Turks in Europe
The Turks in Europe (often called Euro-Turks) (Turkish: Avrupa Türkleri) refers to ethnic Turks living in Europe, excluding Turkey. Current estimates suggests that there are approximately 9 million Turks living in Europe, excluding those who live in Turkey.
Turks have had a long history in Europe beginning in the Ottoman Empire when they began to migrate to Southeast Europe (see the Ottoman territories in Europe) which, other than Turkey, created Turkish communities in Bulgaria (Bulgarian Turks), Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian Turks), Cyprus (Turkish Cypriots), Georgia (Meskhetian Turks), Greece (Cretan Turks, Dodecanese Turks, and Western Thrace Turks), Kosovo (Kosovan Turks), the Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian Turks), and Romania (Romanian Turks).
Modern immigration of Turks to Western Europe began with Turkish Cypriots migrating to the United Kingdom in the early 1920s when the British Empire annexed Cyprus in 1914 and the residents of Cyprus became subjects of the Crown. However, Turkish Cypriot migration increased significantly in the 1940s and 1950s due to the Cyprus conflict. Conversely, in 1944, Turks who were forcefully deported from Meskheti in Georgia during the Second World War, known as the Meskhetian Turks, settled in Eastern Europe (especially in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine). By the early 1960s, migration to Western and Northern Europe increased significantly from Turkey when Turkish "guest workers" arrived under a "Labour Export Agreement" with Germany in 1961, followed by a similar agreement with the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria in 1964; France in 1965; and Sweden in 1967. More recently, Bulgarian Turks, Romanian Turks, and Western Thrace Turks have also migrated to Western Europe.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Ottoman migration
- 1.2 Modern migration
- 1.2.1 Turkish Cypriot migration to Great Britain (1920s-present)
- 1.2.2 Meskhetian Turkish migration within Eastern Europe (1944-present)
- 1.2.3 Mainland Turkish migration to Western and Northern Europe (1960s-present)
- 1.2.4 Migration of Western Thrace Turks to Western Europe (1960s-present)
- 1.2.5 Migration of Bulgarian Turks to Western Europe (2000s-present)
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Religion
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Notes
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 External links
During the rule of the Ottoman Empire (1299-1923), Turkish settlers began to move into the Ottoman territories in Europe as part of the Turkish expansion, because these Turkish communities migrated to these countries during the Ottoman rule, they are not considered part of the modern Turkish diaspora. However, these populations, which have different nationalities, still share the same ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious origins as today's Turkish nationals.
The conquest of the Balkans by the Ottomans set in motion important population movements of Turks brought over from Anatolia and Asia Minor, establishing a firm Turkish base for further conquests in Europe. Thus, the Ottomans used colonization as a very effective method to consolidate their position and power in the Balkans. The colonizers that were brought to the Balkans consisted of soldiers, nomads, farmers, artisans and merchants, dervishes, preachers and other religious functionaries, and administrative personnel. Densely populated Turkish colonies were established in the frontier regions of Thrace, the Maritsa and the Tundzha valleys. In addition to voluntary migrations, throughout the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries, the Ottoman authorities also used mass deportations ("sürgün") as a method of control over potentially rebellious individuals. One of the greatest impacts of the Ottoman colonization process of the Balkans was felt in the urban centres, many towns became major centres for Turkish control and administration, with most Christians gradually withdrawing to the mountains. The Ottomans embarked on creating new towns and repopulating older towns that had suffered significant population decline and economic dislocation during the wars preceding the Ottoman conquests. Major Balkan towns, especially those on or near transportation and communication routes, were the focal point of Ottoman colonization in the Balkans. Most urban centres in the Balkans, especially in Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, and Moesia, achieved Muslim/Turkish majorities or substantial minorities soon after the completion of the conquest and remained overwhelmingly Muslim in composition into the eighteenth century, and in some areas such as Macedonia and Bulgaria well into the nineteenth century. However, in the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, many Turks were displaced, most of them fleeing to Anatolia. At present, there is still significant Turkish minorities living in Bulgaria, Greece, Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, and Romania.
Early Western European Turks
As early as the 13th century Turkic slaves (Oghuz and Kipchak Mameluks), from Central Asia and the Pontic Steppe, had been sold to northern Italian city states by Arab traders. Some of the slaves were bought free and mixed in with the local Italian population. After the failed Battle of Vienna, some regiments of Turks settled in Moena, in the northern Italian region of Trentino. The locals still celebrate their connection to the Turkish people with festivals, but don't share as many cultural characteristics with other Turkish people, as they speak the Ladin language. At least from the 16th century onwards Ottoman traders settled in western European trading capitols such as Antwerp, Amsterdam  and London. Turkish traders in the Netherlands had at least two mosques in Amsterdam in the early 17th century.
