Banten

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For the Banten meteorite of 1933, see Meteorite falls. For the sultanate, see Banten Sultanate. For the city and harbor, see Banten (city).
Banten
Province
Flag of Banten
Flag
Official seal of Banten
Seal
Motto: Iman Taqwa
(Faith and Piety)
Location of Banten in Indonesia
Location of Banten in Indonesia
Coordinates: 6°30′S 106°15′E / 6.500°S 106.250°E / -6.500; 106.250Coordinates: 6°30′S 106°15′E / 6.500°S 106.250°E / -6.500; 106.250
Country Indonesia
Capital Serang
Government
 • Governor Rano Karno
Area
 • Total 9,662.92 km2 (3,730.87 sq mi)
Population (2014)
 • Total 11,834,087
 • Density 1,200/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups Bantenese (47%), Sundanese (23%), Javanese (12%), Betawi (10%), Chinese (1%) [1]
 • Religion Islam (96.6%), Protestant (1.2%), Catholic (1%), Buddhism (0.7%), Hindu (0.4%)[citation needed]
 • Languages Sundanese, Javanese, Indonesian
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Website Official Site, Research and Development Agency

Banten is a province of Indonesia. Bordering Jakarta, it is the westernmost province on the island of Java, and its capital is Serang. The population of Banten was officially estimated at 11,834,087 at the start of 2014, up from over 10.6 million during the 2010 census.[2] Formerly part of the province of West Java, Banten became a separate province in 2000. The province is a transit corridor to Sumatra.

Historically, it has had a culture distinct from the rest of Java and that of the broader Indonesian archipelago. In recent years, however, the northern half, particularly those areas near Jakarta and the Java Sea coast, have experienced rapid rises in population and urbanization, while the southern half, particularly that facing the Indian Ocean, maintains more of its traditional character.

Geography[edit]

Banten lies between 5°7'50" and 7°1'11" south latitude and 105°1'11" and 106°7'12" east longitude.[3] The province has an area of 9,662.92 km².[4]

Banten is located near the Sunda Strait’s strategic sea lanes that link Australia and New Zealand to Southeast Asia. Banten’s ports accommodate the excess capacity of sea ports from Jakarta.[citation needed]

Borders[edit]

Banten is bordered by the Java Sea to the north, the Sunda Strait to the west, and the Indian Ocean to the south. The Special Capital Region of Jakarta and the province of West Java border Banten to the east.

Topography[edit]

574,090 hectares or 65% of Banten is classified as flat, 186,320 hectares (21%) is classified as corrugated with slopes of between 2% and 15% steepness, while the remaining 118,471 hectares (13%) is classified as steep with slopes over 15%.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Banten City, year 1724

In the 5th century, Banten was part of the Kingdom of Tarumanagara. The Lebak relic inscriptions, found in lowland villages on the edge of Ci Danghiyang, Munjul, Pandeglang, Banten, were discovered in 1947 and contains 2 lines of poetry with Pallawa script and Sanskrit language.[citation needed] The inscriptions speak of the courage of king Purnawarman.[citation needed] After the collapse of the Tarumanagara kingdom, due to an attack by Srivijaya, power in the western Java fell to the Kingdom of Sunda. The Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1200, Chou Ju-kua mentioned that in the early 13th Century, Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula, and western Java (Sunda). The source identifies the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, pepper from Sunda being among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden poles (rumah panggung). However, robbers and thieves plagued the country.[5] It was highly possible that the port of Sunda mentioned by Chou Ju-kua was probably refer to the port of Banten.

According to the Portuguese explorer, Tome Pires, in the early 16th century the port of Bantam (Banten) was an important port within the Kingdom of Sunda along with the ports of Pontang, Cheguide (Cigede), Tangaram (Tangerang), Calapa (Sunda Kelapa) and Chimanuk (estuarine of Cimanuk river).[6]

In 1527, just as the Portuguese fleet was arriving off the coast, newly converted Javanese Muslims under Sunan Gunungjati captured the port of Banten and the surrounding area from the Sundanese leaders and established the Sultanate of Banten. The center of this sultanate, according to J. de Barros, was Banten which was a major port in Southeast Asia rivaling Malacca and Makassar. The city of Banten was located in middle of the bay which is around three miles across. The city was 850 fathoms in length while the seaside town was 400 fathoms in length. Through the middle of town there was a clear river which ships and gale junks could sail into. There is a small tributary of the river extending to the edges of the town. Today, the river is not so large and only small boats can enter. There was a fortress very near to the town whose walls were made of brick and was seven palms wide. There were wooden defense buildings consisting of two levels and armed with good weapons. The middle of the town square was used for military activities and folk art, and as a market in the morning. The king's palace was located on the southern side of the square. Beside the building was an elevated and flat-roofed, called Srimanganti, which was used by the king when meeting the people. To the west of the square was a great mosque.

In the early 17th century, Banten was an important commercial center on international trade routes in Asia. At the time, the administration and governance of port were very supportive of economic growth. Its territory included the area which is now the province of Lampung in southern Sumatra.

