|Company type||Public (NYSE: SFD)|
|Products||Processes 27 million pigs a year, producing six billion pounds of pork|
|Founded||1936 as the Smithfield Packing Company|
|Founders||Joseph W. Luter, Sr.
Joseph W. Luter, Jr.
|Head office||Smithfield, Virginia, United States|
|Operations||Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, United Kingdom, and 26 U.S. states|
|Key people||Joseph W. Luter, III (chairman)
C. Larry Pope (president and CEO)
George H. Richter (president and COO, pork group)
Joseph W. Luter, IV (executive vice president)
|Revenue and workforce|
|Revenue||US$ 13 billion (2012)|
|Armour, Carando, Cook's Ham, Curly's Foods, Eckrich, Farmland, Gwaltney, Healthy Ones, John Morrell, Kretschmar, Margherita, and Smithfield|
Smithfield Foods, Inc. is the world's largest pork producer and processor. Headquartered in Smithfield, Virginia, it runs facilities in 26 U.S. states, including the largest slaughterhouse and meat-processing plant in the world, located in Tar Heel, North Carolina. It also has operations in Mexico and in 10 European countries, with a global total of over 46,000 employees and an annual revenue of $13 billion.
Smithfield was founded in 1936 by Joseph W. Luter and his son as the Smithfield Packing Company, now its largest subsidiary. From 1981 it began to purchase companies such as Eckrich, Farmland Foods of Kansas, Gwaltney of Smithfield, John Morrell, Murphy Family Farms of North Carolina, and Premium Standard Farms. It was able to grow as a result of its highly industrialized pig production, raising the animals using a vertical integration system of production that enables the company to control their development from conception to packing. Thousands of livestock are housed together in barns with metal roofs, known as CAFOs (concentrated animal feeding operations), where they are permanently confined.
The company raises around 15 million pigs a year and processes 27 million, producing over six billion pounds of pork. It was the top pig slaughter operation in the United States in 2007, at 114,300 pigs a day, and along with three other companies slaughtered 56 percent of the cows processed there until it sold its beef group in 2008. Smithfield sells its products under a variety of brand names, including Cook's Ham, Gwaltney, John Morrell, Krakus Ham, Patrick Cudahy, Smithfield, and Stefano's. C. Larry Pope is the president and chief executive officer.
Company profile 
The company traces its history to 1936, when Joseph W. Luter, Sr. and his son, Joseph W. Luter, Jr, opened the Smithfield Packing Company in Smithfield, Virginia. The latter served as chief executive officer (CEO) until his death in 1962. A grandson, Joseph W. Luter III, joined the company the same year, and in 1966 became chairman and CEO until Smithfield was taken over by Liberty Equities in 1969. The company hired Luter again as CEO in 1975 when it found itself in financial difficulties. His restructuring of the company is credited with its improved performance, and he remains on the board of directors. His son, Joseph W. Luter IV, is an executive vice president of Smithfield Foods and president of the Smithfield Packing Company, the parent company's largest subsidiary.
Smithfield began to expand in 1981 with its purchase of its main competitor, Gwaltney of Smithfield. This was followed by the acquisition of almost 40 companies in the pork, beef and livestock industries between 1981 and around 2008. Patrick Cudahy was purchased in 1984 and Schluderberg-Kurdle in 1986. In 1992 the company opened the world's largest processing plant, a 973,000-square-foot facility in Tar Heel, North Carolina, which in 2000 could process 32,000 pigs a day.
It purchased John Morrell & Co in the Midwest in 1995, Circle Four Farms in 1998, and in 1999 bought the three largest pig producers in the United States: Carroll's Foods, Tyson Foods Pork Group and Murphy Family Farms of North Carolina, at that point the largest producer. Jill Hobbs and Linda Young write that Smithfield's purchase of these three companies constituted a major structural change in the U.S. pig industry. Farmland Foods of Kansas City was added in 2003, as were Sara Lee's European Meats, ConAgra Foods, Butterball (the poultry producer), and Premium Standard Farms in 2007. It sold its 49 percent share in Butterball in 2008 for an estimated $175 million.
