Peter Thiel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Peter Thiel
Peter Thiel TechCrunch50.jpg
Peter Thiel at the 2008 TechCrunch50 conference.
Born Peter Andreas Thiel
(1967-10-11) October 11, 1967 (age 47)[1]
Frankfurt am Main, West Germany
Alma mater Stanford University (B.A.)
Stanford Law School (J.D.)
Occupation
Net worth Increase $2.2 billion (March 2014)[2][3]
Political party
Libertarian Party[1]
Religion Christian

Peter Andreas Thiel (born October 11, 1967) is an American entrepreneur, venture capitalist, and hedge fund manager. Thiel cofounded PayPal with Max Levchin and Elon Musk and served as its CEO. He also co-founded Palantir, of which he is chairman. He serves as president of Clarium Capital, a global macro hedge fund with $700 million in assets under management; a managing partner in Founders Fund, a venture capital fund with $2 billion in assets under management; co-founder and investment committee chair of Mithril Capital Management; and co-founder and chairman of Valar Ventures.[4][5][6] He was the first outside investor in Facebook, the popular social-networking site, with a 10.2% stake acquired in 2004 for $500,000, and sits on the company's board of directors. Thiel was ranked #293 on the Forbes 400 in 2011, with a net worth of $1.5 billion as of March 2012.[2] He was ranked #4 on the Forbes Midas List of 2014 at $2.2 billion.[7] Thiel lives in San Francisco, California.[8]

Early life[edit]

Childhood[edit]

Born to Germans Klaus Thiel, a chemical engineer, and Susanne Thiel, in Frankfurt am Main, West Germany. Thiel has one brother, Patrick Thiel.[9] Thiel moved to the United States with his parents when he was one year old, and was raised in Foster City, California.[10][11] Thiel was a US-rated Chess Master and one of the highest ranked under-21 players in the country.[12]

College and law school[edit]

Thiel studied 20th-century philosophy as an undergraduate at Stanford University. He received his B.A. in Philosophy from Stanford in 1989 and acquired a J.D. from Stanford Law School in 1992.[13]

An avowed libertarian, he founded The Stanford Review in 1987 along with Norman Book. The Stanford Review became famous for challenging campus mores including political correctness and laws against hate speech. The Stanford Review is now the university's main conservative/libertarian newspaper.[citation needed]

Thiel formed friendships with other students at Stanford, many of whom contributed to the Stanford Review. These include Keith Rabois, David O. Sacks, and Reid Hoffman. Some of these friends later took up jobs at PayPal (co-founded by Thiel) and became part of the PayPal Mafia.[citation needed]

While studying at Stanford, Thiel also encountered René Girard, whose mimetic theory influenced him.[citation needed]

Career[edit]

Early career[edit]

Thiel clerked for Judge J.L. Edmondson of the United States Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit.[citation needed][when?] From 1993 to 1996, he traded derivatives for Credit Suisse Group.[14] In 1996, he founded Thiel Capital Management, a multistrategy fund.

PayPal[edit]

In 1998 Thiel co-founded PayPal, an online payments system, with Max Levchin. The company later merged with X.com, then headed by Elon Musk. PayPal went public on February 15, 2002, and was sold to eBay for $1.5 billion later that year.[15] Thiel's 3.7 percent stake in PayPal was worth approximately $55 million at the time of the acquisition.[16]

According to Eric Jackson's account of PayPal in his book The PayPal Wars, Thiel viewed PayPal's mission as liberating people throughout the world from the erosion of the value of their currencies due to inflation. Jackson recalls an inspirational speech by Thiel in 1999:

"We're definitely onto something big. The need PayPal answers is monumental. Everyone in the world needs money – to get paid, to trade, to live. Paper money is an ancient technology and an inconvenient means of payment. You can run out of it. It wears out. It can get lost or stolen. In the twenty-first century, people need a form of money that's more convenient and secure, something that can be accessed from anywhere with a PDA or an Internet connection. Of course, what we're calling 'convenient' for American users will be revolutionary for the developing world. Many of these countries' governments play fast and loose with their currencies," the former derivatives trader [referring to Thiel] noted, before continuing, "They use inflation and sometimes wholesale currency devaluations, like we saw in Russia and several Southeast Asian countries last year [referring to the 1998 Russian financial crisis and 1997 Asian financial crisis], to take wealth away from their citizens. Most of the ordinary people there never have an opportunity to open an offshore account or to get their hands on more than a few bills of a stable currency like U.S. dollars. Eventually PayPal will be able to change this. In the future, when we make our service available outside the U.S. and as Internet penetration continues to expand to all economic tiers of people, PayPal will give citizens worldwide more direct control over their currencies than they ever had before. It will be nearly impossible for corrupt governments to steal wealth from their people through their old means because if they try the people will switch to dollars or Pounds or Yen, in effect dumping the worthless local currency for something more secure."[17]

