Washington Redskins name controversy
The Washington Redskins name controversy involves the name and logo of the National Football League (NFL) franchise located in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. Numerous civil rights, educational, athletic, and academic organizations consider the use of Native American names and/or symbols by any sports teams to be a harmful form of ethnic stereotyping which should be eliminated. The Washington team is only one example of the larger controversy but receives the most public attention due to the name itself being derogatory in the opinion of many, and the prominence of the team being located in the nation's capital.
Support for continued use of the name has come from the team's owners and supportive fans which include some Native Americans, who state that the name is honoring the achievements and virtues of Native Americans, and that it is not intended in a negative manner. Former Redskins owner Jack Kent Cooke said "I admire the Redskins name. I think it stands for bravery, courage, and a stalwart spirit and I see no reason why we shouldn't continue to use it." Supporters also refer to a public opinion poll published in 2004 in which 90 percent of those that identified themselves as American Indians answered that they were "not bothered" by the name "Redskins" being used for the Washington football team. The validity and significance of this poll has been questioned by social scientists and Native American groups.
The issue once again became nationally prominent during much of 2013, starting with a symposium on the topic at the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, D.C., in February. When the football season began, a campaign by the Oneida Indian Nation of New York resulted in picketing of games, and more individuals speaking out including local government leaders, members of Congress, and President Barack Obama. Organizational statements in support of a name change have come from Native American organizations, religious leaders in Washington, DC; and The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights which includes the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the American Civil Liberties Union among its member organizations.
- 1 History
- 2 Controversy
- 3 Public opinion polls
- 4 Individual opinions
- 5 Native Americans and organizations opposed
- 6 Comments in the media
- 7 Current status
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The Washington Redskins were originally known as the Boston Braves. In 1933, co-owner George Preston Marshall changed the name to the Redskins, possibly in recognition of the then–head coach William Henry "Lone Star" Dietz, who claimed to be part Sioux. On July 6, 1933, the Boston Herald reported that "the change was made to avoid confusion with the Braves baseball team and the team that is to be coached by an Indian (Dietz)... with several Indian players." Dietz's true heritage has been questioned by some scholars, citing a birth certificate and census records that his parents were white. There is also the fact that, in 1933, the Boston Braves moved from Braves Field, which they shared with baseball's Boston Braves, to Fenway Park, already occupied by the Boston Red Sox. The Washington Redskins name and logo, which is a picture of a Native American, was officially registered in 1967.
Origin and Meaning
The origin of the word "redskin" is debated. Some scholars say that it was coined by early settlers in reference to the skin tone of Native Americans, while other say it referred to the color of the body paint used by certain tribes. Smithsonian Institution senior linguist and curator emeritus Ives Goddard asserts that the actual origin of the word is benign and reflects more positive aspects of early relations between Native Americans and whites. It emerged at a specific period in history (1769-1826) among a small group of men linked by joint activities that provided the context that brought it forth. That context was the need for a term that all could use in negotiating treaties during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. A linguistic analysis of 42 books published between 1875 and 1930 shows that negative contexts in the use of redskin were significantly more frequent than positive usage. The use of the word Indian in a similarly selected set of books was more balanced though negative contexts were still more frequent than positive contexts. As with any term perceived to be discriminatory, different individuals may hold differing opinions of the term's appropriateness. However the term is defined in current dictionaries of American English as "usually offensive", "disparaging", "insulting", "taboo"  and is avoided in public usage with the exception of its continued use as a name for sports teams.
Columnist Charles Krauthammer suggested the etymology is somewhat irrelevant to the debate when he compared "redskin" to "negro": "Fifty years ago the preferred, most respectful term for African Americans was Negro. [...] The preferred term is now black or African American. With a rare few legacy exceptions, Negro carries an unmistakably patronizing and demeaning tone."
On its official website, the Washington team has posted articles referencing high school teams using the same name (and often the same logo). The athletic director of Coshocton High School in Coshocton, Ohio is quoted as saying "We are very proud of our athletic teams and very proud to be called Redskins!"  The principal of McLoud High School in McLoud, Oklahoma states that not only students, but the local Native American population takes pride in the name. The coach at Lamar High School in Houston, Texas states that “Our school is 75 years old and there’s a lot of pride in it,” he explained. “I think it’s a great mascot, as all of the traits of a Redskins warrior are something to be admired."