The acquisitions have caused concern among regulators in the United States regarding the company's control of the food supply. After Smithfield's purchase of Murphy Family Farms, the Agriculture Department described it as "absurdly big." As of 2006 four companies – Smithfield, Tyson, Swift & Company, and Cargill – were responsible for the production of 70 percent of pork in the United States.
The company had 46,050 employees in the United States, Mexico and Europe as of 2012, and an annual revenue of $13 billion. It raises 15.8 million pigs a year, producing 3.8 billion pounds of fresh pork and 2.7 billion pounds of packaged meat, sold as 50 brands of pork products and 200 gourmet foods. Along with specialty brands such as Paula Deen Collection, and international brands such as Weight Watchers, the company's 12 core brands are Armour, Carando, Cook's Ham, Curly's Foods, Eckrich, Farmland, Gwaltney, Healthy Ones, John Morrell, Kretschmar, Margherita, and Smithfield. The company also operates The Genuine Smithfield Ham Shoppe and a restaurant, Taste of Smithfield, both in Smithfield, Virginia.
Pig production 
Vertical integration 
In 1990, the company bought hog farming operations, making it a vertically-integrated company. The system allows Smithfield to control every stage of pig production, from conception and birth to slaughter, processing and packing – known as "from squeal to meal" or "from birth to bacon."
Luter has said that "vertical integration gives you high quality, consistent products with consistent genetics. And the only way to do that is to control the process from the farm to the packing plant." Tyya N. Turner writes that in 1990 the company obtained 2,000 pigs and the exclusive right to their genetic lines from Britain's National Pig Development Company, and used them to create Smithfield Lean Generation Pork, which was certified by the American Heart Association for its low fat, salt, and cholesterol content. According to Luter, it was vertical integration that enabled this.
Housing and lagoons 
The pigs are housed together in their thousands in identical barns with metal roofs, known as CAFOs (concentrated animal feeding operations). The floors of the buildings are slatted, allowing waste to be flushed into 30-feet-deep open-air pits the size of two football fields, referred to within the industry as lagoons. Smithfield says the lagoons contain an impervious liner made to withstand leakage. According to Jeff Tietz writing for Rolling Stone magazine, the waste – a mixture of excrement, urine, blood, afterbirths, stillborn pigs, drugs and other chemicals – overflows when it rains and the liners can be punctured by rocks. Smithfield attributes the pink color of the waste to the health of the lagoons, writing that the color is "a sign of bacteria doing what it should be doing. It's indicative of lower odor and lower nutrient content."
Pregnant sows 
Smithfield said in December 2011 that it would phase out the use of gestation crates on its company-owned farms by 2017 in the United States, and by 2022 in Europe and Mexico. Pregnant sows spend most of their lives in these individual stalls, which are too small to allow them to turn around. When they give birth, they are moved to a farrowing crate for about three weeks, then artificially inseminated and placed back into a gestation crate. The practice has led to criticism from animal welfare groups, supermarket chains and McDonald's. Smithfield said in 2007 that it would phase out gestation crates by 2017, but in 2009 said it would not meet the projected timeline because of operating losses caused by the recession. In January 2013 it said that 38 percent of pregnant sows on its company-owned farms had been moved out of the crates. It would not commit to requiring its contract farms to phase them out.
Environmental and animal welfare record 
Smithfield has come under criticism for the millions of gallons of untreated fecal matter it produces and stores in the lagoons. In a four-year period in North Carolina alone, 4.7 million gallons of hog fecal matter were released into the state's rivers. Workers and residents near Smithfield plants have reported health problems, and have complained about the constant, overpowering stenches of hog feces.
The company was fined $12.6 million in 1997 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for 6,900 violations of the Clean Water Act after discharging illegal levels of slaughterhouse waste into the Pagan River in Virginia. Its facilities in North Carolina came under scrutiny again in 1999 when Hurricane Floyd flooded a number of lagoons holding fecal matter, and many of the hog farms that contracted with Smithfield were accused of polluting the state's rivers. Smithfield reached a settlement in March 2000 with the state of North Carolina, agreeing to pay the state $50 million over 25 years. The company agreed to donate $1.3 million to clean up, North Carolina State University would receive $15 million to research the treatment of pig waste, and the North Carolina Foundation for Soil and Water Conservation, Ducks Unlimited and the North Carolina Coastal Federation would receive grants.
