Turks in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Turks in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Total population
267 (1991 census)[1]
50,000 (academic estimates)[2][3]
Languages
Turkish and Bosnian
Religion
Sunni Islam

The Turks in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as Bosnian Turks, are ethnic Turks who form the oldest ethnic minority in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[4] The Turkish community began to settle in the region in the 15th century under Ottoman rule, however many Turks emigrated to Turkey when Bosnia and Herzegovina came under Austro-Hungarian rule.[4]

History[edit]

Due to the Ottoman colonisation process, a significant Turkish community arrived in the region when the Ottoman Empire conquered the Bosnian kingdom in 1463. The Turkish community grew steadily throughout the Ottoman rule of Bosnia; however, after the Ottomans were defeated in the Balkan Wars (1912–13), the majority of Turks, along with other Muslims living in the region, left their homes and migrated to Turkey as "Muhacirs" (refugees).

Culture[edit]

In 2003 the Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina adopted the Law on the Protection of Rights of Members of National Minorities. According to the Law, the Turkish minority's cultural, religious, educational, social, economic, and political freedoms are protected by the State.[5]

Language[edit]

The Turkish language is officially recognized as a minority language of Bosnia and Herzegovina in accordance with the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, under Article 2, paragraph 2, of the 2010 ratification.[6]

Religion[edit]

The Turkish minority practice the Sunni and Shia branch of Islam.[7]

Science and Literature[edit]

Aldin Mustafić - a member of the Turkish minority in Bosnia and Herzegovina - wrote a book on Serbian language in Arabic script entitled "The Epochs of Arabic phonetic thoughts and Arebica", as part of the influence of Turkish culture in the region - ie. in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[8]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 1991 population census there was 267 Turks living in Bosnia and Herzegovina;[1] however, current estimates suggest that the Turkish minority actually numbers 50,000.[2][3][9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Federal Office of Statistics. "Population grouped according to ethnicity, by censuses 1961-1991". Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  2. ^ a b Cole, Jeffrey (2011), Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, p. 368, ISBN 1-59884-302-8 
  3. ^ a b Minahan, James (1998), Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 45, ISBN 0313306109 
  4. ^ a b Council of Europe. "European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: Bosnia and HerzegovinaLANGUAGES". Retrieved 2011-10-16. 
  5. ^ OSCE. "National Minorities in BiH". Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  6. ^ Council of Europe. "List of declarations made with respect to treaty No. 148". Retrieved 2013-12-21. 
  7. ^ Minahan, James (1998), Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 46, ISBN 0313306109 
  8. ^ http://www.bastinaobjave.com/otvoreni-defter-202/aldin-mustafic/1562-predgovor-knjige-epohe-fonetske-misli-kod-arapa
  9. ^ Ethnologue. "Languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina". Retrieved 03-06-2010.