Sinclair Lewis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sinclair Lewis
Sinclair Lewis 1930.jpg
Born Harry Sinclair Lewis
(1885-02-07)February 7, 1885
Sauk Centre, Minnesota
Died January 10, 1951(1951-01-10) (aged 65)
Rome, Italy
Occupation Novelist, playwright, short story writer
Nationality American
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Literature
1930

Signature

Harry Sinclair Lewis (/ˈlɪs/; February 7, 1885 – January 10, 1951) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and playwright. In 1930, he became the first writer from the United States to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, which was awarded "for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humor, new types of characters." His works are known for their insightful and critical views of American capitalism and materialism between the wars.[1] He is also respected for his strong characterizations of modern working women. H.L. Mencken wrote of him, "[If] there was ever a novelist among us with an authentic call to the trade ... it is this red-haired tornado from the Minnesota wilds."[2]

He has been honored by the U.S. Postal Service with a Great Americans series postage stamp.

Biography[edit]

Childhood and education[edit]

The writer's boyhood home at 812 Sinclair Lewis Avenue, Sauk Centre, Minnesota, is now a museum

Born February 7, 1885, in the village of Sauk Centre, Minnesota, Sinclair Lewis began reading books at a young age and kept a diary. He had two siblings, Fred (born 1875) and Claude (born 1878). His father, Edwin J. Lewis, was a physician and a stern disciplinarian who had difficulty relating to his sensitive, unathletic third son. Lewis's mother, Emma Kermott Lewis, died in 1891. The following year, Edwin Lewis married Isabel Warner, whose company young Lewis apparently enjoyed. Throughout his lonely boyhood, the ungainly Lewis—tall, extremely thin, stricken with acne and somewhat pop-eyed—had trouble gaining friends and pined after various local girls. At the age of 13 he unsuccessfully ran away from home, wanting to become a drummer boy in the Spanish-American War.[3]

In late 1902 Lewis left home for a year at Oberlin Academy (the then-preparatory department of Oberlin College) to qualify for acceptance by Yale University. While at Oberlin, he developed a religious enthusiasm that waxed and waned for much of his remaining teenage years. He entered Yale in 1903 but did not receive his bachelor's degree until 1908, having taken time off to work at Helicon Home Colony, Upton Sinclair's cooperative-living colony in Englewood, New Jersey, and to travel to Panama. Lewis's unprepossessing looks, "fresh" country manners and seemingly self-important loquacity made it difficult for him to win and keep friends at Oberlin and Yale. He did initiate a few relatively long-lived friendships among students and professors, some of whom recognized his promise as a writer.[4]

Early career[edit]

Sinclair Lewis in 1914

Lewis's earliest published creative work—romantic poetry and short sketches—appeared in the Yale Courant and the Yale Literary Magazine, of which he became an editor. After graduation Lewis moved from job to job and from place to place in an effort to make ends meet, write fiction for publication and to chase away boredom. While working for newspapers and publishing houses (and for a time at the Carmel-by-the-Sea, California writers' colony), he developed a facility for turning out shallow, popular stories that were purchased by a variety of magazines. He also earned money by selling plots to Jack London, including one for the latter's unfinished novel The Assassination Bureau, Ltd.

Lewis's first published book was Hike and the Aeroplane, a Tom Swift-style potboiler that appeared in 1912 under the pseudonym Tom Graham.

Sinclair Lewis's first serious novel, Our Mr. Wrenn: The Romantic Adventures of a Gentle Man, appeared in 1914, followed by The Trail of the Hawk: A Comedy of the Seriousness of Life (1915) and The Job (1917). That same year also saw the publication of another potboiler, The Innocents: A Story for Lovers, an expanded version of a serial story that had originally appeared in Woman's Home Companion. Free Air, another refurbished serial story, was published in 1919.

