Timeline of Haitian history

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This is a timeline of Haitian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Haiti and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Haiti. See also the list of heads of state of Haïti.

Centuries: 15th · 16th · 17th · 18th · 19th · 20th · 21st

15th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1492 Christopher Columbus landed near today's city of Cap-Haïtien and claimed the island for Spain, naming it Hispaniola.

16th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1503 The first Africans were brought to Hispaniola for labor.
1508 Ferdinand II of Aragon officially established Spain's African slave trade.
1528 Don Sebastián Ramirez de Fuente became the first Catholic bishop of the island.
1592 Queen Anacaona, leader of the last Taino kingdom in Haiti, is executed by Spanish governor.

17th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1625 The French settled Tortuga Island and northwestern Hispaniola, naming their colony Saint-Domingue.
1665 The city of Port-au-Prince was founded on the northwest coast by French settlers.
1670 Louis XIV of France authorized the African slave trade in Saint-Dominque.
1685 Louis XIV enacted the Code Noir, regulating slavery in Saint-Domingue and the rest of the French colonial empire.
1697 Spain signed the Treaty of Ryswick, under whose terms she ceded the western third of Hispaniola to France.

18th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1749 The city of Port-au-Prince was founded by Charles Burnier, Marquis of Larnage and named the capital of Saint-Domingue.
1751 Slave rebellions in northern Saint-Domingue, led by François Mackandal, began.
1758 Mackandal was captured and publicly executed in Cap-Français.
1778 Volunteer Haitian slaves, led by French admiral Count d'Estaing, left for Savannah, Georgia to fight against the British in the American Revolutionary War.
1791 25 February Vincent Ogé and Jean-Baptiste Chavannes, proponents of equal rights for free blacks and mulattos and leaders of an armed rebellion, were publicly executed in Cap-Français.
7 August The Conseil des Représentants de la Commune was founded by affranchis to demand equal rights. Pinchinat was named president of the council.
14 August Haitian Revolution: Dutty Boukman and Cécile Fatiman held a Vodou ceremony in Bois-Caïman, where hundreds of slaves vowed to die for liberty.
20 August A force of Africans and slaves defeated the Europeans near Port-au-Prince.
22 August Rebel leader Dutty Boukman was killed in a major revolt led by himself, Jean François, Georges Biassou, and Jeannot.
24 September The Concordat de Damiens was signed, granting political rights to the affranchis.
November The First Civil Commission, comprising Roume, Mirbeck, and Saint-Léger, arrived in Cap-Français to restore order.
1792 4 April France's Legislative Assembly voted to give full citizenship and equal rights to all free people of color.
18 September The Second Civil Commission, comprising Léger-Félicité Sonthonax, Polvérel, and Ailhaud, arrived in Cap-Français to execute the law of 4 April.
1793 12 April A force led by the Second Civil Commission and affranchis defeated white colonists in a fight to enforce the law of 4 April.
Toussaint Louverture offered his services as a military commander to the Spanish.
20 June French colonial forces, under the authority of the Second Civil Commission, put down a revolt led by the white planter Galbaud.
Henri Christophe was promoted to the captaincy of the French colonial forces, but soon removed when accused of adultery.
British troops landed in Saint-Domingue.
June Toussaint, fighting for Spain, captured the city of Dondon.
13 August Toussaint defeated the French general Desfourneaux at Ennery.
29 August Sonthonax, without prior approval from the French government, declared the abolition of slavery by decree in northern Saint-Domingue. Polverel soon after does the same for the southern part of Saint-Domingue.
6 December Toussaint captured Gonaïves for Spain.
1794 4 February The French National Convention declared the abolition of slavery in all French colonies, so making the abolition of slavery legal and applying to all of France and its colonies.
May Toussaint left the Spanish and joined the French forces.
1 June The British captured Port-au-Prince from Colonel Montbrun of France.
21 October Toussaint captured the cities of Saint-Michel and Saint-Raphaël for the French.
1795 13 October Toussaint captured the city of Dondon a second time, this time for France.