When the Dutch arrived in Indonesia the Portuguese had long been in Banten. The English established a representative site in Banten, a "factory", and were followed by the Dutch. In addition, the French and Danes also came to trade in Banten. In the ensuring competition between the European traders, the Dutch emerged as the winners. The Portuguese fled Banten in (1601) after their fleet was destroyed by the Dutch fleet off the coast of Banten.

Transport[edit]

A major highway connecting Jakarta and Merak runs along the northern coast, divided into sections. It is composed of the Tangerang–Merak Toll Road and the Jakarta–Tangerang Toll Road, and forms part of the Trans-Java toll road.

Numerous train stations serve the province, operated by Indonesia's national rail operator, PT Kereta Api.

The province has the nation's busiest ferry terminals to Lampung on the island of Sumatra.

The only commercial airport in the province is the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, which primarily serves the Greater Jakarta area, also known as Jabodetabek. The airport is located in the city of Tangerang.

Administrative division[edit]

Banten Province is subdivided into four regencies (kabupaten) and four autonomous cities (kota), listed below with their populations at the 2000 and 2010 Censuses, together with the latest (2014) official estimates.

Name Area (km2) Population
Census 2000
Population
Census 2010
Population
2014 Estimate[7]
Capital
Cilegon (city) 175.51 294,936 374,559 416,901 Cilegon
Serang (city) 266.71 (a) 577,785 643,101 Serang
Serang Regency 1,734.28 1,652,763 1,402,818 1,561,401 Baros
Lebak Regency 3,426.56 1,030,040 1,204,095 1,340,213 Rangkasbitung
Pandeglang Regency 2,746.89 1,011,788 1,149,610 1,279,569 Pandeglang
Western part
(outside Jabodetabek)
8,349.95 3,989,527 4,708,867 5,241,185
Tangerang (city) 153.93 1,325,854 1,798,601 2,001,925 Tangerang
South Tangerang (city) 147.19 (b) 1,290,322 1,436,187 Ciputat
Tangerang Regency 1,011.86 2,781,428 2,834,376 3,154,790 Tigeraksa
Eastern part
(within Jabodetabek)
1,312.98 4,107,282 5,923,299 6,592,902
(a) The 2000 Census population for Serang city is included in the figure for Serang Regency.
(b) The 2000 Census population for South Tangerang city is included in the figure for Tangerang Regency.

Notes:

  • Tangerang Regency capital was in the city of Tangerang until that city was separated from the Regency.
  • Tangerang city was formed as an autonomous city on 27 February 1993 out of the Tangerang Regency. Tangerang was previously an administrative city within that Regency.
  • South Tangerang city was established as an autonomous city on 29 October 2008 out of the Tangerang Regency. The name previously was Cipasera city.
  • Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT) recommends Ciruas as the new Serang capital center location.
  • Cilegon city was formed as an autonomous city on 10 April 1999 out of the Serang Regency. Cilegon previously was an administrative city within that Regency.
  • Serang city was incorporated as an autonomous city in November 2007 out of the Serang Regency.

The cities and regencies are sub-divided into 140 districts, 262 urban villages and 1,242 villages.

List of governors[edit]

At the time of the formation of Banten Province, Djamal Hakamudin was appointed as the first governor by the Indonesian central government. In 2002, the Banten provincial parliament (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah or DPRD) chose Djoko Munandar and Ratu Atut Chosiyah as governor and deputy governor of Banten respectively. In early 2006, after Djoko Munandar was suspended during an investigation into alleged corruption, Ratu Atut Chosiyah was appointed as acting governor . Finally, on 6 December 2006, a provincial election was held which was won by Ratu Atut Choisiyah as governor and Mohammad Masduki as deputy governor; both served in the period 2007-2011.

Governors of Banten
Name[8] Position Took office Left office Information
Hakamudin Djamal Acting Governor 2000 2002  
Djoko Munandar Governor 2002 2005  Removed on charges of corruption
Ratu Atut Chosiyah Acting governor 2005 2007  
Ratu Atut Chosiyah Governor 2007 2012  
Ratu Atut Chosiyah Governor 2012 Incumbent  Dismissed for bribery
Rano Karno Acting Governor 2014 incumbent  Starting on May 9, 2014

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003. 
  2. ^ http://banten.bps.go.id/pop1.php
  3. ^ according to the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 23 year 2000
  4. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2014.
  5. ^ Drs. R. Soekmono, (1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. pp. page 60. 
  6. ^ SJ, Adolf Heuken (1999). Sumber-sumber asli sejarah Jakarta, Jilid I: Dokumen-dokumen sejarah Jakarta sampai dengan akhir abad ke-16. Cipta Loka Caraka. p. 34. 
  7. ^ Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin Menurut Kabupaten/Kota Tahun 2014.
  8. ^ Banten Governors. Statistics Banten Provincial Office, Banten. 2008. 

External links[edit]