|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2013)|
|Motto: Jer Basuki Mawa Béya (Javanese)
(meaning: Efforts are needed to get success or prosper)
Location of East Java in Indonesia
|• Total||47,799.75 km2 (18,455.59 sq mi)|
|• Density||810/km2 (2,100/sq mi)|
|• Ethnic groups||Javanese (80%), Madurese (18%), Tionghoa (1%)|
|• Religion||Islam (96.36%), Christianity (2.4%), Buddhism (0.6%), Hinduism (0.5%), Confucianism (0.1%), Kejawen also practised|
|• Languages||Indonesian (official), Javanese languages (Arekan & Osing), Madurese (regional)|
|Time zone||WIB (UTC+7)|
East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur, abbreviated as Jatim, Javanese: Jåwå Wétan) is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and includes the neighbouring islands of Madura, and the Kangean, Sapudi, Bawean, and Masalembu groups. The dominant cultures are Javanese and, in the north-east, Madurese, as opposed to the Sundanese of western Java.
It covers an area of 47,800 km2, and had a population of 37,476,757 at the 2010 Census, making it Indonesia's second most populated province (after West Java); the latest official estimate (for January 2014) is 38,529,481. Its capital is Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia and a major industrial center and port.
It has a land border only with the province of Central Java to the west, being surrounded by sea on all other sides.
The history of eastern Java was substantially that of the empire of Majapahit - which reached its golden moment under Hayam Wuruk in 1350–1389. But, after his death, Majapahit entered a period of decline. Following the European occupation of Majapahit ruins, the kingdom was replaced by the Residency system. There were eight Residencies within East Java—those of Bojonegoro, Madiun, Kediri, Malang, Surabaya, Probolinggo, Besuki (the latter for the far eastern part of Java) and Madura. In November 1947, a State of East Java was formed under Dutch auspices as part of the new Republic of the United States of Indonesia. After a Round Table conference, many people demanded that the state of East Java should be dissolved and that it become a part of the Republic of Indonesia.
East Java is administratively divided into 29 regencies (or kabupaten), and 9 cities (or kotamadya) that are independent of the regency in which they sit geographically. These are listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2000 and 2010 Censuses and at the latest (January 2014) estimates:
(includes Bawean Island)
|Surabaya Sub-regional Totals||6,201.83||8,901,786||9,907,454||10,185,732|
|Northwest Sub-regional Totals||9,428.60||6,550,065||6,819,323||7,010,881|
|Far Southeast Sub-regional Totals||15,614.36||7,130,485||7,592,959||7,806,256|
|Batu City||Batu||136.74||(included in
|Southern Sub-regional Totals||11,529.66||8,953,362||9,534,258||9,802,077|
(excluding Madura) Totals
|Total for Province||47,799.75||34,765,993||37,476,757||38,529,481|
|Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010, 2014 Health Ministry|
According to the 2000 census, East Java had 34,765,993 inhabitants, which increased to 37,476,757 at the 2010 Census, making it the second most populous Indonesian province after West Java. The inhabitants are predominantly ethnically Javanese. Native minorities include migrants from nearby Madura, and distinct Javanese ethnicities such as the Tengger people in Bromo, the Samin and the Osing people in Banyuwangi. East Java also hosts a significant population of other ethnic groups, such as Chinese, Indians, and Arabs. In addition to the national language, Indonesian, they also speak Javanese. Javanese as spoken in the western East Java is a similar dialect to the one spoken in nearby Central Java, with its hierarchy of high, medium, and low registers. In the eastern cities of Surabaya, Malang, and surrounding areas, a more egalitarian version of Javanese is spoken, with less regard for hierarchy and a richer vocabulary for vulgarity.
Hinduism and Buddhism once dominated the island; however Islam gradually supplanted Hinduism in the 14th and 15th centuries (see the spread of Islam in Indonesia). The last nobles and loyalists of the fallen empire of Majapahit fled from this point to Bali. Islam spread from northern cities in Java where traders from Gujarat, India brought with them Islam. The eastern part of East Java, from Surabaya to Pasuruan, and the cities along the coast, and back to Banyuwangi to Jember, are known as the "horseshoe area" in context with earlier Muslim communities living there.
- Chalk (Trenggalek & Gresik the city is also famous of its cement industries)
- Marble (Tulungagung)
- Petroleum (Bojonegoro)
- Salt (Madura Island)
- Kaolinite (Blitar)
East Java hosts some of the famous universities in Indonesia, both owned by government and private. Three major cities for universities, because they have government's universities, are Surabaya, Malang, and Jember. Among them, Airlangga University and Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember are the most famous, and both are located in Surabaya. See: List of universities in East Java
Another important form of education that is available in most cities in East Java is the pesantren. This kind of education is built and organized by Islamic clerics, and associated with local or national Muslim organizations. Jombang is a famous city for its pesantren.
East Java supports several regional media outlets. Local newspapers with provincial news reach their readers earlier than their competitors from Jakarta. In the spirit of "providing more news from around readers", most newspapers even issue municipal sections which are different among their distribution areas.
- Jawa Pos Group, one of the major newspaper groups in Indonesia, is based in Surabaya.
- Surya, is a newspaper based in Surabaya. Surya is now controlled by Kompas, one of the major newspaper groups in Indonesia
- Meru Betiri National Park - Between Jember and Banyuwangi districts, this park covers 580 km2 (224 sq mi). Hard to get to, it contains fantastic coastal rainforest and scenery and is home to abundant wildlife.
- Alas Purwo National Park - This 434 km2 (168 sq mi) park is formed by the Blambangan Peninsula (south eastern Java). Comprising mangrove, savanna, lowland monsoon forests and excellent beaches, the park's name means First Forest in Javanese. Javanese legend says that the earth first emerged from the ocean here.
- Baluran National Park - This 250 km2 (97 sq mi) national park is located in north east Java, once known as Indonesia's little piece of Africa, the parks formerly extensive savanna has been largely replaced by Acacia.
- Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park - Located in East Java at the region of Probolinggo and Pasuruan, 70 km (43 mi) from Surabaya the capital city of East Java province. Mount Bromo is one of the great hiking and trekking destinations for overseas tourists. The breathtaking view of Bromo also attracts hundreds of photo enthusiasts to see the views there.
Local economic governance
Based on the survey conducted between August 2010 and January 2011, East Java included 11 of the top 20 cities and regencies of the Local economic governance which measures nine parameters: 
- private enterprises development program
- access to land
- interaction between local administrations and businesses
- business licensing
- local taxes and fees
- security and business conflict resolution
- capacity and integrity of regional heads
- quality of local regulations
The top 5 were:
- Blitar, East Java
- North Lampung Regency, Lampung
- Probolinggo, East Java
- Batu, East Java
- Sorong Regency, West Papua
East Java cuisine tends to be sweeter than that of Central and West Java.
- Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin 2014 Kementerian Kesehatan
- Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003.
- Keagamaan 2009
- Piwulang Basa Jawa Pepak, S.B. Pramono, hal 148, 2013
- Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
- [dead link]
- "East Java vows to top Jakarta, build four ports by 2013". The Jakarta Post. 2011-06-01. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Blitar leads economic governance survey". The Jakarta Post. 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2013-12-10.