novels, and both novels were also adapted for highly popular radio performances. These two novels represented Rose's creative and literary peak. The Saturday Evening Post paid her $30,000 in 1938 (worth $502,624 today) to serialize her best-selling novel Free Land, while Let the Hurricane Roar saw an increasing and steady sale, augmented by a popular radio dramatization starring Helen Hayes.

In 1938, with the proceeds of Free Land in hand, Rose Wilder was able to pay all of her accumulated debts and relocated to Danbury, Connecticut, purchasing a rural home with three wooded acres, where she lived for the rest of her life. At this same time, the growing royalties from the Little House books were providing Rose's parents with an assured and sufficient income, relieving her need to be the family's sole source of support.

Returns to journalism[edit]

During World War II, Rose Wilder had one of the most remarkable, but little studied, phases of her career. From 1942 to 1945, she wrote a weekly column for The Pittsburgh Courier, the most widely read American black newspaper.[citation needed]

Rather than hiding or trimming her laissez faire views, Rose Wilder seized the chance to sell them to the readership. She sought out topics of special interests of her audience. Her first entry glowingly characterized the Double V Campaign as part of the more general fight for individual liberty in American history. "Here, at last, is a place where I belong," she wrote of her new job. "Here are the Americans who know the value of equality and freedom." Her columns highlighted black success stories to illustrate broader themes about entrepreneurship, freedom, and creativity. In one, she compared the accomplishments of Robert Vann and Henry Ford. Vann's rags to riches story illustrated the benefits in a "capitalist society in which a penniless orphan, one of a despised minority can create The Pittsburgh Courier and publicly, vigorously, safely, attack a majority opinion" while Ford's showed how a poor mechanic can create "hundreds of jobs ... putting even beggars into cars."[7]

Rose Wilder combined advocacy of laissez faire and antiracism. The views she expressed on race were strikingly similar to those of Zora Neale Hurston, a fellow individualist and writer who was black. Her columns emphasized the arbitrariness of racial categories and stressed the centrality of the individual. Instead of indulging in the "ridiculous, idiotic and tragic fallacy of race, [by] which a minority of the earth's population has deluded itself during the past century", it was time for all Americans (black and white) to "renounce their race". Judging by skin color was comparable to the Communists who assigned guilt or virtue on the basis of class. In her view, the fallacies of race and class hearkened to the "old English-feudal 'class' distinction." The collectivists, including the New Dealers, were to blame for filling "young minds with fantasies of 'races' and 'classes' and 'the masses,' all controlled by pagan gods, named Economic Determinism or Society or Government."[8]

The Discovery of Freedom[edit]

For a few months in 1940, Wilder's growing zeal for Libertarianism united her with the well-known vagabond free-lance writer John Patric, a like-minded political thinker whose full-throated advocacy of libertarian themes culminated in his 1943 work Yankee Hobo in the Orient. They spent several months, thriftily traveling across wide swaths of the country in John Patric's automobile to observe the effects of the Great Depression on the nation, and to exchange ideas. The trip finished with a two month stay with Patric in Bellingham, Washington.[9]

In the early 1940s, despite continuing requests from editors for both fiction and non-fiction material, other than helping Wilder produce the final volumes of the Little House series, Rose Wilder turned away from commercial fiction writing and became known as one of the most influential American libertarians of the middle 20th century. She vehemently opposed the New Deal, perceived "creeping socialism," Social Security, wartime rationing and all forms of taxation, claiming she ceased writing highly paid commercial fiction to protest paying income taxes. Living on her small salary from her newspaper column, and no longer needing to support her parents or adopted sons, she cut expenses to the bare minimum, and lived a modern-day version of her ancestors' pioneer life on her rural land near Danbury. She gained some media attention for her refusal to accept a ration card, instead working cooperatively with her rural neighbors to grow and preserve fruits and vegetables, and to raise chickens and pigs for meat. Literary critic and political writer Isabel Paterson had urged the move to Connecticut, where she would be only "up country a few miles" from Paterson, who had been a friend for many years.[10]

A staunch opponent of communism after experiencing it first hand in the Soviet Union during her Red Cross travels, Rose Wilder's initial writings on individualism and conservative government began while she was still writing popular fiction in the 1930s, and culminated with the seminal The Discovery of Freedom (1943). After this point, she tirelessly promoted and wrote about individual freedom, and its impact on humanity. The same year also saw the publication of Paterson's The God of the Machine and Ayn Rand's novel The Fountainhead, and the three women have been referred to as the founding mothers of the American libertarian movement with the publication of these works.[11]

Writer Albert Jay Nock wrote that Rose Wilder's and Paterson's nonfiction works were "the only intelligible books on the philosophy of individualism that have been written in America this century." The two women had "shown the male world of this period how to think fundamentally...they don't fumble and fiddle around – every shot goes straight to the centre." Journalist John Chamberlain credits Rand, Paterson, and Rose Wilder with his final "conversion" from socialism to what he called "an older American philosophy" of libertarian and conservative ideas.[12]

In 1943, Rose Wilder was thrust into the national spotlight through her response to a radio poll on Social Security. She mailed in a post-card with a response likening the Social Security system to a Ponzi scheme that would ultimately destroy the US. The subsequent events remain unclear, but wartime monitoring of the mails eventually resulted in a Connecticut State Trooper being dispatched to her farmhouse (supposedly at the request of the FBI) to question her motives. Her vehement response to this infringement on her right of free speech resulted in a flurry of newspaper articles and the publishing of a pamphlet, "What is this, the Gestapo?," that was meant to remind Americans to be watchful of their rights, despite the wartime exigencies.

