||This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2013)|
Walter Block teaching
21 August 1941 |
Brooklyn, New York
|Field||Political economy, environmental economics, transport economics, political philosophy|
|Influences||Ludwig von Mises, Murray Rothbard, Ayn Rand|
Walter Edward Block (born 21 August 1941) is an American Austrian School economist and prominent anarcho-capitalist. He currently holds the Harold E. Wirth Eminent Scholar Endowed Chair in Economics at the J. A. Butt School of Business at Loyola University New Orleans. A profile of Block on the website of Psychology Today, calls him a longtime fixture in the libertarian movement and an "international titan of freedom movements." He is a senior fellow of the Ludwig von Mises Institute in Auburn, Alabama.
- 1 Personal life
- 2 Professional career
- 3 Defending the Undefendable
- 4 Viewpoints
- 5 Publications
- 6 Notes
- 7 External links
Block was born in Brooklyn, New York to Jewish parents Abraham Block, a certified public accountant, and Ruth Block, a paralegal, both of whom Block has said were liberals. Block earned his Ph.D. degree in economics from Columbia University and wrote his dissertation on rent control in the United States. Block identifies himself as a "devout atheist."
In an interview, Block stated, "In the fifties and sixties, I was just another commie living in Brooklyn." Block credits his shift to libertarianism to his having attended a lecture with Ayn Rand while he was an undergraduate student. Block later attended a luncheon with Rand, Nathaniel Branden, and Leonard Peikoff at which Branden suggested that Block read Atlas Shrugged by Ayn Rand and Economics in One Lesson by Henry Hazlitt. Although Block credits Rand, Branden, and other Objectivists with his initial interest in laissez-faire, he says that the final push to his conversion came from having met Murray Rothbard.
Walter Block received a B.A. in philosophy from Brooklyn College in 1964 and a Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University in 1972. He taught at the University of Central Arkansas, Holy Cross College, Baruch College and Rutgers University. He now holds the Harold E. Wirth Eminent Scholar Endowed Chair in Economics at the Butt College of Business, Loyola University, in New Orleans.
From 1979 to 1991, Block was the senior economist with the Fraser Institute. He is currently a senior fellow at Ludwig von Mises Institute, which has published various blog posts of his since 2000.
Block's work has been published in the Journal of Libertarian Studies, the Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, the Review of Austrian Economics, the American Journal of Economics and Sociology, the Journal of Labor Economics and Public Choice and in Psychology Today and other popular media.
Defending the Undefendable
Block has written two dozen books. He is best known for his 1976 book Defending the Undefendable which Marcus Epstein describes as defending "pimps, drug dealers, blackmailers, corrupt policemen, and loan sharks as 'economic heroes'". The book has been translated into ten foreign languages.
An article in the undergraduate magazine, Harvard Political Review, found the book "refreshingly consistent in its efforts on behalf of sexual, pharmaceutical, ecological, financial and other scapegoats" but noted that the book was "likely to elicit mixed responses." Fox Business Channel pundit John Stossel wrote that Block's "eye-opening" book inspired him to see that economics "illuminates what common sense overlooks".
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"Voluntary slave contract"
In an essay on "inalienability" of natural and legal rights, Block defends what he calls a "voluntary slave contract", arguing that it is "a bona fide contract where consideration crosses hands; when it is abrogated, theft occurs". He notes only Robert Nozick agrees with him, and critiques the views of the libertarians who disagree. Block seeks to make "a tiny adjustment" which "strengthens libertarianism by making it more internally consistent." He argues that his position shows "that contract, predicated on private property [can] reach to the furthest realms of human interaction, even to voluntary slave contracts."
Productivity of blacks and women
In November 2008, James Gill wrote in the Times-Picayune that, in a controversial lecture given at Loyola College, Baltimore, Block asserted that blacks and women were paid less than whites because they are "less productive". In the lecture, Block defended his views on women by alleging that, among younger and unmarried women, there is virtually no income disparity. When asked by an attendee to explain the difference in productivity between blacks and whites, he stated that as an economist he was not qualified to explain the disparity. Block did offer two thoughts that might account for the disparity: first, what he called the "politically correct" explanation, or socioeconomic disparities and historical injustices towards blacks; second, the "political incorrect" explanation, or "lower black IQs".
On Gill's account, the lecture "ignited a furor", resulting in the "faculty and the college president" at Block's Loyola University, New Orleans apologizing for what they called a "sexist and racist outburst", with Gill opining that, "ideas contrary to fashionable preconceptions are always likely to throw academia into a fit". The Loyola College, Baltimore economics department issued a letter condemning Block's remarks as not only insensitive, but as "erroneous" and indicative of "poor quality scholarship". In response to Block's assertions, they noted that "There is ample scholarly evidence that, after adjusting for productivity-related characteristics (e.g., years of schooling, work experience, union and industry status, etc) a considerable wage gap remains".