|Turkish colonization in the Balkans|
|Region colonized||Ottoman conquest and
year of Turkish settlement
|Name of Turkish community||Current status|
|Bosnia||1463||Bosnian Turks||The 1991 Bosnian census showed that there was a minority of 267 Turks. However current estimates suggest that there is actually 50,000 Turks living in the country.|
|Bulgaria||1396||Bulgarian Turks||In the 2011 Bulgarian census, 588,318 people, or 8.8% of the population, voluntarily self-determined their ethnicity as Turkish. However, this census did not receive a response regarding ethnicity by the total population, the last census which provided answers from the entire population was in 2001 which recorded 746,664 Turks, or 9.4% of the population. Other estimates suggests that there are 750,000 up to around 1 million Turks in the country.|
|Rhodes (in Greece)
Kos (in Greece)
|1523||Dodecanese Turks||Some 5,000 Turks live in the Dodecanese islands of Rhodes and Kos.|
|Serbia/Kosovo||1389||Kosovan Turks||There is approximately 50,000 Kosovan Turks living in the country, mostly in Mamuša, Prizren, and Priština.|
|Macedonia||1392||Macedonian Turks||The 2002 Macedonian census states that there was 77,959 Macedonian Turks, forming about 4% of the total population and constituting a majority in Centar Župa and Plasnica However, academic estimates suggest that they actually number between 170,000-200,000. Furthermore, about 200,000 Macedonian Turks have migrated to Turkey during World War I and World War II due to persecutions and discrimination|
|Montenegro||1496||Montenegrin Turks||There were 104 Montenegrin Turks according to the 2011 census. The majority left their homes and migrated to Turkey in the 1900s.|
|Dobruja (in Romania)||1388||Romanian Turks||There were 28,226 Romanian Turks living in the country according to the 2011 Romanian census. However, academic estimates suggest that the community numbers between 55,000 and 80,000|
|Western Thrace (in Greece)||1354||Western Thrace Turks||About 120,000-130,000 Western Thrace Turks are currently living in Western Thrace. Between 200,000 to 300,000 have immigrated to Turkey since 1923.|
The Meskhetian Turks, also known as Ahiska Turks, are the descendants of Turkish colonizers who reside, or used to reside, in Meskheti which is in the southwestern region of Georgia. The region came under Ottoman rule in the sixteenth century up until 1829. Today, approximately 600 to 1,000 Meskhetian Turks are still living in Georgia, the population drastically decreased in 1944 when Joseph Stalin deported approximately 100,000 of these Turks to Central Asia.
The Ottoman Turks conquered Cyprus in 1571 when they began a campaign which led to the fall of Nicosia in September 1570 and of Famagusta in August 1571. By 1571, about 30,000 Turkish settlers, which included soldiers who were involved in the conquest and their families, or agricultural colonizers, particularly from the Konya region, were given land on the island. Thus, a strong Turkish element was formed in Cyprus’s population, which was later reinforced by immigration from Asia Minor.
Turkish Cypriot migration to Great Britain (1920s-present)
Turkish Cypriots started to immigrate from Cyprus to the United Kingdom in the early 1920s when the British Empire annexed Cyprus in 1914 and the residents of Cyprus became subjects of the Crown. Many Turkish Cypriots went to the United Kingdom as students and tourists whilst others left the island due to the harsh economic and political life during the British Colony of Cyprus. Emigration to the United Kingdom continued to increase when the Great Depression of 1929 brought economic depression to Cyprus, with unemployment and low wages being a significant issue. During the Second World War, the number of Turkish run businesses increased which created a demand for more Turkish Cypriot workers. Thus, throughout the 1950s, Turkish Cypriots emigrated to the United Kingdom for economic reasons and by 1958 the number of Turkish Cypriots was estimated to be 8,500. Their numbers increased each year as rumours about immigration restrictions appeared in much of the Cypriot media.
Furthermore, the 1950s saw the arrival of many more Turkish Cypriots to the United Kingdom who felt vulnerable as they had cause for concern about the political future of the island. This was first evident when the Greek Cypriots held a referendum in 1950 in which 95.7% of eligible Greek Cypriot voters cast their ballots in supporting a fight aimed at uniting Cyprus with Greece. Hence, Turkish Cypriots fled to the United Kingdom due to the EOKA terrorists and its aim of Enosis. By the 1960s, inter-ethnic fighting broke out and by 1964 some 25,000 Turkish Cypriots became internally displaced, accounting to about a fifth of their population; furthermore, approximately 60,000 Turkish Cypriots were forcefully moved into Turkish Cypriot enclaves within Cyprus. This period in Cypriot history resulted in an exodus of more Turkish Cypriots to the United Kingdom. Other reasons for the continued migration to the United Kingdom was because of the economic gap which was widening in Cyprus. The Greek Cypriots were increasingly taking control of the country’s major institutions causing the Turkish Cypriots to become economically disadvantaged. Thus, the political and economic unrest in Cyprus after 1964 sharply increased the number of Turkish Cypriot immigrants to the United Kingdom. Many of these early migrants worked in the clothing industry in London, where both men and women could work together- sewing was a skill which the community had already acquired in Cyprus. Turkish Cypriots were concentrated mainly in the north-east of London and specialised in the heavy-wear sector, such as coats and tailored garments. This sector offered work opportunities where poor knowledge of the English language was not a problem and where self-employment was a possibility.