There was a FBI file compiled on Rose Wilder during this time, which is now available under the Freedom of Information Act.

As Rose Wilder grew older, her political opinions solidified as a fundamentalist libertarian, and her defense of what she considered to be basic American principles of liberty and freedom could become harsh and abrasive in the face of disagreement. She broke with her old friend and political ally, Isabel Paterson, in 1946,[13] and, in the 1950s, had an acrimonious correspondence with writer Max Eastman.[14]

Later years[edit]

During the 1940s and through the 1950s, Rose Wilder played a hands-on role in launching the "libertarian movement", a term she apparently coined, and began an extensive correspondence with figures such as DuPont executive Jasper Crane and writers Frank Meyer and Ayn Rand.[15] She wrote book reviews for the National Economic Council and later for the Volker Fund, out of which grew the Institute for Humane Studies. Later, she lectured at, and gave generous financial support to, the Freedom School headed by libertarian Robert LeFevre.[7]

With Wilder's death in 1957, ownership of the Rocky Ridge Farm house reverted to the farmer who had earlier bought the property on a life lease, allowing her to remain in residence until her death. The local townfolk put together a non-profit corporation to purchase the house and its grounds, for use as a museum. After some wariness at the notion of seeing the house rather than the books themselves be a shrine to Wilder, Rose came to believe that making a museum of it would draw long-lasting attention to the books, and sustain the theme of Individualism she and Wilder wove through the series. She donated the money needed to purchase the house and make it a museum, agreed to make significant contributions each year for its upkeep and also gave many of the family's belongings to help establish what became a popular museum which still draws thousands of visitors each year to Mansfield.[16] Her lifetime inheritance of Wilder's growing Little House royalties put an end to her self-enforced modest lifestyle; she began to travel extensively again, and thoroughly renovated and remodeled her Connecticut home. Also during the 1960s, she revived her own commercial writing career by publishing several popular magazine series, including one about her remarkable tour of the Vietnam war zone in late 1965.

Rose Wilder wrote an immensely popular book detailing the history of American needlework (with a strong libertarian undercurrent) for Woman's Day and edited and published On The Way Home, providing an autobiographical setting around her mother's original 1894 diary of their six week journey from South Dakota to Missouri. It was intended to serve as the capstone to the Little House series, for those many fans who since Wilder's death were now writing to Rose asking, "what happened next?". She contributed book reviews to the influential William Volker Fund, and continued to work on extensive revisions to The Discovery of Freedom, which she never completed.

Rose Wilder was the adoptive "grandmother" and mentor to Roger Lea MacBride, best known as the Libertarian Party's 1976 candidate for President of the United States. He was the son of one of her editors with whom she formed a close bond when he was a young boy; she later admitted that she was grooming him to be a future Libertarian thought leader. In addition to being her close friend, he also became her attorney and business manager and ultimately the heir to the Little House series and the multi-million dollar franchise that he built around it after her death.

The last of the many protégés to be taken under Lane's wing was the sister of her Vietnamese interpreter; impressed by the young girl's intelligence, she helped to bring her to the United States and sponsored her enrollment in college.[17]

Rose Wilder died in her sleep at age 81, on October 30, 1968, just as she was about to depart on a three-year world tour.[citation needed]

After inheriting the rights to the literary works of both Rose Wilder-Lane and Wilder, MacBride agreed to the commercialization of the books via the "Little House on the Prairie" television series, and approved the miniseries The Young Pioneers, which was based on a compilation of Rose Wilder's two best-selling novels.

MacBride also was the author of the spinoff The Rose Years Little House Series, a multi-part semi-fictional re-telling of Rose Wilder's life from the age of seven to nineteen.

Controversy came after MacBride's death in 1995, when the local library in Mansfield, contended that Wilder's original will gave Rose Wilder ownership of the literary estate for her lifetime only, all rights to revert to the Laura Ingalls Wilder Library after her death. The ensuing court case was settled with a lump-sum payment to the library, but MacBride's heirs retained the rights.


