Turks in the Balkans
The Balkan Turks refers to the Turkish people who have been living in the Balkans since the Ottoman rule as well as their descendants who still live in the region today. The Turks are officially recognized as a minority in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, and Romania; in Greece the Turkish minority are recognized as "Greek Muslims". Furthermore, the Turkish language is an official language of Kosovo and has minority status in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia, and Romania.
|Turkish settlements in the Balkans|
|Region of settlement||Year of Turkish settlement||Name of Turkish community||Current status|
|Bosnia||1463||Bosnian Turks||The 1991 Bosnian census showed that there was a minority of 267 Turks. However current estimates suggest that there are actually 50,000 Turks living in the country.|
|Bulgaria||1396||Bulgarian Turks||In the 2011 Bulgarian census, which did not receive a response regarding ethnicity by the total population, 588,318 people, or 8.8% of the self-appointed, determined their ethnicity as Turkish; while the latest census which provided answers from the entire population – the 2001 census - recorded 746,664 Turks, or 9.4% of the population. Other estimates suggests that there are 750,000 to up to around 1 million Turks in the country.|
|Croatia||1526||Croatian Turks||According to the 2001 Croatian census the Turkish minority numbered 300. More recent estimates have suggested that there are 2,000 Turks in Croatia.|
|Rhodes (in Greece)
Kos (in Greece)
|1523||Dodecanese Turks||Some 5,000 Turks live in the Dodecanese islands of Rhodes and Kos.|
|Kosovo||1389||Kosovan Turks||There are approximately 50,000 Kosovar Turks living in Kosovo, mostly in Mamuša, Prizren, and Priština.|
|Republic of Macedonia||1392||Macedonian Turks||The 2002 Macedonian census states that there were 77,959 Macedonian Turks, forming about 4% of the total population and constituting a majority in Centar Župa and Plasnica. However, academic estimates suggest that they actually number between 170,000–200,000. Furthermore, about 200,000 Macedonian Turks have migrated to Turkey during World War I and World War II due to persecutions and discrimination|
|Montenegro||1496||Montenegrin Turks||There were 104 Montenegrin Turks according to the 2011 census. The majority left their homes and migrated to Turkey in the 1900s.|
|Dobruja (in Romania)||1388||Romanian Turks||There were 28,226 Romanian Turks living in the country according to the 2011 Romanian census. However, academic estimates suggest that the community numbers between 55,000 and 80,000.|
|Western Thrace (in Greece)||1354||Western Thrace Turks||The Greek government refers to the community as "Greek Muslims" or "Hellenic Muslims" and denies the existence of a Turkish minority in Western Thrace. Traditionally, academics have suggested that the Western Thrace Turks number about 120,000–130,000, although more recent estimates suggest that the community numbers 150,000. Between 300,000 to 400,000 have immigrated to Turkey since 1923.|
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