14 October The Treaty of Bâle was ratified, ending Spain's involvement in the conflict and surrendering the eastern part of Hispaniola to France.
1796 30 March Toussaint rescued French commander Laveaux from mulatto rebel Villatte; Laveaux appointed Toussaint the Lieutenant-Governor of Saint-Domingue.
11 May The Third Civil Commission, comprising Sonthonax, Roume, Giraud, Leblanc, and Julien Raymond, arrived in Saint-Domingue to establish diplomatic relations between France and the colony.
1797 1 May Sonthonax appointed Toussaint the commander-in-chief of the French colonial forces.
1798 20 April General Hédouville arrived in Cap-Français on the orders of the French government in order to oppose the ambition of Toussaint Louverture.
31 August British general Maitland agreed to evacuate Môle Saint-Nicolas and surrender his troops to Toussaint.
1799 12 January The generals of the colony – Toussaint, André Rigaud, Bauvais, and Laplume – met in Port-au-Prince and named Toussaint the lead commander. Rigaud surrendered control of the southern cities of Léogâne, Grand-Goâve, Petit-Goâve, and Miragoâne.

19th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1801 27 January Toussaint invaded the eastern part of Hispaniola and captured Santo Domingo, declaring freedom for all slaves and appointing a ten-member Central Assembly to issue a constitution.
8 July The Constitution of 1801 was promulgated, under which Toussaint Louverture was to be Governor General for life.
1802 29 January A French expeditionary force, sent by Napoleon Bonaparte and led by his brother-in-law Charles Leclerc, arrived in Samana Bay.
1 February French vessels arrived at Cap-Français.
4 February Henri Christophe burned Cap-Français to resist the French troops.
23 February Battle of Ravine-à-Couleuvres: French forces defeated Toussaint.
March Toussaint was defeated by French forces.
4 April Battle of Crête-à-Pierrot: The battle began.
24 March Battle of Crête-à-Pierrot: The battle ended with a French victory over Jean-Jacques Dessalines.
6 May Toussaint arrived in Cap-Français to negotiate his surrender to the French.
7 June Toussaint was arrested by General Leclerc and shipped to France, where he was imprisoned.
13 October Dessalines, now Commander-in-Chief of the revolutionary forces, met with Alexandre Pétion in Haut-du-Cap to plan further military action.
1 November Commander of the French forces General Leclerc died of yellow fever. He was succeeded by Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau.
1803 7 April Toussaint died in the French prison of Fort de Joux.
18 May The flag of Haiti was created during a meeting between Dessalines and Pétion in l'Arcahaie and sewn by Catherine Flon.
18 November Battle of Vertières: During the last major battle of the revolution, Haitian forces under Dessalines and Pétion defeated the French.
19 November French general Rochambeau signs a document of surrender and agrees to evacuate French troops from Saint-Domingue; Rochambeau is later given as a prisoner to the British
29 November Dessalines' army arrives in Cap-Français; Christophe and Clerveaux issue a preliminary declaration of independence
4 December French forces surrender Môle Saint-Nicolas to Dessalines' army, officially ending French presence on the island
1804 1 January Dessalines, in Gonaïves, declares Haiti an independent nation and becomes Governor-General
February On the order of Dessalines, the 1804 Haiti Massacre eradicates the white minority of Haiti; the massacre is finally stopped the 22 April.