Clarium Capital[edit]

Immediately after selling PayPal, Thiel launched a global macro hedge fund, Clarium Capital, pursuing a global macro strategy. In 2005 Clarium was honored as global macro fund of the year by both MarHedge and Absolute Return, two trade magazines. Thiel’s approach to investing became the subject of a chapter in Steve Drobny’s book, Inside the House of Money. Thiel successfully bet that the U.S. dollar would weaken in 2003, and gained significant returns betting that the dollar and energy would rally in 2005. After significant losses starting in 2009, Clarium dropped from $7 billion in assets in 2008 to around $350 million in 2011.[18]

In 2004, well before the financial crisis of 2007–2010 bore him out in general terms, Thiel spoke of the dot-com bubble of 2000 having migrated, in effect, into a growing bubble in the financial sector. He specified General Electric, with its large financing arm, and WalMart as vulnerable. To illustrate, in 2004, he reported having backed away from buying Martha Stewart's Manhattan duplex for $7 million in the winter of 2003-2004.[14] While the apartment did sell in 2004 for $6.65 million to another buyer, it was on the market but unsold in early 2010 at $15.9 million,[19] and later at the reduced price of $13.9 million.[20]

Facebook[edit]

In August 2004, Thiel made a $500,000 angel investment in the social network Facebook for 10.2% of the company and joined Facebook's board. This was the first outside investment in Facebook,[3][21] and Thiel went on to be portrayed in The Social Network (2010) by actor Wallace Langham.

In his book The Facebook Effect, David Kirkpatrick outlines the story of how Thiel came to make his investment: former Napster and Plaxo cofounder Sean Parker, who at the time had assumed the title of "President" of Facebook, was seeking investors for Facebook. Parker approached Reid Hoffman, the CEO of work-based social network LinkedIn. Hoffman liked Facebook but declined to be the lead investor because of the potential for conflict of interest with his duties as LinkedIn CEO. He redirected Parker to Thiel, whom he knew from their PayPal days (both Hoffman and Thiel are considered members of the PayPal Mafia). Thiel met Parker and Mark Zuckerberg, the Harvard college student who had founded Facebook and controlled it. Thiel and Zuckerberg got along well and Thiel agreed to lead Facebook's seed round with $500,000 for 10.2% of the company. Hoffman and Mark Pincus also participated in the round. The investment was originally in the form of a convertible note, to be converted to equity if Facebook reached 1.5 million users by the end of 2004. Although Facebook narrowly missed the target, Thiel allowed the loan to be converted to equity anyway.[22] Thiel said of his investment:

"I was comfortable with them pursuing their original vision. And it was a very reasonable valuation. I thought it was going to be a pretty safe investment."[22]

As a board member, Thiel was not actively involved in Facebook's day-to-day decision making. According to Sarah Lacy, Thiel's main advice to Zuckerberg in their initial years was "Just don’t fuck it up."[23] However, he did provide help with timing the various rounds of funding. Zuckerberg credited Thiel with helping him time Facebook's 2007 Series D to close before the 2007–2010 financial crisis.[24]

In September 2010, Thiel, while expressing skepticism about the potential for growth in the consumer Internet sector, argued that relative to other Internet companies, Facebook (which then had a secondary market valuation of $30 billion) was comparatively undervalued.[25] Facebook's IPO was in May 2012, with a market cap of nearly $100 billion ($38 a share), at which time Thiel sold 16.8 million shares for $638 million, at almost $38 per share.[26] In August 2012, immediately upon the conclusion of the early investor lock out period, Thiel sold almost all of his remaining stake for between $19.27 and $20.69 per share, or $395.8 million, for a total of more than $1 billion.[27] He still retained 5 million shares and a seat on the board of directors.[28]

Angel investor and venture capitalist[edit]

In 2005 Thiel created Founders Fund, a San Francisco based venture capital fund. Other partners in the fund include Sean Parker, Ken Howery, and Luke Nosek.