Company response 
Ralph Deptolla writes that the company responded to the criticism by creating new executive positions to monitor the environmental issues, and hired Dennis Treacy, a former director of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, as Executive Vice President and Chief Sustainability Officer. Treacy had previously been involved in the enforcement efforts against Smithfield. Deptolla writes that Smithfield also created an environmental management system (ESM), launching it in 2001 at its Murphy-Brown facilities.
In 2005 the company received ISO 14001 certification from the International Organization for Standardization for its hog production and processing facilities in the United States, with the exception of new acquisitions, and in 2009 14 plants in the United States and 21 in Romania received certification. Deptolla writes that 578 Smithfield facilities were ISO 14001-certified as of 2011. In 2006 its hog-production subsidiary Murphy-Brown reached an agreement with the Waterkeeper Alliance, once one of Smithfield's biggest critics, to adopt new measures to enhance environmental protection at the former's facilities in North Carolina. In 2009 the company said it had reduced greenhouse gas emissions at its plants by four percent since 2007, its processing emissions per 100 pounds of production by 62 percent, and its first-processing emissions per animal by 41 percent. Smithfield attributed the improvements to the divestiture of the beef group. In 2010 it released its ninth annual Corporate Social Responsibility report, and announced its appointment of a chief sustainability officer and two sustainability committees.
Use of antibiotics 
Concerns were raised about the use by the company and its contractors of low doses of antibiotics to promote the pigs' growth, in addition to using antibiotics as part of a treatment regime. The concern was that the antibiotics were harmful to the animals and were contributing to the rise of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. Smithfield said in 2005 that it would administer antibiotics only to animals who were sick themselves, or who were in close proximity to sick animals.
Operations in Mexico 
The earliest confirmed case of the H1N1 virus (swine flu) during the 2009 flu pandemic was in a five-year-old boy in La Gloria, Mexico, near several facilities operated by Granjas Carroll de Mexico, a Smithfield Foods subsidiary that processes 1.2 million pigs a year and employs 907 people. This, together with tension between the company and the local community over Smithfield's environmental record, prompted several newspapers to link the outbreak to Smithfield's farming practices. According to The Washington Post, over 600 other residents of La Gloria became ill from a respiratory disease in March that year (later thought to be seasonal flu). The Post writes that health officials found no link between the farms and the H1N1 outbreak. Smithfield said that it had found no clinical signs of swine flu in its pigs or employees in Mexico, and had no reason to believe that the outbreak was connected to its Mexican facilities. The company said it routinely administers flu virus vaccine to its swine herds in Mexico and conducts monthly tests to detect the virus.
Residents alleged that the company regularly violates local environmental regulations. According to the Post, local farmers had complained for years about headaches from the smell of the pig farms, and said that wild dogs had been eating discarded pig carcasses left lying in the open. Smithfield uses biodigesters to convert dead pigs into renewable energy, but residents allege that they regularly overflow. Residents also feared that the waste stored in the lagoons would leak into the groundwater.
Packaging reduction 
In 2009 Armour-Eckrich replaced an oversized rectangular package for smoked sausage with crescent-style packaging. The new design reduced the amount of plastic film and corrugated cardboard the company used by more than 840,000 pounds per year. In addition, several plants are switching to or testing a new bagging system that helps reduce plastic use. The John Morrell plant in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, piloted the system for Smithfield in 2010, reducing the amount of plastic required by about 40,600 pounds a year. Farmland Foods reduced the amount of corrugated packaging entering waste streams by more than five million pounds per year. Smithfield Packing reduced the size of its tubs for deli meat, using 17 percent less plastic for each one. The company also cut the size of the boxes that transport chicken frankfurters to its largest customer, eliminating about 20,000 pounds of corrugated material a year.
2010 Humane Society investigation 
In December 2010 the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) released an undercover video taken by one of its investigators inside a Smithfield Foods facility. The investigator worked for a month at Murphy-Brown, a Smithfield subsidiary in Waverly, Virginia. The Associated Press (AP) reported that the investigator videotaped 1,000 sows living in gestation crates. According to the AP, the material shows a pig being pulled by the snout, shot in the head with a stun gun, and thrown into a bin while trying to wriggle free. The investigator said he saw sows biting their crates and bleeding; staff jabbing them to make them move; staff tossing piglets into carts; and piglets born prematurely in gestation crates falling through the slats into the manure pits. The video was a 2012 Webby Awards winner in the "Public Service and Activism" category.