Some point to the use of the Redskins name by Red Mesa High School in Red Mesa, Arizona, which is predominantly Native American, as an indicator of its positive meaning. However the principal of the school agreed that use of the word outside American Indian communities should be avoided because it could perpetuate “the legacy of negativity that the term has created.” 
The Capital News Service in Maryland has verified that there are 62 high schools in 22 states continuing to use the Redskins name for their teams, 40% of which have had local efforts to change the name; while 28 high schools in 18 states have dropped the name over the last 25 years.
In December 2013 the Houston Independent School District by unanimous vote passed a preliminary plan to eliminate all ethnically sensitive names and mascots, one of which is the Lamar High School Redskins. The Washington NFL team issued a statement repeating its position that such names are not offensive to many Native Americans, but rather are a source of pride.
There is much debate whether the use of the word "Redskin" is acceptable as a name for a sports team. Clarence Page of the Chicago Tribune wrote in 1992 "[The Washington Redskins] are the only big time professional sports team whose name is an unequivocal racial slur. After all, how would we react if the team was named the Washington Negroes? Or the Washington Jews? ... It is more than just a racial reference, it is a racial epithet." Larry Dolan, owner of the Cleveland Indians, has criticized the Redskins' team name during a discussion of his own team's controversial Native American logo, Chief Wahoo. According to Dolan, "If we were the Redskins, the day after I owned the team the name would have been changed".
The unofficial mascot of the team is an African American man, Zema Williams (aka Chief Zee), who has attended games since 1978 dressed in a red faux "Indian" costume complete with feathered war bonnet and tomahawk. It is not unusual for other fans to attend games in similar costume.
Supporters of keeping the name and logo, most predominantly the owner  and the NFL Commissioner, state their belief that the name is a positive reference to Native Americans, invoking the qualities of strength and courage. Some scholars counteract this argument by saying that any stereotype, whether positive or negative, is a hindrance to the advancement of a group. Scott B. Vickers quotes Susan Shown Harjo "the use of any stereotype in the portrayal of Indians is considered ... to be contributory to their dehumanization and deracination." This viewpoint is shared by the many academic disciplines that study the issue and have passed resolutions calling for the end of all Native American mascots and images in sports: the Society of Indian Psychologists (1999), the American Counseling Association (2001), the American Psychological Association (2005), and the American Sociological Association (2007).
Social science research supports the view that sports mascots and images are not trivial. Stereotyping directly effects academic performance and self-esteem, which contribute to all of the other issues faced by Native Americans, including suicide, unemployment, and poverty. Euro-Americans exposed to mascots are more likely to believe not only that stereotypes are true, but that Native Americans have no identity beyond these stereotypes. Research also demonstrates the harm done to society by stereotyping of any kind, with studies showing that exposure to any stereotypes increased the likelihood of stereotypical thinking with regard to other groups.
Advocates of changing the team's name also argue that stereotyping of Native Americans must be understood in the context of history which includes conquest, forced relocation, and organized efforts to eradicate native cultures, such as the boarding schools of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which separated young Native Americans from their families in order educate them as Euro-Americans. "Since the first Europeans made landfall in North America, native peoples have suffered under a weltering array of stereotypes, misconceptions and caricatures. Whether portrayed as noble savages, ignoble savages, teary-eyed environmentalists or, most recently, simply as casino-rich, native peoples find their efforts to be treated with a measure of respect and integrity undermined by images that flatten complex tribal, historical and personal experience into one-dimensional representations that tells us more about the depicters than about the depicted." 
National protests began in 1988, after the team's Super Bowl XXII victory, when a number of Native Americans wrote letters to Redskins owner Jack Kent Cooke encouraging him to change the name. Others boycotted Redskins products and protested. Many of these events were led by Suzan Shown Harjo of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI). Cooke responded to these pleas in an interview stating "There's not a single, solitary jot, tittle, whit chance in the world that the Redskins will adopt a new nickname."
There was a large protest at the 1992 Super Bowl between the Redskins and the Buffalo Bills. Since the game was held in Minnesota, the area's large Native American population was able to protest the name. The American Indian Movement's (AIM) Vernon Bellecourt was one of the main organizers of the event. Before and during the game, approximately 2,000 Chippewa, Sioux, Winnebago, and Choctaw, and other Native Americans and members of the local population protested. Some of the signs they carried read "We are not Mascots", "Promote Sports not Racism", and "Repeal Redskin Racism".