22 September Dessalines proclaims himself Emperor of Haiti
6 October Dessalines becomes Emperor Jacques I in a coronation ceremony at Cap-Français
1805 20 May Dessalines formulates the first constitution of Haiti as an independent country, the Imperial Constitution of 1805
1806 17 October Dessalines is assassinated at Pont-Rouge by disaffected leaders of his administration
27 December During a meeting at a cathedral in Port-au-Prince, the Constituent Assembly creates a new constitution and appoints Henri Christophe to a four-year term as President of the Republic of Haiti
1807 1 January The Battle of Sibert ends with the division of Haiti into the southern Republic of Haiti under Alexandre Pétion and the northern State of Haiti under Christophe
17 February Henri Christophe names himself President of the State of Haiti; a state council (7 generals and 2 civilians) appointed by Christophe meets in Cap-Haïtien and votes the Constitutional Act of Haiti
9 March Pétion is elected President of the Republic of Haiti by the Constituent Assembly under the Constitution of 1806
1809 Louis XVIII of France sends a delegation to negotiate France's recognition of Haitian independence; Pétion meets with a French delegate, Dauxion-Lavaysse, and agrees to an indemnity payable to dispossessed French planters
1811 9 March Pétion is elected to a second four-year term as President of the Republic of Haiti
26 March Christophe proclaims himself King Henri I of the northern Haitian state, now known as the Kingdom of Haiti
28 May The Kingdom of Haiti promulgates the Royal Constitution of Henri I
2 June Christophe is crowned as King Henri I in Cap-Haïtien
1812 24 February The Kingdom of Haiti establishes a civil code, the Henri Code
1814 November Christophe refuses to negotiate with French delegate Franco de Medina concerning France's recognition of Haitian independence
1816 2 June Pétion promulgates the Republican Constitution
8 October Louis XVIII of France sends another delegation to negotiate France's recognition of Haitian independence; Pétion cuts off negotiation, Christophe declines to meet the delegates
1818 29 March Pétion, President of the Republic of Haiti, dies of fever
30 March Jean-Pierre Boyer, Chief of the Presidential Guard, is appointed President-for-Life of the Republic of Haiti
1820 8 October Christophe, King of the northern Haitian state, commits suicide
26 October Boyer promulgates the Republican Constitution in Christophe's northern state; northern and southern Haiti are unified
1822 9 February Boyer arrives in Santo Domingo and declares control over the entire island of Hispaniola
1825 17 April King Charles X of France signs an ordinance which conditionally recognizes the independence of Haiti and imposes a 150 million franc indemnity on the Haitian government
3 July A squadron of French ships arrives in Haiti to deliver the news of Charles X's ordinance of 17 April to President Boyer
1831 22 September The city of Pétionville, a suburb of Port-au-Prince named for Alexandre Pétion, is founded by Boyer
1838 Haiti's remaining debt to France, 120 million francs, is reduced to 60 million francs
1842 7 May An earthquake strikes northern Haiti, destroying the city of Cap-Haïtien
1843 13 March President Boyer is overthrown and flees to Paris in exile
18 September The Constituent Assembly begins formulating the Constitution of 1843; it will take more than three months to finish
31 December The Constitution of 1843 is released and Charles Riviere-Hérard is appointed President of Haiti
1844 28 February The Dominican Republic declares its independence from Haiti
4 April The Piquets, peasants of southern Haiti led by Jean-Jacques Acaau, revolt against the government
3 May The Piquets force Riviere-Hérard into exile; Philippe Guerrier is appointed President of Haiti
1845 15 April President Guerrier dies in office; the State Council appoints Jean-Louis Pierrot President of Haiti
1846 1 March President Pierrot is overthrown; Jean-Baptiste Riché becomes President of Haiti
1847 Haitian historian Thomas Madiou publishes the first volume of his seminal work Histoire d'Haïti ("History of Haiti")
27 February President Riché dies in office
1 March Faustin Élie Soulouque is elected President of Haiti
1852 18 April President Faustin Soulouque is crowned Emperor Faustin I of Haiti
1858 December Forces led by Fabre Geffrard defeat Emperor Faustin's Imperial Army
1859 13 January Fabre Geffrard is elected President of Haiti
1860 28 March Haiti and the Vatican sign an agreement which divides Haiti into five dioceses
1862 The United States recognizes Haiti
15 December Rhum Barbancourt is first produced
1865 Céligny Ardouin's eleven-volume work on the history of Haiti, Essais sur l'Histoire d'Haïti, is published
1867 President Geffrard is forced to flee the country
Sylvain Salnave is elected President of Haiti
The Constitution of 1867 is voted
1869 The National Assembly elects Nissage Saget to a four-year term as President of Haiti after the overthrow of Salnave
1870 Haitian writer Demesvar Delorme publishes the essay "Les Théoriciens au Pouvoir", which maintains that political power should be in the hands of the intellectual elite