Marriage and family[edit]

In 1914 Lewis married Grace Livingston Hegger (1887-1981), an editor at Vogue magazine. They had one son, Wells Lewis (1917–1944), named after British author H. G. Wells. Wells Lewis was killed in action while serving in the U.S. Army in World War II, specifically during the rescue of 'The Lost Battalion' in the Foret-De-Champ, near Germany, in France.[citation needed] Dean Acheson, the future Secretary of State, was a neighbor and family friend in Washington, and observed that Sinclair's literary "success was not good for that marriage, or for either of the parties to it, or for Lewis's work" and the family moved out of town.[5]

Lewis divorced Grace in 1925. On May 14, 1928, he married Dorothy Thompson, a political newspaper columnist. Later in 1928, he and Dorothy purchased a second home in rural Vermont.[6] They had a son, Michael Lewis, in 1930. Their marriage had virtually ended by 1937, and they divorced in 1942. Michael Lewis became an actor, also suffered with alcoholism, and died in 1975 of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Michael had two sons, John Paul and Gregiry Claude, with wife Bernadette Nanse and a daughter Lesley with wife Valerie Cardew.

Commercial success[edit]

Upon moving to Washington, D.C., Lewis devoted himself to writing. As early as 1916, he began taking notes for a realistic novel about small-town life. Work on that novel continued through mid-1920, when he completed Main Street, which was published on October 23, 1920.[7] As his biographer Mark Schorer wrote, the phenomenal success of Main Street "was the most sensational event in twentieth-century American publishing history."[8] Lewis's agent had the most optimistic projection of sales at 25,000 copies. In its first six months, Main Street sold 180,000 copies,[9] and within a few years, sales were estimated at two million.[10] According to biographer Richard Lingeman, "Main Street made [Lewis] rich—earning him perhaps three million current [2005] dollars".[11]

Sinclair Lewis's former residence in Washington, D.C.

Lewis followed up this first great success with Babbitt (1922), a novel that satirized the American commercial culture and boosterism. The story was set in the fictional Midwestern town of Zenith, Winnemac, a setting to which Lewis would return in future novels, including Gideon Planish and Dodsworth.

Lewis continued his success in the 1920s with Arrowsmith (1925), a novel about the challenges faced by an idealistic doctor. It was awarded the Pulitzer Prize (which Lewis refused).[12] Adapted as a 1931 Hollywood film directed by John Ford and starring Ronald Colman, it was nominated for four Academy Awards.

Next Lewis published Elmer Gantry (1927), which depicted an evangelical minister as deeply hypocritical. The novel was denounced by many religious leaders and banned in some U.S. cities. Adapted for the screen more than a generation later, the novel was the basis of the 1960 movie starring Burt Lancaster, who earned a Best Actor Oscar for his performance.

Lewis closed out the decade with Dodsworth (1929), a novel about the most affluent and successful members of American society. He portrayed them as leading essentially pointless lives in spite of great wealth and advantages. The book was adapted for the Broadway stage in 1934 by Sidney Howard, who also wrote the screenplay for the 1936 film version. Directed by William Wyler and a great success at the time, the film is still highly regarded. In 1990, it was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry, and in 2005 Time magazine named it one of the "100 Best Movies" of the past 80 years.[13]

During the late 1920s and 1930s, Lewis wrote many short stories for a variety of magazines and publications. "Little Bear Bongo" (1930), a tale about a bear cub who wanted to escape the circus in search of a better life in the real world, was published in Cosmopolitan magazine.[14] The story was acquired by Walt Disney Pictures in 1940 for a possible feature film. World War II sidetracked those plans until 1947. Disney used the story (now titled "Bongo") as part of its feature Fun and Fancy Free.