Once the Greek military junta rose to power in 1967, Greece staged a coup d'état in 1974 against the Cypriot President, with the help of EOKA B, to unite the island with Greece. This led to a military offensive by Turkey who invaded the island. By 1983, the Turkish Cypriots declared their own state, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which has since remained internationally unrecognised except by Turkey. The division of the island led to an economic embargo against the Turkish Cypriots by the Greek Cypriot controlled Government of Cyprus. This had the effect of depriving the Turkish Cypriots of foreign investment, aid and export markets; thus, it caused the Turkish Cypriot economy to remain stagnant and undeveloped. Due to these economic and political issues, an estimated 130,000 Turkish Cypriots have emigrated from Northern Cyprus since its establishment to the United Kingdom. In 2011, the House of Commons, Home Affairs Committee suggested that there are now about 300,000 Turkish Cypriots living in the UK.
Meskhetian Turkish migration within Eastern Europe (1944-present)
The Meskhetian Turks, originally living in Meskheti (now known as Samtskhe-Javakheti) which is a part of southern Georgia, are widely dispersed throughout the former Soviet Union (150,000 live in Kazakhstan, 90,000-110,000 in Azerbaijan, 70,000-90,000 in Russia, 50,000 in Kyrgyzstan, 15,000 in Uzbekistan and 10,000 in Ukraine) as a result of forced deportations and discrimination which began in 1944. During World War II, the Soviet Union was preparing to launch a pressure campaign against Turkey and Vyacheslav Molotov, then Minister of Foreign Affairs, formally presented a demand to the Turkish Ambassador in Moscow for the surrender of three Anatolian provinces (Kars, Ardahan and Artvin); thus, war against Turkey seemed possible, and Joseph Stalin wanted to clear the strategic Turkish population (especially those situated in Meskheti) located near the Turkish-Georgian border which were likely to be hostile to Soviet intentions.
In 1944, the Meskhetian Turks were forcefully deported from Meskheti in Georgia and accused of smuggling, banditry and espionage in collaboration with their kin across the Turkish border. Nationalistic policies at the time encouraged the slogan: "Georgia for Georgians" and that the Meskhetian Turks should be sent to Turkey "where they belong". Joseph Stalin deported the Meskhetian Turks to Central Asia (especially to Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan), thousands dying en route in cattle-trucks, and were not permitted by the Georgian government of Zviad Gamsakhurdia to return to their homeland.
In the late 1970s, the Stavropol and Krasnodar authorities in Russia visited various regions of Uzbekistan to invite and recruit Meskhetian Turks to work in agriculture enterprises in southern Russia. By 1985, Moscow issued a proposal inviting more Meskhetian Turks to move to villages in southern Russia that had been abandoned by ethnic Russians who were moving to the cities. However, the Meskhetian Turks response was that they would only leave Uzbekistan if the move were to be to their homeland. Then, in 1989, ethnic Uzbeks began a series of actions against the Turks, they became the victims of riots in the Ferghana valley which led to over a hundred deaths. Within days, Decision 503 was announced "inviting" the Turks to occupy the empty farms in southern Russia that they had resisted moving to for years and around 17,000 Meskhetian Turks were evacuated to Russia. Meskhetian Turks maintain that Moscow had planned the Uzbek riots. By the early 1990s, of the 70,000 Meskhetian Turks who were still resident in Uzbekistan, approximately 50,000 Meskhetian Turkish refugees went to Azerbaijan due to continued discrimination whilst others when to Russia and Ukraine due to fears of continued violence.
Mainland Turkish migration to Western and Northern Europe (1960s-present)
The "gastarbeiters" (guest workers)
The concept of the Gastarbeiter involved the agreements between the host country and Turkey which was bound up with policies of the governments involved, with state bureaucracies on both sides ultimately responsible for the dispatch and settlement of the workers. Subsequently, labor agreements were signed with several European countries- with Germany in 1961; with Austria, Belgium, and the Netherlands in 1964; with France in 1965; and with Sweden in 1967. The agreements were based on a principle of rotation, and a worker was expected to return home after a year of employment abroad. However, employers wanted to retain workers who had become accustomed to the work; therefore, the rotation principle never became practice. Workers were not permitted to take their families abroad with them, and were housed in group living quarters or dormitories known as "Heim".
|Labour recruitment and social security agreements between Turkey and European states|
|Country||Labour recruitment agreement,
date and place
|Social security agreement,
date and place
|Austria||15 May 1964, Vienna||12 October 1966, Vienna|
|Belgium||16 July 1964, Brussels||4 July 1966, Brussels|
|Denmark||13 November 1970, Ankara|
|France||8 May 1965, Ankara||20 January 1972, Paris|
|Germany||30 October 1961, Bonn
(was revised by the 20 May protocol, Bonn)
|30 April 1964, Bonn|
|Netherlands||19 August 1964, The Hague||5 April 1966, Ankara|
|Sweden||10 March 1967, Stockholm||30 June 1978, Stockholm|
|Switzerland||1 May 1969, Ankara|
|United Kingdom||9 September 1959, Ankara|
By the early 1970s, the majority of Turkish emigration to Western Europe was for the purpose of family reunification. Furthermore, by the 1990s, migration mainly by way of marriage continued to be one of the principal reasons for settling in Western Europe.