1874 Saget relinquishes the Presidency; the Constituent Assembly elects Michel Domingue as President
President Domingue promulgates the Constitution of 1874
1875 President Domingue signs a treaty of peace and friendship with the Dominican Republic
1876 President Domingue is overthrown; the Constituent Assembly elects Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal to a four-year term as President
1879 The Constituent Assembly elects Lysius Salomon as President; President Salomon would institute many reforms and pay off Haiti's remaining debt to France for independence
1880 The National Bank of Haiti (or Haitian Central Bank) is founded by President Salomon
1882 Port-au-Prince and Haiti are dedicated to Our Lady of Perpetual Help during a mass in Bel Air
1883 Haitian poet Oswald Durand composes his most famous work, Choucoune
1884 Haitian writer Louis-Joseph Janvier publishes the article "L'Egalité des Races", which proclaims the equality of the races
1885 Haitian writer Anténor Firmin publishes the book De l'Égalité des Races Humaines, which proclaims the equality of the races
1888 President Salomon is overthrown; the Constituent Assembly installs a provisional government
The Constituent Assembly elects François Denys Légitime to the presidency
1889 President Légitime is overthrown; the Constituent Assembly installs a provisional government
The Constituent Assembly elects Florvil Hyppolite to a seven-year term as president
1893 Haitian writer Hannibal Price publishes De la Réhabilitation de la Race Noire par la République d'Haïti ("On the Rehabilitation of the Black Race by the Republic of Haiti") in response to Spenser St. John's Hayti or the Black Republic
1896 President Hyppolite dies of a heart attack; Tirésias Simon Sam is elected to a seven-year term as president

20th century[edit]

Year Date Event
1902 President Simon Sam resigns; Pierre Nord Alexis becomes president
1904 1 January Haiti celebrates 100 years of independence
1908 Pierre Nord Alexis withdraws from the presidency; the Constituent Assembly appoints François C. Antoine Simon president
1911 President Antoine Simon cedes the presidency to Cincinnatus Leconte
1912 30 January The Haitian Federation of Soccer is created
5 August The Haitian American Sugar Company is founded
8 August President Leconte and 300 soldiers are killed in an explosion at the National Palace; the Constituent Assembly appoints Tancrède Auguste president
1913 President Auguste dies during a visit to northern Haiti
Senator Michel Oreste is elected president by the Constituent Assembly
1914 President Oreste is overthrown and succeeded by Oreste Zamor
President Zamor is overthrown and lost by Joseph Davilmar Théodore
1915 President Théodore resigns and is succeeded by Vilbrun Guillaume Sam
28 July Three thousand United States Marines, led by Admiral William B. Caperton, enter Port-au-Prince; beginning of the 19-year U.S. occupation of Haiti
12 August Senator Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave is elected by the Constituent Assembly to a seven-year term as president
1919 12 April The Haitian government undertakes a monetary reform with the National Bank of Haiti
31 October Charlemagne Péralte, leader of the resistance against U.S. occupation, is assassinated
1920 Haitian writer Leon Laleau publishes his first compilation of poems, A Voix Basse
1921 24 January President Dartiguenave addresses United States President Warren G. Harding concerning the needs of the Haitian people
12 April United States President Harding responds to President Dartiguenave
1922 10 April Louis Bornó is elected to a four-year term as president by the State Council
15 May President Dartiguenave's term ends; Louis Bornó is sworn into office
28 December The Central School of Agriculture (Ecole Centrale d'Agriculture) is founded in Damien
1926 President Bornó is re-elected by the State Council and makes a diplomatic trip to the United States
Haitian writer Leon Laleau publishes his second compilation of poems, La Flèche au Cœur
1928 Haitian writer Jean Price-Mars publishes his acclaimed novel Ainsi Parla l'Oncle ("So spoke the Uncle")
Leon Laleau publishes two more compilations of poems, Le Rayon des Jupes and Abréviations
1929 21 January Haiti and the Dominican Republic sign an agreement settling the border between the two countries
1930 28 February The Forbes Commission, sent by U.S. president Herbert Hoover to investigate Haiti's political situation, arrives in the country
21 April Louis Eugène Roy is designated temporary president by state decree
18 November Senator Sténio Vincent is elected to a six-year term as president
10 December Fietta, the first Apostolic Nuncio (diplomatic representative of the Roman Catholic Church) to Haiti, arrives in Port-au-Prince
1931 Jacques Roumain publishes his acclaimed novel Gouverneurs de la Rosée ("Masters of the Dew")
5 August The U.S. agrees to hand over control of the Offices of Public Works, Health, Agriculture and Education to the Haitian government
15 December The ceremony commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the dedication of Port-au-Prince to the Virgin Mary, led by Archbishop Joseph Legouaze, began.