In addition to Facebook, Thiel has made early-stage investments in numerous startups (personally or through his venture capital fund), including Booktrack, Slide, LinkedIn, Friendster, Rapleaf, Geni.com, Yammer, Yelp, Inc., Powerset, Practice Fusion, MetaMed, Vator, Palantir Technologies, IronPort, Votizen, Asana, Big Think, Caplinked, Quora, Rypple, TransferWise, Nanotronics Imaging, Stripe, and Legendary Entertainment. Slide, LinkedIn, Geni.com, and Yammer were founded by Thiel's former colleagues at PayPal: Slide by Levchin, Linkedin by Reid Hoffman, Yelp by Jeremy Stoppelman, and Geni.com and Yammer by David Sacks. Fortune magazine reports that PayPal alumni have founded or invested in dozens of startups with an aggregate value of around $30 billion. In Silicon Valley circles, Thiel is colloquially referred to as the "Don of the PayPal Mafia", as noted in the Fortune magazine article.[29] Thiel's views on management are highly regarded,[by whom?] especially his famous observation that start-up success is highly correlated with low CEO pay.[citation needed]

Thiel founded Palantir Technologies funded by the CIA's venture capital arm In-Q-Tel.[30]

Through Valar Ventures, an internationally focused venture firm he cofounded with Andrew McCormack and James Fitzgerald,[31] Thiel was also an early investor in Xero, a software firm headquartered in New Zealand.[32]

In February 2013, Thiel received a TechCrunch Crunchie Award for Venture Capitalist of the year.[33]

Mithril: a late-stage investment fund[edit]

In June 2012, Peter Thiel launched Mithril, a late-stage investment fund with $402 million at the time of launch, intended for companies that were at the cusp between being private and going public.[4][5] Other partners in the fund include Jim O'Neill, co-founder of the Thiel Fellowship, and Ajay Royan, a former managing director at Clarium Capital, a hedge fund started by Thiel.

Philanthropy[edit]

Further information: Thiel Foundation

Thiel carries out most of his philanthropic activities through a nonprofit foundation created by him called the Thiel Foundation.[34]

Theory of philanthropy[edit]

Thiel concentrates the bulk of his philanthropic efforts on what he sees as potential breakthrough technologies. In November 2010, Thiel organized a Breakthrough Philanthropy conference that showcased eight nonprofits that he believed were working on radical new ideas in technology, government, and human affairs.[35] A similar conference was organized in December 2011 with the name "Fast Forward".[36]

Machine Intelligence Research Institute[edit]

Thiel believes in the importance and desirability of a technological singularity.[37] In February 2006, Thiel provided $100,000 of matching funds to back the Singularity Challenge donation drive of the Machine Intelligence Research Institute (then known as the Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence). Additionally, he joined the Institute's advisory board and participated in the May 2006 Singularity Summit at Stanford as well as at the 2011 Summit held in New York City.

In May 2007, Thiel provided half of the $400,000 matching funds for the annual Singularity Challenge donation drive.

The organization was a participant in the Breakthrough Philanthropy conference (November 2010) and the Fast Forward conference (December 2011).

Anti-aging research[edit]

When asked ”What is the biggest achievement that you haven’t achieved yet?” by the moderator of a discussion panel at the Venture Alpha West 2014 conference, Thiel replied, “Certainly, the area that I’m very passionate about is trying to do something to really get some progress on the anti-aging and longevity front,” describing it as ”a massively under-studied, under-invested phenomena.”[38]

In September 2006, Thiel announced that he would donate $3.5 million to foster anti-aging research through the Methuselah Mouse Prize foundation.[39] He gave the following reasons for his pledge: "Rapid advances in biological science foretell of a treasure trove of discoveries this century, including dramatically improved health and longevity for all. I’m backing Dr. [Aubrey] de Grey, because I believe that his revolutionary approach to aging research will accelerate this process, allowing many people alive today to enjoy radically longer and healthier lives for themselves and their loved ones."

The Thiel Foundation supports the research of the SENS Research Foundation, headed by Dr. de Grey, that is working to achieve the reversal of biological aging. The Thiel Foundation also supports the work of anti-aging researcher Cynthia Kenyon.

The SENS Research Foundation was invited as a participant in Thiel's Breakthrough Philanthropy conference (November 2010) and the Fast Forward conference (December 2011).

Seasteading[edit]

On April 15, 2008, Thiel pledged $500,000 to the new Seasteading Institute, directed by Patri Friedman, whose mission is "to establish permanent, autonomous ocean communities to enable experimentation and innovation with diverse social, political, and legal systems".[40] This was followed in February 2010 by a subsequent grant of $250,000, and an additional $100,000 in matching funds.[41]

In a talk at the Seasteading Institute conference in November 2009, Thiel explained why he believed that seasteading was necessary for the future of humanity.[42]

In 2011 Thiel was reported as having given a total of $1.25 million to the Seasteading Institute.[43] According to the Daily Mail Peter Thiel was inspired to do so by Ayn Rand's philosophical novel Atlas Shrugged.[44]

The Seasteading Institute was a participant in the Breakthrough Philanthropy conference (November 2010) and the Fast Forward conference (December 2011).