With the renewed effort to eliminate the name during the 2013 football season, protest picketing at the stadiums has occurred wherever the Redskins have played, particularly in cities with a significant population of Native Americans; such as Dallas, Denver  and Minneapolis. Coinciding with the latter protest, a number of Minneapolis politicians voiced their positions; Mayor R.T. Rybak and six members of the City Counsel condemning the name. Minnesota Gov. Mark Dayton called the name "antiquated, offensive and racist". Also participating in the Minneapolis protests were Congresswoman Betty McCollum, 1964 Olympic gold medalist Billy Mills, and American Indian Movement co-founder Clyde Bellecourt.
At the team's home stadium in Landover, MD a protest was joined by representatives of other ethnic minorities. “This is an American issue,” Hakim Muhammad, of the Coalition of Prince George’s County Leaders and Organizations, said November 25, 2013. “When you have a name that is disparaging to any nation of people, it affects all of us. Period.” 
In the 1990s the owner at that time, Jack Kent Cooke, wanted to build a new stadium in Washington, D.C. In addition to other legal and environmental requirements that delayed the project, U.S. Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell introduced legislation that would have required Cooke to change the name of the Redskins before a stadium deal could be approved.
Legal and regulatory action
In 1992, Suzan Shown Harjo, President of the Morning Star Institute, with six other prominent Native Americans represented by the Dorsey & Whitney law firm of Minneapolis, petitioned the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) to cancel the trademark registrations owned by Pro-Football, Inc. They based their lawsuit on the claim that federal trademark law states that certain trademark registrations are not legal if they are "disparaging, scandalous contemptuous, or disreputable." The legal battle went on for seven years and in 1999 the PTO judges canceled the federal registration of the mark REDSKINS "on the grounds that the subject marks may disparage Native Americans and may bring them into contempt or disrepute."
The owners appealed the decision to a district court in the District of Columbia in Pro-Football, Inc. v. Harjo. The court reversed the USPTO's decision on the grounds of insufficient evidence of disparagement. Subsequent appeals have been rejected on the basis of laches, which means that the Native Americans had pursued their rights in an untimely and delayed manner. However a second case, Blackhorse v. Pro-Football, Inc., with younger plaintiffs whose standing might not be hindered by laches is proceeding in 2013. The USPTO rejected an application to register "Redskins Hog Rinds" because it "consists of or includes matter which may disparage or bring into contempt or disrepute persons, institutions, beliefs, or national symbols". The USPTO has rejected eleven applications for other trademarks that included the word redskins for the same reasons since 1992. Some of the applications were made by Pro-Football, Inc., including "Washington Redskins Cheerleaders". A decision is expected soon in the Blackhorse case. If the trademark registration were canceled, the Washington Redskins would still be able to keep the name and many of the same trademark rights but would lose several benefits conferred by a federal trademark registration.
A bill was introduced in the United States House of Representatives on March 20, 2013 by Eni F.H. Faleomavaega, Delegate from American Samoa, and co-sponsored by 19 others to amend the Trademark Act of 1946 to void any trademark registrations that disparage Native American Persons or Peoples, such as redskins. Ten members of Congress also sent a letter to the NFL commissioner, all of the team owners including Dan Snyder, and Fred Smith, CEO of FedEx, a primary sponsor of the team; requesting that the name be changed due to the many Native American organizations that oppose the continued use of the name, and in order to fulfill the NFL's own policy regarding diversity. A co-sponsor, Delegate Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-DC), stated she supports the local team but not the name. The bill remains stalled in Congress, with many congressional supporters of a name change believing that federal action to force a change is not appropriate.
While some have said they favor continuing to encourage the owner to change the name, several of the DC Area Congressmen and Senators declined to comment on the issue. “I don’t consider it part of my role in Congress to weigh in on sports issues,” said Rep. Andy Harris (R-Md.), a Ravens fan, in a statement. 