Migration of Western Thrace Turks to Western Europe (1960s-present)
About 25,000 to 40,000 Turks of Western Thrace, who are the ethnic Turks who live in the north-eastern part of Greece, have emigrated to Western Europe. Between 12,000 to 25,000 moved to Germany in the 1960s and 1970s, when the Thracian tobacco industry was affected by a severe crisis and many tobacco growers lost their income. After Germany, the Netherlands is the most popular destination for Western Thrace Turks, especially in the region of Randstad. There is also an estimated 600-700 Western Thrace Turks living in London, although the total number living outside of London is unknown.
Migration of Bulgarian Turks to Western Europe (2000s-present)
According to the National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria, Bulgarian Turks make up 12% of short term migrants, 13% of long term migrants, and 12% of the labour migrants. However, it is unlikely that this generalisation shows a true indication of the ethnic make-up of Bulgarian citizens living abroad because Bulgarian citizens of Turkish origin make up entire majorities in some countries. For example, out of the 10,000 to 30,000 people from Bulgaria living in the Netherlands, the majority, of about 80%, are ethnic Turks from Bulgaria who have come from the south-eastern Bulgarian district of Kurdzhali. Moreover, the Bulgarian Turks are the fastest-growing group of immigrants in the Netherlands. There is also about 30,000 Bulgarian Turks living in Sweden, a growing community in the United Kingdom and Germany, and 1,000 in Austria.
- Turkish minorities in the former Ottoman Empire
- Turkish population
- Turks in the Arab world
- Accession of Turkey to the European Union
- Demographics of Europe
- European Turkey
- Immigration to Europe
- Islam in Europe
- Cole 2011, 367.
- Akgündüz 2008, 61.
- Kasaba 2008, 192.
- Twigg et al. 2005, 33.
- Eminov 1997, 27.
- Eminov 1997, 28.
- Eminov 1997, 31.
- Kaser 2010, 88.
- Iris Origo, The Domestic Enemy: The Eastern Slaves in Tuscany in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries Speculum:A Journal of Mediaeval Studies 30
- (Dutch)History of Relations from NLTR400, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Netherlands.
- Gilliat-Ray, Sophie (2010), Muslims in Britain: An Introduction, Cambridge University Press.
- (Dutch)Rather Turkish than Papist Historian Herman Pleij on Turkish-Dutch relations in 'dit is de dag', EO, Radio 1)
- Federal Office of Statistics. "Population grouped according to ethnicity, by censuses 1961-1991". Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- Cole 2011, 368.
- National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria (2011). "2011 Census (Final data)". National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria. p. 4.
- National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria (2001). "2001 Census". National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria.
- Novinite. "Scientists Raise Alarm over Apocalyptic Scenario for Bulgarian Ethnicity". Retrieved 2011-07-21.
- Clogg 2002, 84.
- Elsie 2010, 276.
- Evans 2010, 11.
- Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office 2005, 34.
- Cole 2011, 369.
- Abrahams 1996, 53.
- Evans 2010, 228.
- Statistical Office of Montenegro. "Population of Montenegro by sex, type of settlement, etnicity, religion and mother tongue, per municipalities". p. 7. Retrieved 2011-09-21.
- Todays Zaman. "Turks in Montenegrin town not afraid to show identity anymore". Retrieved 2011-09-21.
- Brozba 2010, 48.
- National Institute of Statistics 2011, 10.
- Phinnemore 2006, 157.
- Constantin, Goschin & Dragusin 2008, 59.
- Whitman 1990, i.
- Whitman 1990, 2.
- Aydıngün et al. 2006, 13.
- Aydıngün et al. 2006, 6.
- Fisher 2003, 250.
- Drury 1981, 290.
- Yilmaz 2005, 153
- Sonyel 2000, 147
- Hüssein 2007, 16
- Yilmaz 2005, 154
- Ansari 2004, 151
- Ansari 2004, 154
- Home Affairs Committee 2011, Ev 34
- Laschet, Armin (17 September 2011). "İngiltere'deki Türkler". Hurriyet. Archived from the original on 2011-09-30. Retrieved 2011-09-27.
- Panteli 1990, 151
- Cassia 2007, 236
- Kliot 2007, 59
- Tocci 2004, 53
- Bridgwood 1995, 34
- Panayiotopoulos & Dreef 2002, 52
- London Evening Standard. "Turkish and proud to be here". Archived from the original on 2011-01-22. Retrieved 2010-10-02.
- Strüder 2003, 12
- Savvides 2004, 260
- Tocci 2004, 61
- BBC. "Turkish today by Viv Edwardss". Archived from the original on 2011-01-24. Retrieved 2010-09-26.
- Cassia 2007, 238
- Aydıngün et al. 2006, 13-14.
- Bennigsen & Broxup 1983, 30.
- Tomlinson 2005, 107.
- Kurbanov & Kurbanov 1995, 237.
- Cornell 2001, 183.