17 December The anniversary ceremony ended.
1933 7 August The governments of Haiti and the United States sign an agreement on the withdrawal of U.S. troops from the country and the end of the U.S. occupation
18 October President Vincent of Haiti and President Rafael Leónidas Trujillo of the Dominican Republic meet for diplomatic talks in Ouanaminthe in northeastern Haiti, near the Dominican border
1934 5 July President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt visits Cap-Haïtien
14 August Last American forces withdraw from Haiti, ending the U.S. occupation
21 August The flag of Haiti is raised at Casernes Dessalines, where it was lowered nineteen years earlier at the start of the U.S. occupation
1935 16 May A new constitution is released, reinforcing the authority of the executive branch of government and renewing President Sténio Vincent's mandate for five more years
1937 Between 20,000 to 35,000 Haitians living in the Dominican Republic are massacred by the Dominican armed forces on the orders of President Rafael Trujillo.
1938 18 May The 135th anniversary of the flag of Haiti is celebrated with athletic festivities at the Champs-de-Mars in Port-au-Prince
1940 Haiti's national library, the Bibliothèque Nationale d'Haïti is organized
1941 14 April Élie Lescot is elected to a five-year term as president
15 May President Vincent's term ends; Élie Lescot takes office
1944 7 May The Cathedral of Cap-Haïtien is consecrated after 100 years of restoration work
14 May The Centre d'Art is founded; it exhibits important Haitian art works
1946 A military coup forces President Lescot to resign; the newly created Executive Military Committee appoints Dumarsais Estimé president and an earthquake that was magnutide 8.1
1948 16 February The government-owned tobacco company Régie du Tabac et des Allumettes is founded
1949 8 December The bicentennial of Port-au-Prince's founding is celebrated; a World's Fair, the Exposition internationale du bicentenaire de Port-au-Prince, is held
1950 10 May Dumarsais Estimé reliinquishes the presidency and is replaced by a provisional government
8 October Presidential and legislative elections are held; Colonel Paul Magloire becomes the first president of Haiti to be elected directly by the people, the Delegates, and the Senators
6 December Paul Magloire is sworn in as president
1951 President Magloire of Haiti and President Trujillo of the Dominican Republic meet for diplomatic talks
The Haitian Institute of Statistics (Institut Haïtien de Statistique) and the Haitian Institute of Farming and Industrial Credit (Institut Haïtien de Crédit Agricole et Industriel) are established by the government
1953 31 May Father Rémy Augustin, the first native Haitian bishop, is consecrated at the Cathedral of Port-au-Prince
1954 1 January A celebration commemorating the 150th anniversary of Haiti's independence from France, during which monuments to the "heroes of independence" are inaugurated in Port-au-Prince, began.
4 January The celebration ended.
8 October Hurricane Hazel kills an estimated 1,000 Haitians and desimates the coffee and cocoa crops, affecting the economy for years to come.
1955 26 January President Magloire and his wife began a trip to the United States, Canada, and Jamaica.