Thiel Fellowship[edit]

On September 29, 2010, Thiel said he had created a new fellowship called the Thiel Fellowship, which will award $100,000 to 20 people under 20 years old,[45] in order to spur them to quit college and create their own ventures.[46]

Breakout Labs[edit]

In October 2011, the Thiel Foundation announced the creation of Breakout Labs, a grant-making program intended to fund early-stage scientific research that may be too radical or innovative for traditional scientific funding bodies but also too long-term and speculative for venture investors.[47] In April 2012, Breakout Labs announced its first set of grantees.[48]

Other causes[edit]

The Thiel Foundation is also a supporter of the Committee to Protect Journalists, which promotes the right of journalists to report the news freely without fear of reprisal,[49] and the Human Rights Foundation, which organizes the Oslo Freedom Forum.[50]

Political activities[edit]

Quotes[edit]

Peter Thiel wrote, on April 13, 2009, in the Libertarian 'Cato Unbound' blog, “Most importantly, I no longer believe that freedom and democracy are compatible.” In the same article, he also wrote, "Since 1920, the vast increase in welfare beneficiaries and the extension of the franchise to women — two constituencies that are notoriously tough for libertarians — have rendered the notion of “capitalist democracy” into an oxymoron."[51]

On September 22, 2010, Thiel said at a 2010 fundraiser for the American Foundation for Equal Rights, “I believe that gay rights and marriage rights for gay people should not be a partisan issue,” and ”Gay marriage can’t be a partisan issue because as long as there are partisan issues or cultural issues in this country, you’ll have trench warfare like on the western front in World War I. You’ll have lots of carnage and no progress.”[52]

He wrote an editorial in National Review in 2011 claiming that the world had entered a "tech slowdown" and that 1969 was when "the hippies took over the country, and when the true cultural war over Progress was lost."[53]

In a 2014 episode of "Conversations with Bill Kristol," he spoke at length on what he perceives to be a crisis in American higher education. He said: "The university system in 2014, it’s like the Catholic Church circa 1514. There’s less diversity, so you have the Dominicans and Franciscans and all these different orders, whereas the diversity between say the Harvard and Stanford political science department is considerably less. But it is sort you have this priestly class of professors that doesn’t do very much work, people are buying indulgences in the form of amassing enormous debt for the sort of the secular salvation that a diploma represents." [54]

Bilderberg Group[edit]

Thiel is listed as a member of the Steering Committee of the Bilderberg Group, a private, annual gathering of intellectual figures, political leaders and business executives.[55]

Support for political activism[edit]

Thiel is a self-described conservative libertarian.[56]

Thiel has supported gay-rights causes such as the American Foundation for Equal Rights and GOProud.[57] In 2010, Thiel held Homocon 2010 for GOProud, an LGBT conservative/libertarian organization, in his New York City apartment. Thiel himself is gay.[58][59][60][61][62] He invited conservative columnist Ann Coulter, who is a friend of his,[63][64] to Homocon 2010 as a guest speaker.[65] Coulter later dedicated her new book, Demonic: How the Liberal Mob Is Endangering America, to Thiel.[66] In 2012, Thiel donated $10,000 to Minnesotans United for All Families, in order to fight Minnesota Amendment 1.[67]

In 2009, it was reported that Thiel helped fund college student James O'Keefe's "Taxpayers Clearing House" video – a satirical look at the politics behind the Wall Street bailout.[68] O'Keefe went on to produce the ACORN undercover sting videos, but through a spokesperson, Thiel denied involvement in – or even knowledge of – the ACORN sting.[68]

In July 2012, Thiel made a $1 million donation to the Club for Growth, a fiscally conservative 501(c)4, becoming the group's largest contributor.[69]

Support for political candidates[edit]

Although a member of the Libertarian Party,[1] Thiel donates overwhelmingly more political contributions to Republicans.

In December 2007, Thiel endorsed Ron Paul for President.[70] After Ron Paul failed to secure the Republican nomination for president, Thiel contributed to the John McCain/Sarah Palin presidential ticket of 2008.[71]

In 2010, Thiel supported Meg Whitman, who as CEO of eBay had purchased PayPal from Thiel and his co-founders and investors, in her unsuccessful bid for the governorship of California. He contributed the maximum allowable $25,900 to the Whitman campaign.[72]