- Minority Rights Group International. "Meskhetian Turks". Retrieved 2011-06-02.
- Ryazantsev 2009, 168.
- Goltz 2009, 124.
- Ryazantsev 2009, 167.
- Goltz 2009, 125.
- Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (18 December 2007). "Report on mass human rights violation". Retrieved 2012-01-17.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 2003, 21.
- Daniloff, Caleb (1997). "Exile of the Meskheti Turks: Still Homesick Half a Century Later". Azerbaijan International. Retrieved 2012-01-17.
- Pentikäinen & Trier 2004, 19.
- Germany.Info (2011). "Immigration and Cultural Issues between Germany and its Turkish Population Remain Complex". German Missions in the United States.
- Abadan-Unat 2011, 12.
- Şentürk 2008, 420.
- Witten Batı Trakya Türkleri Yardımlaşma ve Dayanışma Derneği. "Batı Trakya`da "Aynı Gökyüzü Altında" bir Güldeste". Retrieved 2010-05-20.
- International Assembly of Western Thrace Turks. "POLITICAL AND CIVIL ORGANISATION COMMISSION". Retrieved 2010-05-19.
- Şentürk 2008, 427.
- Ivanov 2007, 58
- Markova 2010, 214
- Guentcheva, Kabakchieva & Kolarski 2003, 44.
- TheSophiaEcho. "Turkish Bulgarians fastest-growing group of immigrants in the Netherlands". Retrieved 2009-07-26.
- Laczko, Stacher & Klekowski von Koppenfels 2003, 197.
- Mancheva 2008, 161.
- Balkan Türkleri Kültür ve Dayanışma Derneği. "Avusturya'daki Bulgaristan Türkleri hala Bulgar isimlerini neden taşıyor?". Retrieved 2011-10-18.
- BBC (2010-11-10). "Turkey's ambassador to Austria prompts immigration spat". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
- Andreas Mölzer. "In Österreich leben geschätzte 500.000 Türken, aber kaum mehr als 10–12.000 Slowenen". Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- CBN. "Turkey's Islamic Ambitions Grip Austria". Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- King Baudouin Foundation 2008, 5.
- Kaya & Kentel 2007, 27.
- Ethnologue. "Languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria (2011). "2011 Census (Final data)". National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria. p. 4.
- Zaman. "Altepe'den Hırvat Müslümanlara moral". Retrieved 2011-09-09.
- Hatay 2007, 40.
- International Crisis Group (2010). "CYPRUS: BRIDGING THE PROPERTY DIVIDE". International Crisis Group. p. 2.
- Cole 2011, 95.
- Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Turkey's Political Relations with Czech Republic". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- DR Online. "Tyrkisk afstand fra Islamisk Trossamfund". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- Eesti Statistika 2008. "POPULATION BY ETHNIC NATIONALITY, MOTHER TONGUE AND CITIZENSHIP". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- Svensk-Turkiska Riksförbundet. "Diyanet İskandinavya'nın en uç noktası Finlandiya'da". Retrieved 2012-03-16.
- Hunter 2002, 6.
- Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi 2009, 3.
- Todays Zaman. "France and its world famous capital 'Paris'". Retrieved 2011-05-01.
- Fransa Diyanet İşleri Türk İslam Birliği. "2011 YILI DİTİB KADIN KOLLARI GENEL TOPLANTISI PARİS DİTİB’DE YAPILDI". Retrieved 2012-02-15.
- Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany London. "Turkey: strategically important partner". Retrieved 2010-09-08.
- The Local. "'Learn the language,' Turkish minister tells countrymen in Germany". Retrieved 2010-10-28.
- Kötter et al. 2003, 55.
- Haviland et al. 2010, 675.
- "Demographics of Greece". European Union National Languages. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
- Western Thrace Minority University Graduates Association 2009, 2.
- Ergener & Ergener 2002, 106.
- Madianou 2005, 36-37.
- Pettifer & Nazarko 2007, 68.
- Western Thrace Minority University Graduates Association 2009, 6.
- Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Turkey's Political Relations with Hungary". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- Statistics Iceland. "Population by origin, citizenship and country of birth". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- Lacey 2007, 2.
- Sabah. "Eyvah Türkler geldi!". Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- ntvmsnbc. "Roma'da bir Türk Film Festivali". Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- Warrander & Knaus 2008, 32.
- PMLP. "Latvijas iedzivotaju sadalijums pec nacionala sastava un valstiskas piederibas". Retrieved 2011-03-05.
- Fürstentum Liechtenstein 2007, 6.
- Statistics Lithuania RSS. "Population by place of birth and sex". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. "Etat civil et population du Luxembourg: Ventilation par nationalité du répertoire". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- Ethnologue languages. "Turkish". Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- Amore 2005, 15.
- Kettani 2014, 4.
- Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi 2008, 11.
- Statistics Norway. "Persons with immigrant background by immigration category and country background 1 January 2010". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Turkey's Political Relations with Poland". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Turkey's Political Relations with Portugal". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- National Institute of Statistics 2011, 10
- Phinnemore 2006, 4.
- Ryazantsev 2009, 159.
- Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији: Становништво према националној припадности - „Oстали“ етничке заједнице са мање од 2000 припадника и двојако изјашњени
- Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. "Long-term immigration by country of last residence and age in 2006". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- Statistical Office Of The Republic Of Slovenia. "Population by ethnic affiliation, Slovenia, Census 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2002". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- Hürriyet Daily News. "Turkey 'more democratic' under Erdoğan, says Spanish Muslim leader". Retrieved 2010-07-14.
- Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. "Turkiet är en viktig bro mellan Öst och Väst". Retrieved 2011-04-14.
- Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs. "Ankara Historia". Retrieved 2011-04-14.
- Hava, Ergin (15 April 2011). "Swedish trade minister Ewa Björling calls on Turkey to cooperate in third countries". Sundays Zaman. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- The Federal Authorities of the Swiss Confederation. "Bilateral relations between Switzerland and Turkey". Retrieved 2010-06-03.
- The Federal Authorities of the Swiss Confederation. "Diaspora und Migrantengemeinschaften aus der Türkei in der Schweiz". Retrieved 2008-12-16.
- Türkische Gemeinschaft Schweiz. "VERANSTALTUNGEN - PROJEKTE". Retrieved 2011-02-09.
- CIA The World Factbook. "Turkey". Retrieved 2011-06-13.
- Aydıngün 2006, 14.
^ a: Azerbaijan is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia. However the population figures are for the entire state.
^ b: Cyprus is sometimes considered transcontinental country. Physiographically entirely in Western Asia it has strong historical and sociopolitical connections with Europe.
^ c: Georgia is often considered a transcontinental country in Western Asia and Eastern Europe. However, the population figures include the entire state.
^ d: Kazakhstan is physiographically considered a transcontinental country in Central Asia (UN region) and Eastern Europe, with European territory west of the Ural Mountains and both the Ural and Emba rivers. However, population figures refer to the entire country.
^ e: Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008. Its sovereign status is unclear.
^ f: Russia is considered a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. However the population figures include the entire state.
- Abadan-Unat, Nermin (2011), Turks in Europe: From Guest Worker to Transnational Citizen, Berghahn Books, ISBN 1-84545-425-1.
- Abrahams, Fred (1996), A Threat to "Stability": Human Rights Violations in Macedonia, Human Rights Watch, ISBN 1-56432-170-3.
- Akgündüz, Ahmet (2008), Labour migration from Turkey to Western Europe, 1960-1974: A multidisciplinary analysis, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0-7546-7390-1.
- Amore, Katia (2005), Active Civic Participation of Immigrants in Malta, POLITIS
- Ansari, Humayun (2004), The infidel within: Muslims in Britain since 1800, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 978-1-85065-685-2.
- Aydıngün, Ayşegül; Harding, Çiğdem Balım; Hoover, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Igor; Swerdlow, Steve (2006), Meskhetian Turks: An Introduction to their History, Culture, and Resettlement Experiences, Center for Applied Linguistics
- Bennigsen, Alexandre; Broxup, Marie (1983), The Islamic threat to the Soviet state, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-7099-0619-6.
- Blagojević, Gordana (2007), Recent Turkish Migrants in Serbia and the Role of the Serbian-Turkish Friendship Association, Ethnographic Institute of the SASA, Belgrade.
- Boia, Lucian (2001), Romania: Borderland of Europe, Reaktion Books, ISBN 1-86189-103-2.
- Bridgwood, Ann (1995), "Dancing the Jar: Girls' Dress and Turkish Cypriot Weddings", in Eicher, Joanne Bubolz (ed.), Dress and Ethnicity: Change Across Space and Time, Berg Publishers, ISBN 978-1-85973-003-4.
- Brozba, Gabriela (2010), Between Reality and Myth: A Corpus-based Analysis of the Stereotypic Image of Some Romanian Ethnic Minorities, GRIN Verlag, ISBN 3-640-70386-3.
- Cassia, Paul Sant (2007), Bodies of Evidence: Burial, Memory, and the Recovery of Missing Persons in Cyprus, Berghahn Books, ISBN 978-1-84545-228-5.
- Clogg, Richard (2002), Minorities in Greece, Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 1-85065-706-8.
- Cole, Jeffrey (2011), Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-59884-302-8.
- Constantin, Daniela L.; Goschin, Zizi; Dragusin, Mariana (2008), "Ethnic entrepreneurship as an integration factor in civil society and a gate to religious tolerance. A spotlight on Turkish entrepreneurs in Romania", Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 7 (20): 28–41
- Cornell, Svante E. (2001), Small nations and great powers: a study of ethnopolitical conflict in the Caucasus, Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-1162-7.
- Drury, Michael P. (1981), "The political geography of Cyprus", in Clarke, John Innes; Bowen-Jones, Howard (eds.), Change and Development in the Middle East: Essays in Honour of W.B. Fisher, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-416-71080-8.
- Elsie, Robert (2010), Historical Dictionary of Kosovo, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 0-8108-7231-5.
- Eminov, Ali (1997), Turkish and other Muslim minorities in Bulgaria, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 1-85065-319-4.