In response to the criticisms, Block said he, "regards sensitivity as the enemy of intellectual inquiry and truth." In a December 2008 article, Block wrote that the lessons he had learned from the incident were regarding the need for tenure if one wants to speak out, the wisdom of Murray Rothbard’s words that "it is totally irresponsible to have a loud and vociferous opinion on economic subjects" while remaining ignorant of economics, and the importance of Ludwig von Mises’ motto: "Do not give in to evil, but proceed ever more boldly against it."
Block believes that government management of roads and highways is not only inefficient but also deadly. "Road socialism" causes the deaths of more than 35,000 people in the United States each year. And, although many people blame highway deaths on alcohol, unsafe vehicles, or speeding, Block lays the blame on the government officials who manage the highway system. "It may well be that speed and alcohol are deleterious to safe driving; but it is the road manager’s task to ascertain that the proper standards are maintained with regard to these aspects of safety. If unsafe conditions prevail in a private, multistory parking lot, or in a shopping mall, or in the aisles of a department store, the entrepreneur in question is held accountable."
Punishment of statists
Block has written two papers about punishment of those engaging in "statist, governmental or other gangster activity". In them he discusses how a libertarian society would deal with former statists and others, including issues like restitution of land taken through eminent domain and possible retribution against governmental officials and perhaps others who cooperated in criminal activity. He describes rules by which libertarian "Nuremberg Trials" might operate.
Evictionism (in contrast to abortion)
According to Block's moral theory, the act of abortion must be conceptually separated into the acts of the eviction of the fetus from the womb, and the killing of the fetus. Building on the libertarian stand against trespass and murder, Block supports a right to the first act, but, except in certain circumstances, not the second act. Block believes the woman may legally abort if the fetus is not viable outside the womb, or the woman has announced to the world her abandonment of the right to custody of the fetus, and no one else has "homesteaded" that right by offering to care for the fetus.
He also has written on finding a compromise between those who believe stem cell research is murder and those who favor it. He applies a libertarian theory of private property rights to his premise that even fertilized eggs have human rights and that the relevant issues are competition between researchers and those who wish to adopt the eggs.
Block has theorized on whether a person defending themselves can harm a human shield or hostage used by an aggressor while in an act of self-defense. Block holds this is not legitimate but aggression against the kidnapped hostage who is innocent in the situation. Block calls this "negative homesteading theory."
- Defending the Undefendable (1976; translated into ten foreign languages.) ISBN 0930073053
- A Response to the Framework Document for Amending the Combines Investigation Act (1982)
- Focus on Economics and the Canadian Bishops (1983)
- Focus on Employment Equity: A Critique of the Abella Royal Commission on Equality in Employment (with Michael A. Walker; 1985)
- The U.S. Bishops and Their Critics: An Economic and Ethical Perspective (1986). ISBN 978-0889750852. OCLC 15348791
- Lexicon of Economic Thought (with Michael A. Walker; 1988) ISBN 978-0889750814. OCLC 246846272
- Economic Freedom of the World, 1975–1995 (with James Gwartney, Robert Lawson; 1996)
- Labor Economics from a Free Market Perspective: Employing the Unemployable (2008). ISBN 978-9812705686. OCLC 169873717
- The Privatization of Roads and Highways: Human and Economic Factors (2009). ISBN 978-0773458413. OCLC 64487353
- Differing Worldviews in Higher Education: Two Scholars Argue Cooperatively about Justice Education (2010) ISBN 978-9460913501
- Building Blocks for Liberty (2010). Ludwig von Mises Institute, ISBN 978-1933550916. OCLC 717747069
- Yes to Ron Paul and Liberty (2012). ISBN 978-4871873239. OCLC 810904922
- Zoning: Its Costs and Relevance for the 1980s (Ed.; 1980)
- Rent Control: Myths & Realities (Ed. with Edgar Olsen; 1981)
- Discrimination, Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity (Ed. with Michael A. Walker; 1982)
- Taxation: An International Perspective (Ed. with Michael A. Walker; 1984)
- Economics and the Environment: A Reconciliation (Ed.; 1985; translated into Portuguese 1992) ISBN 0-88975-067-X
- Morality of the Market: Religious and Economic Perspectives (Ed. with Geoffrey Brennan, Kenneth Elzinga; 1985)
- Theology, Third World Development and Economic Justice (Ed. with Donald Shaw; 1985)
- Reaction: The New Combines Investigation Act (Ed.; 1986)
- Religion, Economics & Social Thought (Ed. with Irving Hexham; 1986)
- Man, Economy and Liberty: Essays in Honor of Murray N. Rothbard (Ed. with Lew Rockwell; 1988)
- Breaking the Shackles; the Economics of Deregulation: A Comparison of U.S. and Canadian Experience (Ed. with George Lermer; 1991)
- Economic Freedom: Toward a Theory of Measurement (Ed.; 1991)
- Libertarian Autobiographies (Ed.; forthcoming)
- "Katrina and the Future of New Orleans" Telos 139, Summer 2007.