Some members of Congress and former Federal Communications Commission (FCC) officials have sent a letter to the current chairman of the FCC asking that the use of "redskin" by broadcast media be prohibited in the same manner as other racially charged words. Signers of the letter include:
- Reed E. Hundt, chairman of the FCC from 1993 to 1997, and former FCC commissioners Jonathan Adelstein, Tyrone Brown, Nicholas Johnson
- Law Professors: Jasmine Abdel-Khalik (University of Missouri-Kansas City), Anthony Farley (Albany School of Law), Natsu Taylor Saito (Georgia State University), and Katheryn Russell-Brown
- Attorneys: John Echohawk, Larry Irving, Blair Levin, Mee Moua
- Dr. Heather Shotton, President, National Indian Education Association
- Debbie Goldman, Telecommunications Policy Director, Communications Workers of America
- Former FCC official, now Ambassador to the OECD, Karen Kornbluh
The Council of the District of Columbia passed a resolution November 5, 2013 stating its position that the name should be changed. Since the team plays in Maryland and practices in Virginia, it has no legal force. Montgomery County, Maryland Executive Isiah Leggett is also considering asking the County Council to pass a similar resolution. He will drop “Redskins” from all of his office’s announcements and news releases. The matter has been referred to the county Human Rights Commission, but quick action is not expected.
The Board of Supervisors of Loudoun County, Virginia, were the team is headquartered and has its training facility, passed a resolution supporting the team's right to keep the name as a purely business decision. The Executive of Prince George's County, Maryland where the team's stadium is located, stated that if the name is offensive to any group, a change should be considered.
Ray Halbritter, an Oneida Indian leader from New York, is taking his case on the Washington Redskins' to the United Nations. Halbritter claims the name is "racially insensitive and should be changed." He will be meeting with Secretary-General for Human Rights at U.N. headquarters in Manhattan, New York. In a news release, Halbritter also stated “I am both humbled and heartened by the opportunity to have a dialogue with the UN regarding the important moral, human, and civil rights issues raised by the Washington NFL team’s continued use of the R-word racial slur. It is extremely encouraging to see people across the country, as well as national and international leaders, recognizing the harmful impacts of using this term that denigrates Native peoples.” While the UN does not possess any power to take action, Halbritter is hoping the spread of the debate will increase awareness of the issue at hand and force more pressure on the Washington Redskins and the NFL to take action. During the 2013-2014 NFL's regular season, the Oneida Nation of NY sponsored radio advertisements criticizing Washington's nickname.
House Majority Whip Talmadge Branch, (D-Baltimore) and Del. C.T. Wilson (D-Charleshave) introduced a resolution in the Maryland House of Delegates urging the Washington Redskins' owners to change the team's name.  While acknowledging that the resolution is not likely to pass, Del. Wilson stated it was the right thing to do at this time. In response to the bill, Rico Newman, member of the Choptico Band of the Piscataway Indian Nation, rejects any claim by the team and its supporters that the name is a "badge of honor". “It’s a term that’s been used since the late 18th century that had a single determination, and it has and always has been negative,” Newman said.
Efforts to show Native American support for the name
In May 2013, the Redskins' web site reported the opinions of a fan in Marlyland's Prince George's County (home of the NFL stadium). He was Stephen D. Dodson, who claimed to be a "full-blooded American Inuit originally from the Aleutian Tribes of Alaska" who said "Redskins" was not only not offensive to him and his "whole family," but it was a "term of endearment" that Indians "on the reservation [...] would call each other." On June 5, NFL commissioner Roger Goodell wrote a letter to Congress, which in part pointed to "recent remarks from Chief Steven Dodson, an American Inuit chief" to indicate support for the nickname among Native Americans.
Only two weeks later, Deadspin's Dave McKenna reported that the Redskins' "full-blooded American Inuit chief" was "neither a full-blooded American Inuit nor a chief in any formal sense," and "Chief" was only a nickname. In fact, the only official instance of Dodson being previously identified as "Chief" that McKenna could find appeared on a list of AKAs from court records related to "theft, paternity, and domestic violence matters." (The same records say Dodson's middle name is "Dallas," gifting some irony to Cowboys fans.) McKenna quotes Kelly Eningowuk, executive director of the Inuit Circumpolar Council-Alaska, who says that neither "Chief" nor "Indian" would be a self-description used by Alaska's native peoples, and she says the pow wows Dodson claims to have attended would be irrelevant to his supposed Inuit ancestry.