- Ergener, Rashid; Ergener, Resit (2002), About Turkey: Geography, Economy, Politics, Religion, and Culture, Pilgrims Process, ISBN 0-9710609-6-7.
- Evans, Thammy (2010), Macedonia, Bradt Travel Guides, ISBN 1-84162-297-4.
- Extra, Guus; Gorter, Durk (2001), The other languages of Europe: demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational perspectives, Multilingual Matters, ISBN 1-85359-509-8.
- Fisher, W.B (2003), "Cyprus: Physical and Social Geography", in Lucy, Dean (ed.), The Middle East and North Africa, Volume 50, Routledge, ISBN 1-85743-184-7.
- Fürstentum Liechtenstein (2007), Liechtenstein-Turkey, Fürstentum Liechtenstein
- Goltz, Thomas (2009), Georgia Diary: A Chronicle of War and Political Chaos in the Post-Soviet Caucasus, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 0-7656-1711-0.
- Guentcheva, Rossitza; Kabakchieva, Petya; Kolarski, Plamen (2003), Migrant Trends VOLUME I – Bulgaria: The social impact of seasonal migration, International Organization for Migration
- Hatay, Mete (2007), Is the Turkish Cypriot Population Shrinking?, International Peace Research Institute, ISBN 978-82-7288-244-9
- Haviland, William A.; Prins, Harald E. L.; Walrath, Dana; McBride, Bunny (2010), Anthropology: The Human Challenge, Cengage Learning, ISBN 0-495-81084-3.
- Home Affairs Committee (2011), Implications for the Justice and Home Affairs area of the accession of Turkey to the European Union, The Stationery Office, ISBN 0-215-56114-7
- Hunter, Shireen (2002), Islam, Europe's second religion: the new social, cultural, and political landscape, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-275-97609-2.
- Hüssein, Serkan (2007), Yesterday & Today: Turkish Cypriots of Australia, Serkan Hussein, ISBN 978-0-646-47783-1.
- Ivanov, Zhivko (2007), "Economic Satisfaction and Nostalgic Laments: The Language of Bulgarian Economic Migrants After 1989 in Websites and Electronic Fora", in Gupta, Suman; Omoniyi, Tope, The Cultures of Economic Migration: International Perspectives, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0-7546-7070-8.
- Karpat, Kemal H. (2002), Studies on Ottoman social and political history: selected articles and essays, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-12101-3.
- Karpat, Kemal H. (2004), Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays:Volume 94 of Social, economic, and political studies of the Middle East, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-13322-4.
- Kasaba, Reşat (2008), The Cambridge History of Turkey: Turkey in the Modern World, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-62096-1.
- Kaser, Karl (2010), The Balkans and the Near East: Introduction to a Shared History, LIT Verlag Münster, ISBN 3-643-50190-0.
- Kaya, Ayhan; Kentel, Ferhat (2004), Euro-Turks: A Bridge, or a Breach, between Turkey and the European Union?, Istanbul Bilgi University
- Kaya, Ayhan; Kentel, Ferhat (2007), Belgian-Turks A Bridge or a Breach between Turkey and the European Union?, King Baudouin Foundation, ISBN 978-90-5130-587-6
- King Baudouin Foundation (2008), Turkish communities and the EU, King Baudouin Foundation
- Kliot, Nurit (2007), "Resettlement of Refugees in Finland and Cyprus: A Comparative Analysis and Possible Lessons for Israel", in Kacowicz, Arie Marcelo; Lutomski, Pawel (eds), Population resettlement in international conflicts: a comparative study, Lexington Books, ISBN 978-0-7391-1607-4.
- Knowlton, MaryLee (2005), Macedonia, Marshall Cavendish, ISBN 0-7614-1854-7.
- Kötter, I; Vonthein, R; Günaydin, I; Müller, C; Kanz, L; Zierhut, M; Stübiger, N (2003), "Behçet's Disease in Patients of German and Turkish Origin- A Comparative Study", in Zouboulis, Christos (ed.), Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Volume 528, Springer, ISBN 0-306-47757-2.
- Kurbanov, Rafik Osman-Ogly; Kurbanov, Erjan Rafik-Ogly (1995), "Religion and Politics in the Caucasus", in Bourdeaux, Michael (ed), The Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 1-56324-357-1.
- Lacey, Jonathan (2007), "Exploring the Transnational Engagements of a Turkic Religio-Cultural Community in Ireland", Translocations: The Irish Migration, Race and Social Transformation Review 1 (2)
- Laczko, Frank; Stacher, Irene; Klekowski von Koppenfels, Amanda (2002), New challenges for Migration Policy in Central and Eastern Europe, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 90-6704-153-X.
- Madianou, Mirca (2005), Mediating the nation: news, audiences and the politics of identity, Routledge Cavendish, ISBN 1-84472-028-4.
- Mancheva, Mila (2008), "Practicing Identities Across Borders: The Case of Bulgarian Turkish Labor Migrants in Germany", in Smith, Michael P.; Eade, John (eds.), Transnational Ties: Cities, Migrations, and Identities, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 1-4128-0806-5.