- "Hayek's Road to Serfdom". Journal of Libertarian Studies (Center for Libertarian Studies) 12 (2): 339–365 (1996).
- Block, Walter (2008). "Rent Control". In David R. Henderson (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (2nd ed.). Library of Economics and Liberty. ISBN 978-0865976658. OCLC 237794267.
- "WalterBlock.com – Austrian Economist and Libertarian Theorist:". Retrieved 2012-05-31.
- "Psychology Today". Profile of Walter Block.
- Walter Block faculty page, Loyola University New Orleans, accessed July 31, 2013.
- "Mises Institute Faculty Listing". Retrieved 31 July 2013.
-  Walter Block. "On Autobiography." LewRockwell.com. 4 December 2002.
- Walter Block curriculum vitae on Walterblock.com, p. 2.
- Block, Walter. "Open Letter to Ron Paul by Walter Block." LewRockwell.com. 28 December 2007. 
-  "Radical Economics: An Interview with Walter Block." Austrian Economics Newsletter. Summer 1999.
- Walter Block at Ludwig von Mises Institute website.
- Walter Block curriculum vitae sections on Articles Published in Refereed Journals and Reference Works.
- Public Choice, publication of Springer Science+Business Media.
- Block, Walter. "Psychology Today Blog Index". Retrieved 4 August 2013.
- Walter Block curriculum vitae on Walterblock.com, p. 1.
- Marcus Epstein, Defending the Truly Undefendable
- Walter Block, Defending the Defendable book reprint, Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2008 version.
- Harvard Political Review, Volumes 4-7, 1976, p. 46.
- John Stossel, Almost Everything We're Taught Is Wrong, Using economics to explode fallacies, Reason, August 25, 2011.
- Walter Block, "Towards a Libertarian Theory of Inalienability: A Critique of Rothbard, Barnett, Smith, Kinsella, Gordon, and Epstein." pp. 39–85, Journal of Libertarian Studies, vol. 17, no. 2, Spring 2003, p. 44, p. 48, p. 82 and p. 46
- Gill, James (November 26, 2008). "Loyola economics chair Walter Block ignites furor for asserting that women, blacks less productive in workplace." Times-Picayune
- Guess, Andy (November 19, 2008). "When Austrian Economics and Jesuit Theology Don't Mix." Inside Higher Education
- Block, Walter (November 18, 2008). "A (Not So) Funny Thing Happened to me in Baltimore." LewRockwell.com
- Walter Block, "Battling Political Correctness", LewRockwell.com, December 16, 2008
- Block, Walter. The Privatization of Roads and Highways: Human and Economic Factors; Auburn, AL: The Mises Institute, 2009
- Walter Block, "Toward a Libertarian Theory of Guilt and Punishment for the Crime of Statism", Journal of Libertarian Studies, Volume 22, (2011): 665–665.
- Walter Block, "Libertarian Punishment Theory: Working for, and Donating to, the State", Libertarian Papers 1, no. 17 (2009): 1–31.
- Walter Block, Compromising the Uncompromisable: A Private Property Approach to Resolving the Abortion Controversy, Walter Block personal web site, originally published in Appalachian Journal of Law, Vol 4:1.
- Jakub Bozydar Wisniewski, "A Critique of Block on Abortion and Child Abandonment", LibertariansPapers.org, project of Ludwig Von Mises Institute, VOL. 2, ART. NO. 16 (2010)
- Walter Block, A Libertarian Perspective on the Stem Cell Debate: Compromising the Uncompromisible, Journal of Medicine and Philosophy. Vol. 35, 2010, p 429–448
- Walter Block, Objections to the Libertarian Stem Cell Compromise, Libertarian Papers Vol. 2, Art. No. 34, 2010
- Jakobsson, Carl. 2010. The Negative Homesteading Theory: Rejoinder to Walter Block on Human Body Shields, Journal of Libertarian Studies. Vol. 22 Num. 1
- Walter Block, The Human Body Shield, Journal of Libertarian Studies, Volume 22 (2011): 625–630.
- Walter Block faculty page, College of Business Administration, Loyola University New Orleans.
- Commentary by Walter Block for CNBC
- Biography and Article Archive at Mises.org.
- Media Archive at Mises.org.
- Defending the Undefendable