In response, Smithfield told the AP that it has "zero tolerance for any behavior that does not conform to our established animal well-being procedures." The company asked Temple Grandin, a professor of animal husbandry, to review the footage; she recommended an inspection by animal welfare expert Jennifer Woods. Smithfield announced on December 21 that it had fired two workers and their supervisor. At the company's invitation, the Virginia state veterinarian Richard Wilkes visited the facility on December 22. He told The Virginian-Pilot that Smithfield had been "very responsive and very responsible in how they've addressed the issues," and said he had not seen "any indication of abuse" of the pigs and was impressed by their demeanor. A Humane Society spokesman said that Smithfield had provided the vet "with a pre-announced, white glove tour."
Legal and labor issues 
Working conditions 
Human Rights Watch (HRW) issued a 175-page report in 2005 documenting what it said were unsafe work conditions in the U.S. meat and poultry industry. In particular, the report said, workers make thousands of repetitive motions with knives during each shift, leading to lacerations and repetitive strain injuries. According to HRW, the workers' immigrant status may be exploited to prevent them from making complaints or forming unions. The report cited working conditions in Smithfield Foods as an example. According to the report, the speed at which the pigs are killed and processed makes the job inherently dangerous for workers. A Smithfield manager testified in 1998, during an unfair labor practices trial, that at the Tar Heel plant in North Carolina it takes between five and ten minutes to slaughter and complete the process of "disassembly" of an animal, including draining, cleaning, and cleaving. One worker told HRW that the disassembly line moves so fast that there is no time to sharpen the knives, which means harder cuts have to be made, with the resultant injuries to workers. Similar criticism has been made by other groups regarding Smithfield facilities in Poland and Romania.
Union dispute 
The Smithfield Packing plant in Tar Heel, North Carolina, was the site of a long dispute between the company and the United Food and Commercial Workers Union (UFCW), which had tried since the early 1990s to organize the plant's roughly 5,000 hourly workers. Workers voted against the union in 1994 and 1997, but the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) alleged that unfair election conduct had occurred and ordered a new election. During the 1997 election the company is alleged to have fired workers who supported the union, stationed police at the plant gates, and threatened plant closures. In 2000, according to Human Rights Watch, Smithfield set up its own security force with "special police agency" status under North Carolina law, and in 2003 arrested workers who supported the union.
Smithfield appealed the NLRB's ruling that the 1997 election was invalid, and in 2006 the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals found in favor of the NLRB. Smithfield and the workers at Tar Heel called on the UFCW to hold a new election, and the company agreed to pay half the cost of an independent observer, but the union argued that Smithfield would not allow a fair election and should have recognized card-check organizing. After a year-long series of public demonstrations, several lockouts, and a shareholder meeting that was disrupted by shareholders supporting the union, the UFCW called for a boycott of Smithfield products. In October 2007, Smithfield countered by filing a federal RICO Act lawsuit against UFCW. In October 2008, the UFCW and Smithfield reached an agreement, under which the union agreed to suspend its boycott campaign in return for the company dropping its RICO lawsuit and allowing another election. In December 2008, workers voted 2,041 to 1,879 in favor of joining the UFCW, bringing the 15-year fight to an end.
Justice Department penalty 
In January 2009 Smithfield was assessed a $900,000 penalty by the U.S. Justice Department to settle charges that the company engaged in illegal merger activity during its takeover of Premium Standard Farms LLC in 2006.
The Smithfield-Luter Foundation, established in 2002, is a non-profit organization that acts as the philanthropic wing of Smithfield Foods, dedicated primarily to providing scholarship opportunities to the children and grandchildren of Smithfield employees. It has given $5 million to Christopher Newport University in Newport News, Virginia, to establish the Luter School of Business, and $5 million to the University of Virginia Cancer Center in Charlottesville, Virginia. The Foundation also provides support for its "learners to leaders" programs, begun in 2006, in Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denison, Iowa; and Norfolk, Virginia.
