Taxus brevifolia

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Taxus brevifolia
Taxus brevifolia Blue Mts WA.jpg
Taxus brevifolia (Pacific Yew) foliage and fruit
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Taxaceae
Genus: Taxus
Species: T. brevifolia
Binomial name
Taxus brevifolia
Nutt.
Taxus brevifolia range map.png
Natural range
Synonyms
  • Taxus baccata subsp. brevifolia (Nutt.) Pilg.
  • Taxus baccata var. brevifolia (Nutt.) Koehne
  • Taxus baccata var. canadensis Benth.
  • Taxus boursieri Carrière
  • Taxus brevifolia var. polychaeta Spjut
  • Taxus brevifolia subsp. polychaeta (Spjut) Silba
  • Taxus brevifolia var. reptaneta Spjut
  • Taxus brevifolia subsp. reptaneta (Spjut) Silba
  • Taxus lindleyana A. Murray bis
  • Taxus occidentalis Nutt.

Taxus brevifolia (Pacific yew or western yew) is a conifer native to the Pacific Northwest of North America. It ranges from southernmost Alaska south to central California, mostly in the Pacific Coast Ranges, but with isolated disjunct populations in southeast British Columbia (most notably occurring on Zuckerberg Island near Castlegar) and in south to central Idaho.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Characteristics[edit]

The pacific yew is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree, growing 10–15 m tall and with a trunk up to 50 cm diameter, rarely more. In some instances, trees with heights in excess of 20 m occur in parks and other protected areas, quite often in gullies. The tree is extremely slow growing, and has a habit of rotting from the inside, creating hollow forms. This makes it difficult and sometimes impossible to make accurate rings counts to determine a specimen's true age. Often damaged by succession of the forest, it usually ends up in a squat, multiple leader form.

It has thin scaly brown bark, covering a thin layer of off-white sap wood with a darker heartwood that varies in color from brown to a magenta/purplish hue. The leaves are lanceolate, flat, dark green, 1–3 cm long and 2–3 mm broad, arranged spirally on the stem, but with the leaf bases twisted to align the leaves in two flat rows either side of the stem except on erect leading shoots where the spiral arrangement is more obvious.

The seed cones are highly modified, each cone containing a single seed 4–7 mm long partly surrounded by a modified scale which develops into a soft, bright red berry-like structure called an aril, 8–15 mm long and wide and open at the end. The arils are mature 6–9 months after pollination. The seeds contained in the arils are eaten by thrushes and other birds, which disperse the hard seeds undamaged in their droppings; maturation of the arils is spread over 2–3 months, increasing the chances of successful seed dispersal. The male cones are globose, 3–6 mm diameter, and shed their pollen in early spring. It is mostly dioecious, but occasional individuals can be variably monoecious, or change sex with time.

The Concow tribe calls the tree yōl’-kō (Konkow language)[7]

Habitat[edit]

Pacific yew grows in varying types of environments; however, in drier environments it is mostly limited to stream side habitats, whereas in moist environments it will grow up onto slopes and ridgetops.[1] Pacific yew is shade tolerant; however it can also grow in sun.[8] The tree's shade tolerance allows it to form an understory, which means that it can grow along streams providing shade to maintain water temperature.[9]

Uses[edit]

Traditionally, the wood was used by native Americans to make bows and paddles for canoes, in addition many other items from daily life.[10] The Japanese have also used the wood for decorative purposes.[1]

Members of the Pit River Tribe would sell this plant to the Ukiah.[11]

Discovery of taxol[edit]

The chemotherapy drug paclitaxel (taxol), used in breast, ovarian, and lung cancer treatment, is derived from Taxus brevifolia. As it was already becoming scarce when its chemotherapeutic potential was realized, the Pacific yew was never commercially harvested from its habitat at a large scale; the widespread use of the paclitaxel (taxol) was enabled when a semi-synthetic pathway was developed from extracts of cultivated yews of other species. Unlicensed pharmaceutical production use of closely related wild yew species in India and China may be threatening some of those species.[12]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bolsinger, Charles; Jaramillo, Annabelle (1965). "Pacific Yew". 
  2. ^ Hitchcock, C. H., A.J. Cronquist, F. M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Cryptogams, Gymnosperms, and Monocotyledons. 1: 1–914. In C. L. Hitchcock Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
  3. ^ Hultén, E. 1968. Flora Alaska i–xxi, 1–1008. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  4. ^ Moss, E. H. 1983. Flora of Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  5. ^ Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. California Flora 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  6. ^ Welsh, S. L. 1974. Anderson's Flora of Alaska and Adjacent Parts of Canada i–xvi, 1–724. Brigham Young University Press, Provo.
  7. ^ Chesnut, Victor King (1902). Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. Government Printing Office. p. 408. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  8. ^ Mitchell, A. "Acclimation of Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) foliage to sun and shade". Tree Physiology 18. 
  9. ^ Scher, Stanley; Schwarzschild, Bert (1989). "Pacific Yew: a Faculative Riparian Conifer with an Uncertain Future". 
  10. ^ Hansen, Robert (ed.). "Taxus and Taxol - A Compilation of Research Findings". 
  11. ^ Chestnut, V. K. 1902 Plants Used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium 7:295-408. (p. 305)
  12. ^ BGCI, ‘Miracle’ Cures Face Extinction, retrieved 2008-07-21 

Further reading[edit]

Media related to Taxus brevifolia at Wikimedia Commons