Nobel Prize[edit]

In 1930, Lewis won the Nobel Prize in Literature, the first writer from the United States to receive the award. In the Swedish Academy's presentation speech, special attention was paid to Babbitt. In his Nobel Lecture, Lewis praised Theodore Dreiser, Willa Cather, Ernest Hemingway, and other contemporaries, but also lamented that "in America most of us—not readers alone, but even writers—are still afraid of any literature which is not a glorification of everything American, a glorification of our faults as well as our virtues," and that America is "the most contradictory, the most depressing, the most stirring, of any land in the world today." He also offered a profound criticism of the American literary establishment: "Our American professors like their literature clear and cold and pure and very dead."[15]

Later years[edit]

Sinclair Lewis examines Lewis Browne's new novel as they begin their 1943 lecture tour

After winning the Nobel Prize, Lewis wrote eleven more novels, ten of which appeared in his lifetime. The best remembered is It Can't Happen Here (1935), a novel about the election of a fascist to the American presidency.

After an alcoholic binge in 1937, Lewis checked into the Austen Riggs Center, a psychiatric hospital in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, for treatment. His doctors gave Lewis a blunt assessment that he needed to decide "whether he was going to live without alcohol or die by it, one or the other."[16] Lewis checked out after ten days, lacking, one of his physicians wrote to a colleague, any "fundamental understanding of his problem."[16]

In the 1940s, Lewis and rabbi-turned-popular author Lewis Browne frequently appeared on the lecture platform together,[17] touring the United States and debating such questions as "Has the Modern Woman Made Good?", "The Country Versus the City", "Is the Machine Age Wrecking Civilization?" and "Can Fascism Happen Here?" before audiences of as many as 3,000 people. The pair was described as "the Gallagher and Shean of the lecture circuit" by Lewis biographer Richard Lingeman.[18]

The novel Kingsblood Royal (1947) is set in the fictional city Grand Republic, Minnesota, an enlarged and updated version of Zenith. Based on the Sweet Trials in Detroit, in which an African-American doctor was denied the chance to purchase a house in a "white" section of the city, Kingsblood Royal was a powerful and very early contribution to the civil rights movement.

Lewis died in Rome on January 10, 1951, aged 65, from advanced alcoholism. His cremated remains were buried in Sauk Centre. A final novel, World So Wide (1951), was published posthumously.

William Shirer, a friend and admirer of Lewis, disputes accounts that Lewis died of alcoholism per se. He reported that Lewis had a heart attack and that his doctors advised him to stop drinking if he wanted to live. Lewis did not, and perhaps could not, stop; he died when his heart stopped.[19]

In summing up Lewis' career, Shirer concludes:

It has become rather commonplace for so-called literary critics to write off Sinclair Lewis as a novelist. Compared to ... Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Dos Passos, and Faulkner ... Lewis lacked style. Yet his impact on modern American life ... was greater than all of the other four writers together.[19]

Works[edit]

Novels[edit]

The works of Sinclair Lewis are listed in Contemporary Authors Online, Thomson Gale, 2004. Serialized magazine printings of Lewis's novels are listed online at The FictionMags Index.[20]

Short stories[edit]

Select short stories and novelettes by Sinclair Lewis are listed online at The FictionMags Index.[20]