Opposition to Prop 37 
Throughout 2012, Smithfield contributed $683,900 to a $46 million campaign known as "The Coalition Against The Costly Food Labeling Proposition," sponsored by Farmers and Food Producers. The organization was set up to oppose an unsuccessful California citizen's initiative, known as Proposition 37, that would have required mandatory labeling of foods containing genetically modified ingredients.
Sports Sponsorships 
In 2012, Smithfield announced a 15 race sponsorship with Richard Petty Motorsports and driver Aric Almirola driving the #43 Ford in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series. The sponsorship was then increased to 25 races beginning in 2013. Smithfield rotates its brands on the car, featuring Smithfield, Eckrich, Gwaltney, and Farmland.
- Board of directors
- Joseph W. Luter, III, director since 1975
- C. Larry Pope, director since 2006
- Hon. Carol T. Crawford, director since 2000
- Richard T. Crowder, director since 2011
- Margaret G. Lewis, director since 2011
- Wendell H. Murphy, director since 2000
- David C. Nelson, director since 2008
- Frank S. Royal, M.D., director since 2002
- John T. Schwieters, director since 2001
- Hon. Paul S. Trible, Jr., director since 2007
- Corporate officers
- C. Larry Pope, President and Chief Executive Officer
- George H. Richter, President and Chief Operating Officer, Pork Group
- Joseph W. Luter, IV, Executive Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Pork Group
- Robert W. Manly, IV, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
- Dhamu Thamodaran, Executive Vice President and Chief Commodity Hedging Officer
- Dennis H. Treacy Executive Vice President and Chief Sustainability Officer
See also 
- Turner 2005, pp. 323–324.
- "Our company" and "Investors", Smithfield Foods.
- Deptolla (Smithfield Foods) 2011, p. 6.
- Barboza (The New York Times), April 7, 2000, p. 1.
- Tietz (Rolling Stone), December 14, 2006, p. 1.
- Seward 2009, p. 650. The other companies were American Foods Group, Cargill Meat Solutions and XL Beef.
- "1965–1936"; "2000–1966"; "Present–2010"; "Corporate Officers", Smithfield Foods, undated.
- For Murphy Family Farms and Tyson, see The New York Times, September 30, 1999.
- Calamuci (New Labor Forum), 2008, p. 73.
- Barboza (The New York Times), April 7, 2000, p. 2.
- Hobbs and Young 2001, p. 17.
- Felberbaum (Associated Press), September 10, 2010.
- Calamuci (New Labor Forum) 2008, p. 68.
- "A Look Back at the Smithfield Foods History"; "Our company", and "Investors", Smithfield Foods, undated.
- "The Brands of Smithfield Foods, Inc. and Our Independent Operating Companies", Smithfield Foods, undated.
- Walzer (The Virginian-Pilot), July 10, 2012.
- That the intensive growing facilities, or "mega factories," are a key component of vertical integration, see Dunn 2005, p. 178.
- Fainaru (The Washington Post), May 10, 2009, p. 2.
- "Rolling Stone's 'Bosshog' Article: Fiction vs. Fact", Smithfield Foods, undated.
- Rollin 1995, p. 76.
- "Sow Stall Conversion Process Update", Smithfield Foods, December 7, 2011.
- Strom (The New York Times), February 13, 2012.
- Felberbaum (Associated Press), December 8, 2011.
- Kaufmanm (The Washington Post), January 26, 2007.
- Niman and Hahn (The Atlantic), August 26, 2009, and "In response to animal handling concerns raised by HSUS", Smithfield Foods.
- Walzer (The Virginian-Pilot), January 4, 2013.
- Tietz (Rolling Stone), December 14, 2006, p. 4.
- Environmental Protection Agency, August 8, 1997.
- For the 1997 fine, see Environmental Protection Agency, August 8, 1997.
- Deptolla (Smithfield Foods) 2011, p. 9.
- Reliable Plant, undated.
- Senate Committee on Government Affairs, March 2, 2002.
- Environmental Leader, July 23, 2010.
- Smithfield Foods, July 22, 2010.
- Deptolla (Smithfield Foods) 2011, p. 8.
- Riha (Associated Press), April 8, 2005.
- Fainaru (The Washington Post), May 10, 2009.
- Smithfield Foods, 2009.
- Tuckman (The Guardian), April 29, 2009.
- Also see Lucas, April 28, 2009.