In 2012, Thiel, along with PayPal co-founder Luke Nosek and Scott Banister, an early adviser and board member, put their support behind Ron Paul's Endorse Liberty Super PAC, alongside Internet advertising veteran Stephen Oskoui and entrepreneur Jeffrey Harmon, who founded Endorse Liberty in November 2011. Collectively Thiel et al. gave $3.9 million to Endorse Liberty, whose purpose was to promote Texas congressman Ron Paul for president in 2012. As of January 31, 2012, Endorse Liberty reported spending about $3.3 million promoting Paul by setting up two YouTube channels, buying ads from Google and Facebook and StumbleUpon, and building a presence on the Web.[73] At the 2012 Republican National Convention, Thiel held a private meeting with Rand Paul and Ron Paul's presidential delegates to discuss "the future of the Liberty Movement."[74] After Ron Paul again failed to secure the Republican nomination for president, Thiel contributed to the Mitt Romney/Paul Ryan presidential ticket of 2012.[71]

Other Republican politicians Thiel has contributed donations to include Rep. James E. Rogan, Don Stenberg, Sen. John Thune Douglas Forrester, Rep. Robin Hayes, Sen. John Cornyn, Sen. Elizabeth Dole, Sen. Lamar Alexander, State Sen. Dick Monteith, Rep. Lee Terry, Sen. Chuck Hagel, Rep. Dan Lungren, Rep. Bob Beauprez, Rep. Mike Simpson, Rep. Tom Tancredo, Rep. Mary Bono, Gov. Butch Otter, Rep. Dana Rohrabacher, Rep. Nancy Johnson, Rep. Scott Garrett, Rep. Tim Johnson, Rep. Bill Thomas, Sen. Jeff Flake, Sen. Jim DeMint, Sen. Jim Talent, Rep. Denny Rehberg, Rep. Rob Simmons, Rep. Jon Porter, Rep. Roscoe Bartlett, Rep. Ed Royce, Sen. Susan Collins, Sen. Gordon H. Smith, Rep. Bob Schaffer, John Neely Kennedy, Sen. Norm Coleman, Rep. Mike Coffman, Rep. Eric Cantor, John Raese, Dino Rossi, Ryan Brumberg, Sen. Rand Paul, Randy Altschuler, Rep. Justin Amash, State Sen. Richard Tisei, Kevin McCarthy, Sen. Ted Cruz, Josh Mandel, and Sen. Orrin Hatch.[71][75][76][77][78][79][80][81]

The only Democrat Thiel has contributed donations to is Ro Khanna. Khanna has been criticized by members of his own party as a "fiscal conservative", "libertarian",[82] and "Republican lite."[83]

Religious views[edit]

Thiel inherited his Christian beliefs from his parents. He grew up as an evangelical, but he describes his beliefs as “somewhat heterodox,” complicated by his cultural liberalism. “I believe Christianity is true,” he said. “I don’t sort of feel a compelling need to convince other people of that.”

During his time at Stanford, he had attended a lecture given by a French professor named René Girard, which had led him to Girard’s books, and he became a devotee. Girard had developed a theory of mimetic desire, of people learning to want and compete for the same things, which attempted to explain the origins of violence. Girard, a conservative Catholic, explained the role of sacrifice and the scapegoat in resolving social conflict, which appealed to Thiel, offering a basis for his Christian belief without the fundamentalism of his parents.[84]

Other pursuits[edit]

Media appearances and commentary[edit]

Thiel is an occasional commentator on CNBC, having appeared numerous times on both Closing Bell with Kelly Evans, and Squawk Box with Becky Quick.[85] He has been interviewed twice by Charlie Rose on PBS.[86]

Thiel has contributed articles to The Wall Street Journal, First Things, Forbes, and Policy Review, a journal formerly published by the Hoover Institution, on whose board he sits.

Thiel is supposedly the inspiration for the Peter Gregory character on HBO's Silicon Valley.[87]

Awards and honors[edit]

In 2006, Thiel won the Herman Lay Award for Entrepreneurship.[88] In 2007, he was honored as a Young Global leader by the World Economic Forum as one of the 250 most distinguished leaders age 40 and under.[89] On November 7, 2009, Thiel was awarded an honorary degree from Universidad Francisco Marroquin[90] In 2012, Students For Liberty, an organization dedicated to spreading libertarian ideals on college campuses, awarded Thiel its "Alumnus of the Year" award, and Thiel delivered the keynote address at the 2012 International Students For Liberty Conference.[91]

The Diversity Myth[edit]

Thiel is the co-author, with David O. Sacks, and with a foreword by the late Emory University historian Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, of the 1995 book The Diversity Myth: 'Multiculturalism' and the Politics of Intolerance at Stanford, published by The Independent Institute. The book is critical of political correctness in higher education and the consequent dilution of academic rigor. It "drew a sharp rebuttal from then-Stanford Provost (and later President George W. Bush's National Security Advisor) Condoleezza Rice."[citation needed] According to his 2011 New Yorker profile, Thiel has backtracked somewhat from his assertions in the book:

“All of the identity-related things are in my mind much more nuanced,” he said. “I think there is a gay experience, I think there is a black experience, I think there is a woman’s experience that is meaningfully different. I also think there was a tendency to exaggerate it and turn it into an ideological category.” But his reaction against political correctness, he said, was just as narrowly ideological.[18]

Thank You For Smoking[edit]

Thiel was the co-producer of Thank You for Smoking, a 2005 feature film based on Christopher Buckley's 1994 novel of the same name.[92]

Teaching and book on startups: Zero to One[edit]

In spring 2012 Thiel taught Stanford class CS 183: Startup.[93] Notes for the course, taken by student Blake Masters, led to a book titled Zero to One by Thiel and Masters, released September 2014.[94][95][96][97]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Peter Thiel, NNDB.
  2. ^ a b "Peter Thiel – Forbes". Forbes.com. Retrieved 2012-06-02. 
  3. ^ a b "Shareholder trading values Facebook at more than $33bn" The Guardian – August 25, 2010: This reference does not confirm Thiel's percentage stake, implied to be 5.2% i.e. 33 divided by 1.7. The 5.2% is also independently asserted in the Facebook section of this Wikipedia article, but without citation. The imputed valuation of Facebook has, also, moved up to $50bn in an early-2011 transaction with Goldman Sachs (Craig, Susanne and Andrew Ross Sorkin, "Goldman Offering Clients a Chance to Invest in Facebook", The New York Times Dealbook, January 2, 2011, 11:31 pm ET.) A 5.2% share of $50 billion would be worth $2.58 billion. For its part, by March 2010, Forbes had actually reduced its estimate of Thiel's net worth to $1.2 billion (#828 on list of world's billionaires), though the higher Facebook valuation makes this even more undervalued. Footnote expanded 2011-01-11.
  4. ^ a b Hsu, Tiffany (2012-06-20). "Facebook investor Peter Thiel opens Mithril venture capital fund". Los Angeles Times. 
  5. ^ a b Cutler, Kim-Mai (2012-06-19). "Peter Thiel Launches Mithril: A New $402 Million Late-Stage Fund". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  6. ^ "The PayPal Mafia: Who are they and where are Silicon Valley's richest group of men now?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2014-09-23. 
  7. ^ "Midas List 2014: The Billionaires". Forbes. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  8. ^ "Peter Thiel Says 'Don't Piss Off the Robots'". Silicon Alley Insider. November 18, 2009. 
  9. ^ "Peter Thiel". NNDB. Retrieved September 23, 2014. 
  10. ^ Thiel, Peter. "Peter Thiel, technology entrepreneur and investor. AMA". http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/. Retrieved Thu Sep 11.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  11. ^ Jenkins, Jr., Holman W. (October 9, 2010). "Technology=Salvation". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 20, 2012. 
  12. ^ http://ratings.fide.com/card.phtml?event=2022389
  13. ^ "PayPal: executive officers, directors and key employees". October 31, 2001. 
  14. ^ a b Hibbard, Justin, "Big Bucks From Bubble Fears", Business Week, November 8, 2004. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
  15. ^ "eBay picks up PayPal for $1.5 billion by Margaret Kane|CNET News.com". Archived from the original on 2008-07-14. Retrieved 2008-01-24. On Monday, eBay said it is acquiring online payments company PayPal in a deal valued at $1.5 billion. [...] 
  16. ^ "SEC Info - Ebay Inc – S-4 – on 8/6/02". Archived from the original on 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
  17. ^ Eric M. Jackson. The PayPal Wars: Battles With Ebay, the Media, the Mafia, And the Rest of Planet Earth (Kindle Locations 321-327). Kindle Edition.
  18. ^ a b Packer, George. "No Death, No Taxes: The libertarian futurism of a Silicon Valley billionaire.". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2011-12-07. 
  19. ^ "Change of Plans: Martha Stewart's Perry Street Place Now Flying Solo for $15.9M", Manhattan Real Estate. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
  20. ^ Goldman, Leah, "House Of The Day: Buy Martha Stewart's Manhattan Penthouse At A $2 Million Markdown", Business Insider, Nov. 23, 2010, 5:23 pm ET. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
  21. ^ Caulfield, Brian; Perlroth, Nicole (14 February 2011). "Life After Facebook". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved 29 November 2011. 