  • 1907: "That Passage in Isaiah", The Blue Mule, May 1907
  • 1907: "Art and the Woman", The Gray Goose, June 1907
  • 1911: "The Way to Rome", The Bellman, May 13, 1911
  • 1915: "Commutation: $9.17", The Saturday Evening Post, October 30, 1915
  • 1915: "The Other Side of the House", The Saturday Evening Post, November 27, 1915
  • 1916: "If I Were Boss", The Saturday Evening Post, January 1 and 8, 1916
  • 1916: "I'm a Stranger Here Myself", The Smart Set, August 1916
  • 1916: "He Loved His Country", Everybody's Magazine, October 1916
  • 1916: "Honestly If Possible", The Saturday Evening Post, October 14, 191
  • 1917: "Twenty-Four Hours in June", The Saturday Evening Post, February 17, 1917
  • 1917: "The Innocents", Woman's Home Companion, March 1917
  • 1917: "A Story with a Happy Ending", The Saturday Evening Post, March 17, 1917
  • 1917: "Hobohemia", The Saturday Evening Post, April 7, 1917
  • 1917: "The Ghost Patrol", The Red Book Magazine, June 1917
    Adapted for the silent film The Ghost Patrol (1923)
  • 1917: "Young Man Axelbrod", The Century, June 1917
  • 1917: "A Woman by Candlelight", The Saturday Evening Post, July 28, 1917
  • 1917: "The Whisperer", The Saturday Evening Post, August 11, 1917
  • 1917: "The Hidden People", Good Housekeeping, September 1917
  • 1917: "Joy-Joy", The Saturday Evening Post, October 20, 1917
  • 1918: "A Rose for Little Eva", McClure's, February 1918
  • 1918: "Slip It to ’Em", Metropolitan Magazine, March 1918
  • 1918: "An Invitation to Tea", Every Week, June 1, 1918
  • 1918: "The Shadowy Glass", The Saturday Evening Post, June 22, 1918
  • 1918: "The Willow Walk", The Saturday Evening Post, August 10, 1918
  • 1918: "Getting His Bit", Metropolitan Magazine, September 1918
  • 1918: "The Swept Hearth", The Saturday Evening Post, September 21, 1918
  • 1918: "Jazz", Metropolitan Magazine, October 1918
  • 1918: "Gladvertising", The Popular Magazine, October 7, 1918
  • 1919: "Moths in the Arc Light", The Saturday Evening Post, January 11, 1919
  • 1919: "The Shrinking Violet", The Saturday Evening Post, February 15, 1919
  • 1919: "Things", The Saturday Evening Post, February 22, 1919
  • 1919: "The Cat of the Stars", The Saturday Evening Post, April 19, 1919
  • 1919: "The Watcher Across the Road", The Saturday Evening Post, May 24, 1919
  • 1919: "Speed", The Red Book Magazine, June 1919
  • 1919: "The Shrimp-Colored Blouse", The Red Book Magazine, August 1919
  • 1919: "The Enchanted Hour", The Saturday Evening Post, August 9, 1919
  • 1919: "Danger — Run Slow", The Saturday Evening Post, October 18 and 25, 1919
  • 1919: "Bronze Bars", The Saturday Evening Post, December 13, 1919
  • 1920: "Habaes Corpus", The Saturday Evening Post, January 24, 1920
  • 1920: "Way I See It", The Saturday Evening Post, May 29, 1920
  • 1920: "The Good Sport", The Saturday Evening Post, December 11, 1920
  • 1921: "A Matter of Business", Harper’s, March 1921
  • 1921: "Number Seven to Sagapoose", The American Magazine, May 1921
  • 1921: "The Post-Mortem Murder", The Century, May 1921
  • 1923: "The Hack Driver", The Nation, August 29, 1923
  • 1929: "He Had a Brother", Cosmopolitan, May 1929
  • 1929: "There Was a Prince", Cosmopolitan, June 1929
  • 1929: "Elizabeth, Kitty and Jane", Cosmopolitan, July 1929
  • 1929: "Dear Editor", Cosmopolitan, August 1929
  • 1929: "What a Man!", Cosmopolitan, September 1929
  • 1929: "Keep Out of the Kitchen", Cosmopolitan, October 1929
  • 1929: "A Letter from the Queen", Cosmopolitan, December 1929
  • 1930: "Youth", Cosmopolitan, February 1930
  • 1930: "Noble Experiment", Cosmopolitan, August 1930
  • 1930: "Little Bear Bongo", Cosmopolitan, September 1930
    Adapted for the animated feature film Fun and Fancy Free (1947)
  • 1930: "Go East, Young Man", Cosmopolitan, December 1930
  • 1931: "Let’s Play King", Cosmopolitan, January, February and March 1931
  • 1931: "Pajamas", Redbook, April 1931
  • 1931: "Ring Around a Rosy", The Saturday Evening Post, June 6, 1931
  • 1931: "City of Mercy", Cosmopolitan, July 1931
  • 1931: "Land", The Saturday Evening Post, September 12, 1931
  • 1931: "Dollar Chasers", The Saturday Evening Post, October 17 and 24, 1931
  • 1935: "The Hippocratic Oath", Cosmopolitan, June 1935
  • 1935: "Proper Gander", The Saturday Evening Post, July 13, 1935
  • 1935: "Onward, Sons of Ingersoll!", Scribner’s, August 1935
  • 1936: "From the Queen", Argosy, February 1936
  • 1941: "The Man Who Cheated Time", Good Housekeeping, March 1941
  • 1941: "Manhattan Madness", The American Magazine, September 1941
  • 1941: "They Had Magic Then!", Liberty, September 6, 1941
  • 1943: "All Wives Are Angels", Cosmopolitan, February 1943
  • 1943: "Nobody to Write About", Cosmopolitan, July 1943
  • 1943: "Harri", Good Housekeeping, September 1943
  • 1943: "Green Eyes—A Handbook of Jealousy", Cosmopolitan, September and October 1943