  • The Story of Art Smith (1915) (biography)
  • Henry Ford's Own Story (1917) (biography)
  • Diverging Roads (1919) (fiction)
  • White Shadows on the South Seas (with Frederick O'Brien) (1919) (non-fiction travel)
  • The Making of Herbert Hoover (1920) (biography)
  • The Peaks of Shala (1923) (non-fiction travel)
  • He Was A Man (1925) (fiction)
  • Hill-Billy (1925) (fiction)
  • Gordon Blake (1925) (fiction)
  • Cindy; a romance of the Ozarks (1928) (fiction)
  • Let the Hurricane Roar (1932) (fiction) now better known as Young Pioneers.
  • Old Home Town (1935) (fiction)
  • Give Me Liberty (1936)
  • Credo (1936) shorter version of Give Me Liberty published in Saturday Evening Post
  • Free Land (1938) (fiction)
  • The Discovery of Freedom (1943) (political history) adapted in 1947 as The Mainspring of Human Progress
  • "What Is This: The Gestapo?" (1943) (pamphlet)
  • "On the Way Home" (1962)
  • The Woman's Day Book of American Needlework (1963)
  • Travels With Zenobia: Paris to Albania by Model T Ford (1983) (with Helen Dore Boylston, ed. William Holtz ISBN 978-0-8262-0390-8
  • The Rediscovered Writings of Rose Wilder-Lane, Literary Journalist (2007) (ed. Amy Mattson Lauters)

In the media[edit]

Rose Wilder was portrayed in the television adaptations of Little House on the Prairie by :

There are eight novels written by MacBride, telling of Rose Wilder's childhood and early youth. Despite assertions of the accuracy of the locations, dates, and people mentioned, there is heavy debate on the degree of authenticity. At least some events may be accurately represented, as he was a close friend of hers.

In the novel Pioneer Girl by Bich Minh Nguyen, a young Vietnamese-American Lee Lien researches Rose Wilder's life based on an old family story. Lee's grandfather claims that Rose became friendly with the family while visiting Vietnam in 1965 and gifted them with a gold brooch, suspected to be the one Almanzo gave to Laura as described in These Happy Golden Years.[18]

In the novel A Wilder Rose ( by Susan Wittig Albert, Rose Wilder tells the story of her work on the Little House books and her years at the Wilder farm (1928-1935) to Norma Lee Browning, a young friend. The novel is based on Rose Wilder's diaries and journals of the period and letters exchanged with her mother.

In the alternate history novel The Probability Broach by L. Neil Smith in which the United States becomes a libertarian state in 1794 after a successful Whiskey Rebellion and the overthrowing and execution of George Washington by firing squad for treason, Rose Wilder-Lane served as the 21st President of the North American Confederacy from 1940 to 1952. After Harriet Beecher Stowe (who served as president from 1859 to 1860), she was the second woman to hold the office. Rose Wilder was succeeded by Ayn Rand, who became the third woman to hold the office of the presidency.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Powell, Jim (May 1996). "Rose Wilder-Lane, Isabel Paterson, and Ayn Rand: Three Women Who Inspired the Modern Libertarian Movement". Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  2. ^ McNeely, Dorothy B. (1987). Crowley: The First Hundred Years. Crowley: DBM Publishing. p. 59. 
  3. ^ "Pioneering Journeys of the Ingalls Family Mansfield, Missouri: Rose". Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved April 6, 2015. 
  4. ^ "Infant Boy Lane Death Certificate". Retrieved 29 October 2014. 
  5. ^
  6. ^ Wilder-Lane, Rose. "Herbert Hoover Presidential Library & Museum." Herbert Hoover Presidential Library & Museum. June 1999. (accessed November 10, 2008).
  7. ^ a b Beito, David T. and Linda Royster Beito. "Isabel Paterson, Rose Wilder-Lane, and Zora Neale Hurston on War, Race, the State, and Liberty." Independent Review, 12. Spring 2008).
  8. ^ Beito, David T. and Linda Royster Beito. "Selling Laissez-faire Anti-Racism to the Black Masses" Rose Wilder-Lane and the Pittsburgh Courier." Independent Review, 15. Fall 2010).
  9. ^ "The Ghost in the Little House". 
  10. ^ Cox, Stephen, The Woman and the Dynamo: Isabel Paterson and the Idea of America, 2004, Transaction Books, pp.216–218.
  11. ^ Powell, Jim (May 1996). "Rose Wilder-Lane, Isabel Paterson, and Ayn Rand: Three Women Who Inspired the Modern Libertarian Movement". Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  12. ^ Nock quoted in Brian Doherty, Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement (Public Affairs, 2007; and John Chamberlain, A Life with the Printed Word, Regnery, 1982, p.136.
  13. ^ Cox, Dynamo, p.335
  14. ^ correspondence in Eastman manuscripts. at Indiana University's Lilly Library.
  15. ^ Jennifer Burns, Goddess of the Market:Ayn Rand and the American Right, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009, pp. 119–122.
  16. ^ Holtz, William, The Ghost in the Little House, University of Missouri Press, 1995, p 340, retrieved 12 January 2009
  17. ^ Holtz, William (May 1995). The Ghost in the Little House. University of Missouri Press. p. 448. ISBN 0-8262-1015-5. 
  18. ^ Nguyen, Bich Minh. (2014). Pioneer Girl. New York, NY: Viking. ISBN 9780670025091 ISBN 0670025097 OCLC 843026009

External links[edit]