- Richmond Times-Dispatch, December 16, 2010.
- Associated Press, December 15, 2010.
- "16th Annual Webby Awards Nominees & Winners", webbyawards.com.
- Associated Press, December 21, 2010; Smith, December 22, 2010.
- Also see "In response to animal handling concerns raised by HSUS", Smithfield Foods, undated; "Letter from Temple Grandin" (Smithfield Foods), December 13, 2010; and "Grandin/Woods Report (Smithfield Foods)", December 20, 2010.
- Green (Richmond Times-Dispatch), December 21, 2010.
- Walzer (The Virginian-Pilot), January 10, 2011.
- Human Rights Watch, January 25, 2005; "Blood, Sweat and Fear (Human Rights Watch)", January 25, 2005.
- Also see Deptolla (Smithfield Foods) 2011, p. 8.
- "Blood, Sweat and Fear", p. 4.
- For a Smithfield manager's description of the process, see "Appendix A: The Production Process in Meat and Poultry Plants", "Blood, Sweat and Fear".
- Maher, December 10, 2007.
- Smithfield Packing Company, June 15, 2006.
- Associated Press, July 13, 2007.
- Greenhouse, December 13, 2008.
- Dow Jones Newswires, January 21, 2010.
- Luter School of Business, Christopher Newport University.
- For the cancer donation, see Smithfield News, Spring 2006.
- Smith (Smithfield Foods), undated.
- Frank, Brian. "Prop 37 Funding Total Contributions, by Donor", kcet.org.
- Finz (San Francisco Chronicle) November 7, 2012.
- "Leadership at Smithfield Foods", Smithfield Foods.
- Books and articles
- Associated Press. "Sale of Butterball complete", December 7, 2010.
- Associated Press. "Humane Society Claims Pigs Abused at Va. Farm", December 15, 2010.
- Associated Press. "Smithfield fires 3 workers for mistreating pigs", December 21, 2010.
- Baker, Mike. "Smithfield workers push for vote", Associated Press, July 14, 2007.
- Barboza, David. "Goliath of the Hog World; Fast Rise of Smithfield Foods Makes Regulators Wary", The New York Times, April 7, 2000.
- Calamuci, Daniel. "Return to the Jungle: The Rise and Fall of Meatpacking Work", New Labor Forum, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Spring, 2008), pp. 66-77.
- Carmen, Tim. "Pork industry gives sows room to move", The Washington Post, May 29, 2012.
- Deptolla, Ralph (Smithfield Foods). "Smithfield's journey to sustainability: A work in progress", Global Business and Organizational Excellence, Volume 30, Issue 6, September/October 2011.
- Dow Jones Newswires. "Smithfield Foods Settles Charges Of Pre-Merger Coordination", January 21, 2010.
- Dunn, Elizabeth C. "Standards and Person-Making in East Central Europe", in Aihwa Ong and Stephen J. Collier. Global Assemblages: Technology, Politics, and Ethics as Anthropological Problems. Wiley-Blackwell, 2005.
- Environmental Leader. "Smithfield Foods CSR Report: Commits to Reduce Energy and Water Use, Solid Waste 10% by 2016", July 23, 2010.
- Fainaru, Steve. "Mexicans Blame Industrial Hog Farms", The Washington Post, May 10, 2009.
- Felberbaum, Michael. "Smithfield to sell its stake in Butterball", Associated Press, September 10, 2010.
- Felberbaum, Michael. "Smithfield to stop using gestation crates for pigs", Associated Press, December 8, 2011.
- Finz, Stacy. "Prop. 37: Genetic food labels defeated", San Francisco Chronicle, November 7, 2012.
- Foley, Stephen. "For La Gloria, the stench of blame is from pig factories", The Independent, April 29, 2009.
- Green, Kristen. "Smithfield Foods fires three workers after pig farm probe", Richmond Times-Dispatch, December 21, 2010.
- Greenhouse, Steven. "After 15 Years, North Carolina Plant Unionizes", The New York Times, December 13, 2008.
- Hobbs, Jill E. and Young, Linda M. "Vertical Linkages in Agri-Food Supply Chains in Canada and the United States", Research and Analysis Directorate, Strategic Policy Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, June 2001.