- Markova, Eugenia (2010), "Optimising migration effects: A perspective from Bulgaria", in Black, Richard; Engbersen, Godfried; Okolski, Marek et al., A Continent Moving West?: EU Enlargement and Labour Migration from Central and Eastern Europe, Amsterdam University Press, ISBN 90-8964-156-4 .
- Oustinova-Stjepanovic, Galina (2008), Religion and Politics of Sufi Turks in Macedonia A pre-field proposal, University College London
- Panteli, Stavros (1990), The making of modern Cyprus: from obscurity to statehood, CInterworld Publications, ISBN 978-0-948853-09-8.
- Panayi, Panikos (1999), Outsiders: a history of European minorities, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 1-57356-019-7.
- Panayiotopoulos, Prodromos; Dreef, Marja (2002), "London: Economic Differentiation and Policy Making", in Rath, Jan (ed), Unravelling the rag trade: immigrant entrepreneurship in seven world cities, Berg Publishers, ISBN 978-1-85973-423-0.
- Pentikäinen, Oskari; Trier, Tom (2004), Between Integration and Resettlement: The Meskhetian Turks, European Centre For Minority Issues
- Pettifer, James; Nazarko, Mentor (2007), Strengthening Religious Tolerance for a Secure Civil Society in Albania and the Southern Balkans, IOS Press, ISBN 1-58603-779-X
- Phinnemore, David (2006), The EU and Romania: accession and beyond, The Federal Trust for Education & Research, ISBN 1-903403-78-2.
- Romanian National Institute of Statistics (2011), Comunicat de presă privind rezultatele provizorii ale Recensământului Populaţiei şi Locuinţelor – 2011, Romania-National Institute of Statistics
- Ryazantsev, Sergey V. (2009), "Turkish Communities in the Russian Federation", International Journal on Multicultural Societies 11 (2): 155–173
- Savvides, Philippos K (2004), "Partition Revisited: The International Dimension and the Case of Cyprus", in Danopoulos, Constantine Panos; Vajpeyi, Dhirendra K.; Bar-Or, Amir(eds), Civil-military relations, nation building, and national identity: comparative perspectives, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-275-97923-2.
- Scherrer, Christian P. (2003), Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Violence: Conflict Management, Human Rights, and Multilateral Regimes, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0-7546-0956-1.
- Şentürk, Cem (2008), West Thrace Turkish's Immigration to Europe, The Journal Of International Social Research
- Sonyel, Salahi R. (2000), "Turkish Migrants in Europe", Perceptions (Center for Strategic Research) 5 (Sept.-Nov. 00): 146–153
- Strüder, Inge R. (2003), Do concepts of ethnic economies explain existing minority enterprises? The Turkish speaking economies in London, http://www2.lse.ac.uk/: London School of Economics, ISBN 0-7530-1727-X
- Tocci, Nathalie (2004), EU accession dynamics and conflict resolution: catalysing peace or consolidating partition in Cyprus?, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7546-4310-4.
- Tomlinson, Kathryn (2005), "Living Yesterday in Today and Tomorrow: Meskhetian Turks in Southern Russia", in Crossley, James G.; Karner, Christian (eds.), Writing History, Constructing Religion, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0-7546-5183-5.
- TRNC PRIME MINISTRY STATE PLANNING ORGANIZATION (2006), TRNC GENERAL POPULATION AND HOUSING UNIT CENSUS, http://www.pekem.org/: TRNC PRIME MINISTRY STATE PLANNING ORGANIZATION
- Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi (2008), İnsan Haklarını İnceleme Komisyonu'num Hollanda Ziyareti (16-21 Haziran 2008), Grand National Assembly of Turkey
- Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi (2009), İnsan Haklarını İnceleme Komisyonu: Fransa Raporu, Grand National Assembly of Turkey
- Twigg, Stephen; Schaefer, Sarah; Austin, Greg; Parker, Kate (2005), Turks in Europe: Why are we afraid?, The Foreign Policy Centre, ISBN [[Special:BookSources/978-1-903558-79-4|978-1-903558-79-4 [[Category:Articles with invalid ISBNs]]]] Check
- Vachudová, Milada Anna (2005), Europe Undivided: Democracy, Leverage, and Integration After Communism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-924119-8
- Warrander, Gail; Knaus, Verena (2008), Bradt Travel Guide Kosovo, Springer, ISBN 0-306-47757-2.
- Western Thrace Minority University Graduates Association (2009), Western Thrace Turkish Minority, Culture and Education Foundation of Western Thrace Minority
- Whitman, Lois (1990), Destroying ethnic identity: the Turks of Greece, Human Rights Watch, ISBN 0-929692-70-5.
- Yilmaz, Ihsan (2005), Muslim Laws, Politics and Society in Modern Nation States: Dynamic Legal Pluralisms in England, Turkey and Pakistan, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7546-4389-0.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (2003), International Protection Considerations Regarding Azerbaijani Asylum-Seekers and Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
- Republic of Turkey: Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Republic of Turkey: Ministry of Labour and Social Security
- Dış İlişkiler ve Yurtdışı İşçi Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü