East Java

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East Java Province
Provinsi Jawa Timur
Province
Bahari Monument, Jalan Darmo, Surabaya
Bahari Monument, Jalan Darmo, Surabaya
Flag of East Java Province
Flag
Official seal of East Java Province
Seal
Motto: Jer Basuki Mawa Béya (Javanese)
(meaning: Efforts are needed to get success or prosper)
Location of East Java in Indonesia
Location of East Java in Indonesia
Coordinates: 7°16′S 112°45′E / 7.267°S 112.750°E / -7.267; 112.750Coordinates: 7°16′S 112°45′E / 7.267°S 112.750°E / -7.267; 112.750
Country Indonesia
Capital Surabaya
Government
 • Governor Soekarwo
Area
 • Total 47,922 km2 (18,503 sq mi)
Population (2014)[1]
 • Total 38,529,481
 • Density 800/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups Javanese (80%), Madurese (18%), Tionghoa (1%)[2]
 • Religion Islam (96.36%), Christianity (2.4%), Buddhism (0.6%), Hinduism (0.5%), Confucianism (0.1%), Kejawen also practised[3]
 • Languages Indonesian (official), Javanese languages, Madurese (regional)
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Website www.jatimprov.go.id

East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur, abbreviated as Jatim, Javanese: Jåwå Wétan)[4] is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and includes the neighbouring islands of Madura, and the Kangean, Sapudi, Bawean, and Masalembu groups. The dominant cultures are Javanese and, in the north-east, Madurese, as opposed to the Sundanese of western Java.

Its capital is Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia and a major industrial center and port. It covers an area of 47,922 km2.

It has a land border only with the province of Central Java to the west, being surrounded by sea on all other sides.

History[edit]

The history of eastern Java was substantially that of the empire of Majapahit - which reached its golden moment under Hayam Wuruk in 1350–1389. But, after his death, Majapahit entered a period of decline. Following the European occupation of Majapahit ruins, the kingdom was replaced by the Residency system. There were eight Residencies within East Java - those of Bojonegoro, Madiun, Kediri, Malang, Surabaya, Probolinggo, Besuki (the latter for the far eastern part of Java) and Madura. In November 1947, a State of East Java was formed under Dutch auspices as part of the new Republic of the United States of Indonesia. After a Round Table conference, many people demanded that the state of East Java should be dissolved and that it become a part of the Republic of Indonesia.

Administrative divisions[edit]

East Java is administratively divided into 29 regencies (or kabupaten), and 9 cities (or kotamadya) that are independent of the regency in which they sit geographically. These are listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2000 and 2010 Censuses[5] and at the latest (January 2014) estimates:

Name Capital Area
(in km²)
Population
2000 Census
Population
2010 Census
Population
2014 estimate
Surabaya City Surabaya 374.78 2,599,796 2,765,908 2,843,144
Gresik Regency
(includes Bawean Island)
Gresik 1,137.05 1,005,445 1,177,201 1,210,105
Lamongan Regency Lamongan 1,812.20 1,181,660 1,179,770 1,212,179
Mojokerto Regency Mojokerto 835.93 908,004 1,023,526 1,054,248
Mojokerto City Mojokerto 16.46 108,938 120,132 123,572
Sidoarjo Regency Sidoarjo 634.89 1,563,015 1,945,252 1,996,034
Pasuruan Regency Pasuruan 1,474 1,366,605 1,510,261 1,554,956
Pasuruan City Pasuruan 147 168,323 186,322 191,494
Surabaya Sub-regional Totals 8,901,786 9,908,372 10,185,732
Tuban Regency Tuban 1,051,999 1,117,539 1,149,882
Bojonegoro Regency Bojonegoro 1,165,401 1,209,008 1,243,961
Ngawi Regency Ngawi 813,228 817,076 840,736
Magetan Regency Magetan 615,254 620,146 637,872
Madiun Regency Madiun 639,825 661,886 680,881
Madiun City Madiun 163,956 170,851 175,767
Nganjuk Regency Nganjuk 973,472 1,016,393 1,045,598
Jombang Regency Jombang 1,126,930 1,201,557 1,236,184
Northwest Sub-regional Totals 6,550,065 6,814,456 7,010,881
Probolinggo Regency Kraksaan 1,004,967 1,095,370 1,127,041
Probolinggo City Probolinggo 191,522 216,967 223,159
Situbondo Regency Situbondo 1,638.15 603,705 647,500 665,818
Bondowoso Regency Bondowoso 688,651 736,530 757,468
Banyuwangi Regency Banyuwangi 5,782.50 1,488,791 1,554,997 1,599,788
Jember Regency Jember 3,293.34 2,187,657 2,346,498 2,398,252
Lumajang Regency Lumajang 965,192 1,006,563 1,034,730
Far Southeast Sub-regional Totals 7,130,485 7,604,425 7,806,256
Malang Regency Kepanjen 3,534.86 2,412,570 2,443,609 2,514,932
Malang City Malang 145.28 756,982 819,708 843,284
Batu City Batu (included in
Malang Regency)
189,793 195,526
Kediri Regency Kediri 963.21 1,408,353 1,498,803 1,541,897
Kediri City Kediri 244,519 267,435 276,051
Blitar Regency Kanigoro 1,064,643 1,116,010 1,148,005
Blitar City Blitar 119,372 132,018 135,675
Tulungagung Regency Tulungagung 929,833 989,821 1,017,972
Trenggalek Regency Trenggalek 649,883 674,521 693,355
Ponorogo Regency Ponorogo 841,449 854,878 879,306
Pacitan Regency Pacitan 525,758 540,516 556,074
Southern Sub-regional Totals 8,953,362 9,527,112 9,802,077
East Java
(excluding Madura) Totals
43,508 31,535,693 33,854,365 34,804,946
Bangkalan Regency Bangkalan 1,260 805,048 907,255 932,232
Sampang Regency Sampang 1,152 750,046 876,950 902,429
Pamekasan Regency Pamekasan 733 689,225 795,526 818,283
Sumenep Regency Sumenep 1,147 985,981 1,041,915 1,071,591
Madura Totals 4,292 3,230,300 3,621,646 3,724,535
Total for Province 47,800 34,765,998 37,476,011 38,529,481

Demography[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1971 25,516,999 —    
1980 29,188,852 +14.4%
1990 32,503,991 +11.4%
1995 33,844,002 +4.1%
2000 34,783,640 +2.8%
2010 37,476,757 +7.7%
2014 38,529,481 +2.8%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010, 2014 Health Ministry[1]

According to the 2000 census, East Java had 34,765,993 inhabitants, which increased to 37,476,011 at the 2010 Census,[6] making it the second most populous Indonesian province after West Java. The inhabitants are predominantly ethnically Javanese. Native minorities include migrants from nearby Madura, and distinct Javanese ethnicities such as the Tengger people in Bromo, the Samin and the Osing people in Banyuwangi. East Java also hosts a significant population of other ethnic groups, such as Chinese, Indians, and Arabs. In addition to the national language, Indonesian, they also speak Javanese. Javanese as spoken in the western East Java is a similar dialect to the one spoken in nearby Central Java, with its hierarchy of high, medium, and low registers. In the eastern cities of Surabaya, Malang, and surrounding areas, a more egalitarian version of Javanese is spoken, with less regard for hierarchy and a richer vocabulary for vulgarity.

Madurese is spoken by around 15 million ethnic Madurese, and is concentrated in Madura Island, Kangean Islands, Masalembu Islands, the eastern parts of East Java, and East Java's larger cities.