- Horowitz, Roger. Putting Meat on the American Table: Taste, Technology, Transformation. John Hopkins University Press, 2005.
- Kaufman, Marc. "Largest Pork Processor to Phase Out Crates", The Washington Post, January 26, 2007.
- Lacey, Marc. "From Édgar, 5, Coughs Heard Round the World", The New York Times, April 28, 2009.
- Lucas, Caroline. "Swine flu: is intensive pig farming to blame?", The Guardian, April 28, 2009.
- Maher, Kris. "Firms Use RICO to Fight Union Tactics," Wall Street Journal, December 10, 2007.
- MSN Fox Sports. "Nascar: Petty names new sponsor for 2012", January 12, 2012.
- Niman, Bill and Hahn Niman, Nicollete. "Looking Out For All Animals", The Atlantic, August 26, 2009.
- Richmond Times-Dispatch. "Humane Society says Smithfield mistreated pigs", December 16, 2010.
- Rollin, Bernard E. Farm Animal Welfare: Social, Bioethical, and Research Issues. Iowa State University Press, 1995.
- Seward, Robert A. "Regulations on Meat Hygiene in the USA", in Fidel Toldrá (ed.). Safety of Meat and Processed Meat. Springer, 2009.
- Shapiro, Michael Welles. "Smithfield progresses toward transition away from gestation crates", McClatchy-Tribune Information Services.
- Smith, Joe. "Smithfield fires three for welfare violations", Feedstuffs, December 22, 2010.
- Strom, Stephanie. "McDonald’s Set to Phase Out Suppliers’ Use of Sow Crates", The New York Times, February 13, 2012.
- Tietz, Jeff. "Boss Hog", Rolling Stone, December 14, 2006.
- The New York Times. "Smithfield in stock deal for Tyson's hog operations", September 30, 1999.
- Tuckman, Jo. "Attention turns to La Gloria in search to determine swine flu source", The Guardian, April 29, 2009.
- Turner, Tyya N. Vault Guide to the Top Consumer Products Employers. Vault Inc., 2005.
- Walzer, Philip. "Smithfield Foods cashes out of beef industry to ride out slump", The Virginian-Pilot, October 24, 2008.
- Walzer, Philip. "Pork producer Smithfield Foods to open restaurant", The Virginian-Pilot, July 10, 2012.
- Walzer, Philip. "State veterinarian approves Smithfield's pig handling", The Virginian-Pilot, January 10, 2011.
- Walzer, Philip. "Smithfield continues shift away from 'gestation stalls'", The Virginian-Pilot, January 4, 2013.
- Christopher Newport University. Luter School of Business, undated.
- Humane Society of the United States. "HSUS Praises Smithfield Move to End Confinement of Pigs in Gestation Crate", January 25, 2007.
- Humane Society of the United States. "HSUS Exposes Inhumane Treatment of Pigs at Smithfield", and "Undercover at Smithfield Foods" (video), December 15, 2010.
- Human Rights Watch. "Abuses Against Workers Taint U.S. Meat and Poultry", and "Blood, Sweat and Fear: Workers' Rights in U.S. Meat and Poultry Plants", January 25, 2005.
- North Carolina State University. "The Agreement", College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.
- Reliable Plant. "Smithfield Foods facilities obtain ISO 14001 certification", undated.
- Senate Committee on Government Affairs. "Testimony of Richard J. Dove, Waterkeeper Alliance", March 13, 2002.
- Smithfield Foods. "A Look Back at the Smithfield Foods History".
- Smithfield Foods. "History: 1965–1936"; "2000–1966"; "Present–2010", undated.
- Smithfield Foods. "Corporate Officers" undated.
- Smithfield Foods. "The Brands of Smithfield Foods, Inc. and Our Independent Operating Companies", undated.
- Smithfield Foods. "Rolling Stone's 'Bosshog' Article: Fiction vs. Fact", undated.
- Smithfield Foods. "Smithfield Foods Says It Found No Evidence of Swine Influenza at Its Mexican Joint Ventures", 2009.
- Smithfield Foods. "Smithfield Foods Releases Annual Corporate Social Responsibility Report", July 22, 2010.
- Smithfield Foods. "In response to animal handling concerns raised by HSUS", undated.
- Smithfield Foods. "Statement on NLRB decision", Smithfield Packing Co, June 15, 2006.
- Smithfield Foods. "Letter from Temple Grandin", December 13, 2010.
- Smithfield Foods. "Grandin/Woods Report", December 20, 2010.
- Smithfield Foods. "Effort shapes learners, leaders", Feedstuffs Foodlink, Smithfield-Luter Foundation.
- Smith, Ron (Smithfield Foods). "Effort shapes learners, leaders", Feedstuffs Foodlink, Smithfield-Luter Foundation, undated.
- Waterkeeper Alliance. "Waterkeeper Alliance and Smithfield Foods Reach Agreement on Environmental Pact", January 20, 2006.
- United States Department of Justice. "Smithfield Foods fined $12.6 million. Largest Clean Water Act fine ever", August 8, 1997.
Further reading 
- External links
- Smithfield Foods
- The Smithfield-Luter Foundation charitable giving foundation
- Smithfield's Granjas Carroll
- Humane Society of the United States. "Undercover at Smithfield Foods" (video), December 15, 2010.
- Smithfield Foods. "Sow Farm: Taking the Mystery Out of Pork Production at Smithfield Foods" (video), February 24, 2011.
- Books and articles
- Barnett, Anthony and Khan, Urmee. "'Shocking' farms raise pigs for UK", The Guardian, April 2, 2006.
- Coppin, Dawn. "Foucauldian Hog Futures: The Birth of Mega-Hog Farms", The Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Autumn, 2003), pp. 597-616.
- Eisnitz, Gail A. Slaughterhouse. Prometheus Books, 2006, first published 1997.
- Evans-Hylton, Patrick. Smithfield: Ham Capital of the World. Arcadia Publishing, 2004.
- Harvard Law Review. "Challenging Concentration of Control in the American Meat Industry", Vol. 117, No. 8 (June 2004), pp. 2643-2664.
- Hahn Niman, Nicolette. Righteous Porkchop: Finding a Life and Good Food Beyond Factory Farms. HarperCollins, 2010.
- Hayenga, Marvin L. "Cost Structures of Pork Slaughter and Processing Firms: Behavioral and Performance Implications", Review of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 20, No. 2 (Autumn – Winter, 1998), pp. 574-583.
- Herbert, Bob. "Where the Hogs Come First", The New York Times, June 15, 2006.
- Herbert, Bob. "On the Killing Floor", The New York Times, June 19, 2006.
- Ladd, Anthony E. and Edward, Bob. "Corporate Swine and Capitalist Pigs: A Decade of Environmental Injustice and Protest in North Carolina", Social Justice, Vol. 29, No. 3 (89), pp. 26-46.
- LeDuff, Charlie. "At a Slaughterhouse, Some Things Never Die", The New York Times, June 16, 2000.
- Reimer, Jeffrey J. "Vertical Integration in the Pork Industry", American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 88, No. 1 (February 2006), pp. 234-248.
- Stith, Pat; Warrick, Joby; and Sill, Melanie. "Boss Hog: The power of pork", The News & Observer (Raleigh), February 19, 1995 (this and the following articles on the pig industry in North Carolina won the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service in 1996):
- Stith, Pat and Warrick, Joby. "New studies show that lagoons are leaking", The News & Observer, February 19, 1995.
- Stith, Pat and Warrick, Joby. "Corporate takeover", The News & Observer, February 21, 1995.
- Stith, Pat and Warrick, Joby. "Murphy's Law", The News & Observer, February 22, 1995.
- "Hog-Tied on ethics", The News & Observer, editorial, February 23, 1995.
- Stith, Pat and Warrick, Joby. "Money Talks", The News & Observer, February 24, 1995.
- "Putting the hush on hogs", The News & Observer, editorial, February 24, 1995.
- Stith, Pat and Warrick, Joby. "Pork Barrels", The News & Observer, February 26, 1995.
- "When hogs come first", The News & Observer, editorial, February 28, 1995.
- The New York Times. "Smithfield Foods Inc.".
- Tuckman, Jo. "La Gloria, swine flu's ground zero, is left with legacy of anger", The Guardian, April 23, 2010.
- Wing, Steve et al. "Air Pollution and Odor in Communities near Industrial Swine Operations", Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 116, No. 10 (Oct., 2008), pp. 1362-1368.