The Short Stories of Sinclair Lewis (1904–1949)[edit]

Samuel J. Rogal edited The Short Stories of Sinclair Lewis (1904–1949), a seven-volume set published in 2007 by Edwin Mellen Press. The work is the first attempt to collect all of Lewis's short stories.[21]

Articles[edit]

Select magazine articles by Sinclair Lewis are listed online at The FictionMags Index.[20]

  • 1915: "Nature, Inc.", The Saturday Evening Post, October 2, 1915
  • 1917: "For the Zelda Bunch", McClure's, October 1917
  • 1918: "Spiritualist Vaudeville", Metropolitan Magazine, February 1918
  • 1919: "Adventures in Autobumming: Gasoline Gypsies", The Saturday Evening Post, December 20, 1919
  • 1919: "Adventures in Autobumming: Want a Lift?", The Saturday Evening Post, December 27, 1919
  • 1920: "Adventures in Autobumming: The Great American Frying Pan", The Saturday Evening Post, January 3, 1920

Plays[edit]

The works of Sinclair Lewis are listed in Contemporary Authors Online, Thomson Gale, 2004. Plays are listed by date of their first production.

  • 1919: Hobohemia
  • 1934: Jayhawker: A Play in Three Acts (with Lloyd Lewis)
  • 1936: It Can't Happen Here (with John C. Moffitt)
  • 1938: Angela Is Twenty-Two (with Fay Wray)
    Adapted for the feature film This Is the Life (1944)

Poems[edit]

Magazine printings of Sinclair Lewis's poems are listed online at The FictionMags Index.[20]

  • 1907: "The Ultra-Modern", The Smart Set, July 1907
  • 1907: "Dim Hours of Dusk", The Smart Set, August 1907
  • 1907: "Disillusion", The Smart Set, December 1907
  • 1909: "Summer in Winter", People’s Magazine, February 1909
  • 1912: "A Canticle of Great Lovers", Ainslee's Magazine, July 1912

Books[edit]

Books and collections of works by Sinclair Lewis are listed in Contemporary Authors Online, Thomson Gale, 2004, and at WorldCat.