Religion[edit]

Hinduism and Buddhism once dominated the island; however Islam gradually supplanted Hinduism in the 14th and 15th centuries (see the spread of Islam in Indonesia). The last nobles and loyalists of the fallen empire of Majapahit fled from this point to Bali. Islam spread from northern cities in Java where traders from Gujarat, India brought with them Islam. The eastern part of East Java, from Surabaya to Pasuruan, and the cities along the coast, and back to Banyuwangi to Jember, are known as the "horseshoe area" in context with earlier Muslim communities living there.[citation needed]

Pockets of Hinduism remain, and syncretic abangan streams of Islam and Hinduism remain strong (see Hinduism in Java).

Natural resources[edit]

  • Chalk (Trenggalek & Gresik the city is also famous of its cement industries)
  • Marble (Tulungagung)
  • Petroleum (Bojonegoro)
  • Salt (Madura Island)
  • Kaolinite (Blitar)
  • Sulfur

Seaports[edit]

East Java will build 4 seaports by 2013 in Lamongan, Gresik, Probolinggo and Banyuwangi.[7]

Education[edit]

East Java hosts some of the famous universities in Indonesia, both owned by government and private. Three major cities for universities, because they have government's universities, are Surabaya, Malang, and Jember. Among them, Airlangga University and Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember are the most famous, and both are located in Surabaya. See: List of universities in East Java

Another important form of education that is available in most cities in East Java is the pesantren. This kind of education is built and organized by Islamic clerics, and associated with local or national Muslim organizations. Jombang is a famous city for its pesantren.

Media[edit]

East Java supports several regional media outlets. Local newspapers with provincial news reach their readers earlier than their competitors from Jakarta. In the spirit of "providing more news from around readers", most newspapers even issue municipal sections which are different among their distribution areas.

  • Jawa Pos Group, one of the major newspaper groups in Indonesia, is based in Surabaya.
  • Surya, is a newspaper based in Surabaya. Surya is now controlled by Kompas, one of the major newspaper groups in Indonesia

National parks[edit]

Deers in Baluran National Park
  • Meru Betiri National Park - Between Jember and Banyuwangi districts, this park covers 580 km2 (224 sq mi). Hard to get to, it contains fantastic coastal rainforest and scenery and is home to abundant wildlife.
  • Alas Purwo National Park - This 434 km2 (168 sq mi) park is formed by the Blambangan Peninsula (south eastern Java). Comprising mangrove, savanna, lowland monsoon forests and excellent beaches, the park's name means First Forest in Javanese. Javanese legend says that the earth first emerged from the ocean here.
  • Baluran National Park - This 250 km2 (97 sq mi) national park is located in north east Java, once known as Indonesia's little piece of Africa, the parks formerly extensive savanna has been largely replaced by Acacia.
  • Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park - Located in East Java at the region of Probolinggo and Pasuruan, 70 km (43 mi) from Surabaya the capital city of East Java province. Mount Bromo is one of the great hiking and trekking destinations for overseas tourists. The breathtaking view of Bromo also attracts hundreds of photo enthusiasts to see the views there.

Local economic governance[edit]

Based on the survey conducted between August 2010 and January 2011, East Java included 11 of the top 20 cities and regencies of the Local economic governance which measures nine parameters: [8]

  • infrastructure
  • private enterprises development program
  • access to land
  • interaction between local administrations and businesses
  • business licensing
  • local taxes and fees
  • security and business conflict resolution
  • capacity and integrity of regional heads
  • quality of local regulations

The top 5 were:

Cuisine[edit]

East Java cuisine tends to be sweeter than that of Central and West Java.

Rujak Cingur, traditional dish from East Java.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Estimasi Penduduk Menurut Umur Tunggal Dan Jenis Kelamin 2014 Kementerian Kesehatan
  2. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003. 
  3. ^ Keagamaan 2009
  4. ^ Piwulang Basa Jawa Pepak, S.B. Pramono, hal 148, 2013
  5. ^ Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  6. ^ [1][dead link]
  7. ^ "East Java vows to top Jakarta, build four ports by 2013". The Jakarta Post. 2011-06-01. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 
  8. ^ "Blitar leads economic governance survey". The Jakarta Post. 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 

External links[edit]