  22. ^ a b Kirkpatrick, David (2010-06-08). The Facebook Effect (pp. 87–8). Simon & Schuster.
  23. ^ Lacy, Sarah (2008-05-15). Once You're Lucky, Twice You're Good: The Rebirth of Silicon Valley and the Rise of Web 2.0. Page 154. Gotham Books.
  24. ^ Kirkpatrick, David (2010-06-08). The Facebook Effect (p. 246). Simon & Schuster. Kindle Edition.
  25. ^ "Peter Thiel: Why Facebook Is Like Ford Motors In The 1920s". 
  26. ^ Tiku, Nitasha. (2013-01-19) Peter Thiel Sells Almost All of His Facebook Stock, Donates $1 Million to a Tea Party PAC. Betabeat. Retrieved on 2013-10-23.
  27. ^ Alexei Oreskovic (August 19, 2012). "Facebook director Thiel sold 20 million shares after lock-up". Reuters. Retrieved August 19, 2012. 
  28. ^ Julia Boorstin (August 20, 2012). "Investor Peter Thiel Sells Facebook Shares". CNBC. Retrieved August 20, 2012. 
  29. ^ O'Brien, Jeffrey M. (2007-11-14). "The PayPal mafia – November 14, 2007". CNN. Archived from the original on 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
  30. ^ "Palantir, the War on Terror's Secret Weapon". 
  31. ^ Gobry, Pascal-Emmanuel (Jan 14, 2011). "Billionaire Facebook Investor Peter Thiel Pours Money Into His "Utopia," New Zealand". Business Insider. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  32. ^ Drury, Rod. "Peter Thiel to Invest in Xero". Xero. Xero. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  33. ^ Congratulations Crunchies Winners! GitHub Wins Best Overall Startup. TechCrunch (2013-01-31). Retrieved on 2013-10-23.
  34. ^ "Thiel Foundation website". 
  35. ^ "Breakthrough Philanthropy video playlist". Youtube.com. 2010-12-07. Retrieved 2013-12-05. 
  36. ^ "Thiel Foundation website page on Fast Forward". Thielfoundation.org. Retrieved 2013-12-05. 
  37. ^ "Peter Thiel at the Singularity Summit". 
  38. ^ Reilly, Richard Byrne (October 8, 2014). "Billionaire Peter Thiel embarks on anti-aging crusade". Venture Beat. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  39. ^ "The Mprize-PayPal Founder pledges $3.5 Million to antiaging research". Archived from the original on 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
  40. ^ "Introducing The Seasteading Institute". Archived from the original on 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  41. ^ "PayPal Founder Peter Thiel Offers $100,000 in Matching Donations to The Seasteading Institute, Makes Grant of $250,000". Prweb.com. Retrieved 2010-10-16. 
  42. ^ "Peter Thiel talk at the Seasteading Institute Conference, 2009". 
  43. ^ Liz Goodwin (August 16, 2011). "Silicon Valley billionaire funding creation of artificial libertarian islands". The Lookout Blog. 
  44. ^ Daily Mail reporter. "Floating cities: PayPal billionaire plans to build a whole new libertarian colony off the coast of San Francisco". Mail Online. Updated 25 August 2011.
  45. ^ "The Thiel Fellowship". 20 Under 20. 2010-09-29. Retrieved 2010-10-16. 
  46. ^ "Peter Thiel Launches Fellowship Program". Retrieved 2010-09-30. 
  47. ^ "Breakout Labs about page". Breakoutlabs.org. Retrieved 2013-12-05. 
  48. ^ "Breakout Labs press release on first batch of grantees". 2012-04-17. Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  49. ^ Supporters of Press Freedom. "Supporters of Press Freedom - About CPJ - Committee to Protect Journalists". Cpj.org. Retrieved 2010-10-16. 
  50. ^ "Freedom Project page on Thiel Foundation website". Retrieved 2012-06-08. 
  51. ^ Thiel, Peter (13 April 2009). "The Education of a Libertarian". Cato Institute. Retrieved 26 April 2014. 
  52. ^ "Obama-Minded Billionaires Mostly Quiet On Same-Sex Marriage". Forbes. May 10, 2012. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  53. ^ Thiel, Peter. (2011-10-03) The End of the Future | National Review Online. Nationalreview.com. Retrieved on 2013-10-23.
  54. ^ Thiel, Peter. (2014-10-15) [1] Conversationswithbillkristol.org Retrieved on 2014-09-17.
  55. ^ Cadwalladr, Carole (September 21, 2014). "Peter Thiel: 'We attribute too much to luck. Luck is an atheistic word for God'". The Observer. p. 8. Retrieved September 21, 2014. 
  56. ^ Street, Aaron (March 2, 2013). "Peter Thiel on the Role of Technology and Globalization in Our Economy". Politics Law & Economics Blog. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
  57. ^ Weisberg, Jacob. "Hyper-libertarian Facebook billionaire Peter Thiel's appalling plan to pay students to quit college". Slate, October 16, 2010.
  58. ^ Robehmed, Natalie (March 3, 2014). "Meet the World's LGBT Billionaires". Forbes. 