  • 1915: Tennis As I Play It (ghostwritten for Maurice McLoughlin)[22]
  • 1926: John Dos Passos' Manhattan Transfer
  • 1929: Cheap and Contented Labor: The Picture of a Southern Mill Town in 1929
  • 1935: Selected Short Stories of Sinclair Lewis
  • 1952: From Main Street to Stockholm: Letters of Sinclair Lewis, 1919–1930 (edited by Alfred Harcourt and Oliver Harrison)
  • 1953: A Sinclair Lewis Reader: Selected Essays and Other Writings, 1904–1950 (edited by Harry E. Maule and Melville Cane)
  • 1962: I'm a Stranger Here Myself and Other Stories (edited by Mark Schorer)
  • 1962: Sinclair Lewis: A Collection of Critical Essays (edited by Mark Schorer)
  • 1985: Selected Letters of Sinclair Lewis (edited by John J. Koblas and Dave Page)
  • 1997: If I Were Boss: The Early Business Stories of Sinclair Lewis (edited by Anthony Di Renzo)
  • 2000: Minnesota Diary, 1942-46 (edited by George Killough)
  • 2005: Go East, Young Man: Sinclair Lewis on Class in America (edited by Sally E. Parry)
  • 2005: The Minnesota Stories of Sinclair Lewis (edited by Sally E. Parry)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sinclair Lewis at Biography.com
  2. ^ Carl Bode, Mencken (Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, 1969), p. 166.
  3. ^ Schorer, 3–22.
  4. ^ Schorer, 47–136
  5. ^ Acheson, Dean. Morning and Noon, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1962, p. 44.
  6. ^ Lewis, Sinclair, "Thoughts on Vermont", Vermont Weathervane; talk given to the Rutland, Vt. Rotary on September 23, 1929; publ. c. 1989. Retrieved 2011-05-11.
  7. ^ "The Romance of Sinclair Lewis". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  8. ^ Schorer, 268
  9. ^ Pastore, Stephen R., Sinclair Lewis: A Descriptive Bibliography, New Haven, YALEbooks, 1997, p.91
  10. ^ Schorer, 235, 263–69
  11. ^ Lingeman, 156.
  12. ^ The Sinclair Lewis Society, FAQ Accessed 15 September 2013.
  13. ^ "Dodsworth (1936)", Time, 12 February 2005. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
  14. ^ "Miscellania", Sinclair Lewis Manuscripts, Port Washington Public Library. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
  15. ^ John Bartlett, Familiar Quotations, 15th edition, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1980), 791
  16. ^ a b Lingeman, 420–422
  17. ^ Chamberlain, John, "Books of the Times". Review of See What I Mean? by Lewis Browne. The New York Times, October 7, 1943.
  18. ^ Lingeman, Richard, Sinclair Lewis: Rebel from Main Street. New York: Random House, 2002, ISBN 0-679-43823-8 page 455
  19. ^ a b William L. Shirer, 20th Century Journey: A Memoir of a Life and the Times vol. 1: The Start: 1904–1930 (NY: Bantam Books, 1980) 458-9
  20. ^ a b c d "Sinclair Lewis". The FictionMags Index. Retrieved 2013-12-30. 
  21. ^ "The Short Stories of Sinclair Lewis (1904–1949)". Edwin Mellen Press. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  22. ^ Pastore, Stephen R., Sinclair Lewis: A Descriptive Bibliography, New Haven, YALEbooks, 1997, pp.323–5.

Sources[edit]

  • Lingeman, Richard R. Sinclair Lewis: Rebel From Main Street. New York: Borealis Books, 2002.
  • Schorer, Mark. Sinclair Lewis: An American Life. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961.

Further reading[edit]

  • Lingeman, Richard ed. Sinclair Lewis: Main Street & Babbitt (Library of America, 1992) ISBN 978-0-940450-61-5
  • Lingeman, Richard ed. Sinclair Lewis: Arrowsmith, Elmer Gantry, Dodsworth (Library of America, 2002) ISBN 978-1-931082-08-2
  • D. J. Dooley, The Art of Sinclair Lewis, 1967.
  • Martin Light, The Quixotic Vision of Sinclair Lewis, 1975.
  • Modern Fiction Studies, vol. 31.3, Autumn 1985, special issues on Sinclair Lewis.
  • Sinclair Lewis at 100: Papers Presented at a Centennial Conference, 1985.
  • Martin Bucco, Main Street: The Revolt of Carol Kennicott, 1993.
  • James M. Hutchisson, The Rise of Sinclair Lewis, 1920–1930, 1996.
  • Glen A. Love, Babbitt: An American Life
  • Stephen R. Pastore, Sinclair Lewis: A Descriptive Bibliography, 1997.
  • Stephen R. Pastore, Sinclair Lewis: A Descriptive Bibliography, 2d ed. 2009.
  • Ryan Poll. Main Street and Empire. 2012.

External links[edit]