17 February Magloire's trip ended.
3 March Vice-President of the United States Richard Nixon and his wife began a visit to Haiti.
5 March Nixon's trip ended.
1956 President Magloire relinquishes the presidency; President of the Supreme Court Joseph Nemours Pierre-Louis becomes provisional president of Haiti
1957 Franck Sylvain is elected President of Haiti, but is succeeded by a thirteen-member Executive Council of Government
Daniel Fignolé is elected President of Haiti, but is replaced by a Military Council of Government
22 October Dr. François "Papa Doc" Duvalier is elected President of Haiti
1958 Duvalier began to attack his opponents violently, driving many of them into exile.
1964 Duvalier's reign of terror ended.
The National Assembly votes to accept the Duvalieriste Constitution, establishing Duvalier as President for Life of Haiti
1968 28 October François Wolf Ligondé, the first Haitian archbishop, is consecrated at the Cathedral of Port-au-Prince
1970 Thousands of Haitians began to flee poverty and repression in Haiti by boat, often arriving in south Florida.
1971 February The National Assembly approves an amendment to the constitution, allowing President For Life Duvalier to name his son, Jean-Claude Duvalier, as his successor
21 April President for Life François Duvalier dies in Port-au-Prince
22 April Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier succeeds his father as President for Life
1974 The Haiti national football team participates in the FIFA World Cup for the first time
1977 15 August The U.S. ambassador to the United Nations commission arrives in Haiti; the commission meets with the Haitian government to discuss civil rights in Haiti
1980 27 May President for Life Jean-Claude Duvalier marries Michèle Bennett
1983 March Pope John Paul II arrives in Haiti, becoming the first Pope to visit the country
27 August The constitution is amended, creating the post of State Minister and allowing the President to name his successor
1985 6 June President for Life Duvalier amends the constitution to allow the creation of the post of Prime Minister of Haiti
July A referendum is approved by 99.48% of voters, allowing political parties to participate in the government and recognizing the Presidency for Life of Jean-Claude Duvalier
July A constitutional amendment on the Presidency for Life is passed
28 November Three schoolboys (Jean-Robert Cius, Daniel Israël, and Mackenson Michel) are killed during an anti-government demonstration in Gonaïves
1986 31 January Rumors spread through Port-au-Prince that President Duvalier has fled the country
3 February President Duvalier and members of his cabinet visit commercial and residential areas of Port-au-Prince as a show of power
7 February President Jean-Claude Duvalier flees Haiti for Talloires, France; the National Council of Government (Conseil National de Gouvernement, CNG) is established, led by General Henri Namphy; the Legislative Chamber and Duvalier's armed forces, Volontaire Sécurité Nationale, are dissolved
25 February The original blue and red flag of Haiti is raised at the National Palace, replacing the black and red flag of the Duvalier regime
March Former President of Haiti Daniel Fignolé returns to Haiti; a second version of the CNG is formed, consisting of Henri Namphy, Williams Régala, and Jacques François
20 March More than two thousand students and public transportation drivers of Carrefour demonstrate against the CNG
26 April Eight people are killed in an attack by armed groups on Fort-Dimanche
19 October Forty-one people are elected to a constituent assembly to draft a new constitution, the CNG appoints twenty more constituents for a total of sixty-one
1987 10 March The constituent assembly presents the new constitution, written in both French and Haitian Creole, to President of the CNG Henri Namphy
29 March The new constitution is ratified by referendum; the results of 215 voting places show an approximately 99.81% approval rate
13 May The CNG publishes a decree electing the members of the Provisional Electoral Council (Conseil Electoral Provisoire, CEP)
22 May The CEP proclaims itself independent from the CNG
5 June The CEP delivers the text of the electoral law to the Minister of Justice
July Large landowners (grandons) massacre hundreds of peasants demanding land in Jean-Rabel
17 July During a ceremony at the Military Academy, the Armed Forces of Haiti swear allegiance to the new 1987 constitution
29 November At the Haitian presidential election, 1987 a massacre of voters takes place; the elections are suspended and General Namphy dissolves the CEP
10 December General Namphy sets 17 January 1988 as the new election date; the CNG elects a new Provisional Electoral Council (Conseil Electoral Provisoire, CEP)
1988 January Christian Democrat Leslie Manigat is elected in military-run elections boycotted by the Haitian people and most candidates. In June he is overthrown in a military coup by Gen. Henri Namphy. In September, shortly after the St Jean Bosco massacre, Namphy is overthrown by Gen. Prosper Avril.