  59. ^ Kitroeff, Natalie (October 7, 2014). "Peter Thiel on Creativity: Asperger’s Promotes It, Business School Crushes It". BusinessWeek. 
  60. ^ Somerville, Heather (October 14, 2014). "Peter Thiel wields political influence on GOP". San Jose Mercury News. 
  61. ^ Segall, Laurie (November 6, 2014). "Peter Thiel on Tim Cook coming out: 'It was courageous'". CNN. 
  62. ^ Kantor, Jodi (December 23, 2014). "For Stanford Class of '94, a Gender Gap More Powerful Than the Internet". New York Times. 
  63. ^ "Coulter, Norquist spar over immigration reform". The Daily Caller. April 13, 2013. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  64. ^ "Maybe Going to College Really Isn't the Next Thing You Should Do". The Rush Limbaugh Show. May 25, 2011. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  65. ^ "Outflanked on Right, Coulter Seeks New Image". The New York Times. October 8, 2010. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  66. ^ "Demonic: How the Liberal Mob Is Endangering America". Library Thing. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  67. ^ "Who is funding the marriage amendment fight?". Minn Post. November 1, 2012. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  68. ^ a b Steven Thrasher (September 22, 2009). "The Money Trail – Conservative Facebook Investor Funded Anti-ACORN Videographer". Village Voice. 
  69. ^ Gregory Giroux (August 20, 2012). "Thiel's $1 Million Tops Donors to Club for Growth Super-PAC". Bloomberg. 
  70. ^ "Endorsements » Blog Archive » Peter Thiel". Retrieved 2008-01-24. [dead link]
  71. ^ a b c "Peter Thiel Political Campaign Contributions 2012 Election Cycle". 
  72. ^ Fost, Dan, "Old (Pay)Pals: Peter Thiel backs Meg Whitman", Forbes blog, Sep. 17, 2010 7:08 pm ET. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
  73. ^ Selyukh, Alina (2012-01-31). "PayPal co-founders fund pro-Paul Super PAC". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-01-31. 
  74. ^ "Rand Paul Is Hanging Out With Facebook Billionaire Peter Thiel At The GOP Convention". Business Insider. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  75. ^ "Peter Thiel Political Campaign Contributions 2000 Election Cycle". 
  76. ^ "Peter Thiel Political Campaign Contributions 2002 Election Cycle". 
  77. ^ "Peter Thiel Political Campaign Contributions 2004 Election Cycle". 
  78. ^ "Peter Thiel Political Campaign Contributions 2006 Election Cycle". 
  79. ^ "Peter Thiel Political Campaign Contributions 2008 Election Cycle". 
  80. ^ "Peter Thiel Political Campaign Contributions 2010 Election Cycle". 
  81. ^ "Peter Thiel Political Campaign Contributions 2014 Election Cycle". 
  82. ^ Nathan, Jonathan (August 14, 2013). "Why is Ro Khanna REALLY Running For Office?". Blue the Nation. 
  83. ^ Richman, Josh (June 21, 2013). "Netroots Nation: Ro Khanna fires back at critics". Political Blotter. 
  84. ^ Paul, Elie. "America’s Problem: Mimetic Desire". Everything That Rises. 
  85. ^ "News Headlines". Cnbc.com. 2009-02-26. Retrieved 2010-10-16. 
  86. ^ "Peter Thiel". Charlie Rose. Retrieved 2010-10-16. 
  87. ^ Julie Bort (April 28, 2014). "A Guide To The Best Inside Jokes On HBO's Hit Comedy 'Silicon Valley'". Business Insider. 
  88. ^ "The Association of Private Enterprise Education". Archived from the original on 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
  89. ^ "List of Active Young Global Leaders" (PDF). The Forum of Active Young Global Leaders. World Economic Forum. January 26, 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  90. ^ "Honorary Doctoral Degrees at Universidad Francisco Marroquín". [dead link]
  91. ^ "Peter Thiel at #ISFLC12: "You are the Entrepreneur of Your Life"". 2012-02-27. Retrieved 2012-06-11. 
  92. ^ Rebecca Buckman (December 29, 2007). "VC's New Math: Does Less = More?". The Wall Street Journal. 
  93. ^ Mac, Ryan (2012-06-07). "Ten Lessons from Peter Thiel's Class On Startups". Forbes. 
  94. ^ "Zero to One". Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  95. ^ Masters, Blake. "Notes Essays—Peter Thiel’s CS183: Startup—Stanford, Spring 2012". Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  96. ^ "What's the difference between Blake Masters' notes from CS183 and his book "Zero To One"?". Quora. Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  97. ^ Shen, Jason (August 26, 2014). "The Best and Worst Parts of Peter Thiel’s New Book: Zero to One". Retrieved September 14, 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]