1990 January President/General Prosper Avril declares a state of siege in January.
March Rising protests convince Avril to resign. A Provisional Government led by Supreme Court Justice Ertha Pascal-Trouillot is formed.
16 December Democratic elections take place. Father Jean-Bertrand Aristide, well known throughout the country for his support of the poor, is elected President with 67.5% of the counted popular vote. The "U.S. favorite" Marc Bazin finishes a distant second with 14.2% .
1991 January A coup by former Tonton Macoutes head Roger Lafontant is foiled after tens of thousands pour into the streets of the capital, surrounding the National Palace.
7 February Aristide is sworn in as president.
30 September A military coup deposes Aristide, who goes into exile first in Venezuela, then in the United States.
Thousands of Haitians begin to flee violence and repression in Haiti by boat. Although most are repatriated to Haiti by the U.S. government, many enter the United States as refugees.
1994 September The de facto military government resigns at the request of the United States in September, which then sends in troops to occupy Haiti. This occupation is sanctioned by the United Nations.
15 October The U.S. returns Aristide as president.
1995 The U.S. nominally hands over military authority to the United Nations but maintains effective control of the occupation. Aristide dissolves the Haitian army.
December Former prime minister René Préval is elected president.
1996 7 February Aristide leaves office and is succeeded by René Préval.
2000 May Legislative, municipal and local elections are held. The OAS disputes how the sovereign electoral council calculates the run-offs for eight Senate seats.
November Aristide is reelected for a second five-year term with 92% of the vote in elections boycotted by the opposition. The last UN peacekeeping forces withdraw from Haiti.

21st century[edit]

Year Date Event
2001 Aristide succeeds Préval for a second five-year term. For the next two years, and with Washington's support, Aristide's opponents use the OAS challenge to the 2000 elections to increase economic and political instability. Former Haitian soldiers carry out guerrilla attacks, primarily along the Dominican border and in the capital.
2004 Haiti's 200th anniversary of independence.
4 February A revolt breaks out in the city of Gonaïves, with a local militia hostile to Aristide capturing the city and driving out the police force.
22 February Rebels capture Haiti's second-largest city, Cap-Haïtien, after just a few hours of fighting, claiming their biggest prize in a two-week uprising that has driven government forces from most of the country's north.
29 February Aristide resigns from office and flees Haiti aboard a U.S. military aircraft to South Africa. Boniface Alexandre is inaugurated as interim president. Aristide later claims that he was forced from office and kidnapped by the U.S. government.
March UN Resolution 1529 authorizes a three-month multinational interim peacekeeping force. It consists of troops from France, Canada, Chile and the U.S.
September Hurricane Jeanne kills over 1,900 people.
2006 February René Préval is elected president, defeating U.S.-backed and other candidates in an election overseen by U.N. peacekeepers
2008 April Riots break out in Les Cayes and Port-au-Prince over high food prices, forcing the ouster of Prime Minister Jacques Edouard Alexis.
August Tropical Storm Fay, Hurricane Gustav, Tropical Storm Hanna and Hurricane Ike strike within a month, leaving nearly 800 people dead and wiping out a quarter of the economy. (to September)
November The Pétionville school collapse and the Grace Divine School collapse.
2009 May Former U.S. President Bill Clinton is appointed U.N. special envoy to Haiti. He is tasked with reinvigorating the country's moribund economy after the 2008 storms.
2010 12 January A major earthquake, 7.0 on the Richter scale, kills over 230,000 and causes massive damage to buildings and infrastructure in Port-au-Prince.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Schutt-Ainé, Patricia; Staff of Librairie Au Service de la Culture (1994). Haiti: A Basic Reference Book. Miami, Florida: Librairie Au Service de la Culture. pp. 25–58. ISBN 0-9638599-0-0.