Even acknowledging and accepting the Deadspin report, The Washington Free Beacon named Dodson its 2013 Man of the Year on December 27, "For standing up for the free speech rights of the powerful yet pathetic."
On November 25, 2013 as part of the NFL’s "Salute to Service" month and Native American Heritage month, the Washington Redskins recognized four members of the Navajo Code Talkers Association briefly during a commercial break. Each was wearing a new Redskins jacket. Amanda Blackhorse, also Navajo, and the lead plaintiff in the current case to cancel the Federal trademarks of the Redskins wrote: "Using four Navajo elders does not justify what they are doing and does not change anything. At the end of the day, the name is still inappropriate and disparaging toward Native American people." The Washingtonian described the event as a publicity stunt and "awkward". One of those honored was Peter MacDonald, not only a Code Talker but also a four term Chairman of the Navajo Nation, with a mixed record of promoting the welfare of his tribe and himself. MacDonald was removed from office and sent to federal prison in 1990 for U.S. federal crimes, including fraud, extortion, riot, bribery, and corruption.  MacDonald was pardoned by President Clinton in 2001. 
The team has announced that the will share some of the hundreds of supportive letters and emails they have received from self-identified Native Americans, which they are calling "Community Voices".
Public opinion polls
Despite vocal and legal action from the Native American groups and scholars who support a name-change, the vast majority of people surveyed on the subject in prior years did not find the name offensive. Following the 1992 Super Bowl protests, The Washington Post posted a survey in which "89 percent of those surveyed said that the name should stay." In a study performed in 2004 by the National Annenberg Election Survey, Native Americans from the 48 continental U.S. states were asked "The professional football team in Washington calls itself the Washington Redskins. As a Native American, do you find that name offensive or doesn't it bother you?" In response, ninety percent replied that the name is acceptable, while nine percent said that it was offensive, and one percent would not answer. The problem of individuals claiming to be Native American when they are not is well known in academic research, limiting the value of public opinion polls of the mascot issue. It is a particular problem when non-natives claim Indian identity to gain authority in the debate over sports mascots. Steve Russell, an enrolled Cherokee citizen and associate professor of criminal justice at Indiana University, states that both SI and Annenberg's samples of "self-identified Native Americans... includes plenty of people who have nothing to do with Indians".
At a symposium at the Washington College of Law at American University, the topic was discussed, noting following problems with the National Annenberg Election Survey:
- Being ten years old, the survey is of little value given the evolution of public opinion on other social issues over the same period.
- Context Matters - The questions regarding the football team were only part of a longer election-year survey.
- The Self-Identification Problem - Comparing the US Census data for self-identified Native Americans with the numbers of enrolled tribal citizens, 40% of those who claim to be Native American have no support for that claim.
- Use of Landlines - Only 53% of Native Americans had a land-line in 2005, so almost half of the target population was excluded from the sampling process.
- The question was poorly worded and confusing - The phrasing As a Native American, do you find that name offensive or doesn’t it bother you? has multiple issues. It is a two part question with no single answer. There is a difference between finding something offensive and not being bothered.
- Sample Size - Only 768 Native Americans were polled, which is only 0.04% of the population, meeting the minimal requirement to be statistically significant, but too few to justify using it as a definitive measure of Native American opinion given the issues cited above.
In addition, it was noted that even taken at face value, the poll indicates that 9% of Native Americans are insulted, which implies that it is permissible insult others if they are in the minority. There is also the question of the need for a survey on this issue. 
More recent national polls show continued support for retaining the name, although lower (79%) than previously. The opinion of Redskin fans continues to favor keeping the name. Comments made by fans on the web in response to news stories tend to dismiss the controversy as political correctness, and that the name refers to nothing except the football team.
In July 2013 The Washington Post conducted a phone survey of people living in the DC Metro Area. No questions about ethnicity were asked, only whether respondents supported the continued use of the Redskins name and if they were sports fans in general and fans of the team in particular. 66% of the respondents supported retention of the name, while 82% said that if the name did change, they would continue to support the team. A small majority (56%) of those that would keep the name also thought that the word "redskin" was not an appropriate way to describe a Native American Indian.
Similar results came from a poll of residents of the DC Metro Area commissioned by the Oneida Indian Nation of New York and conducted in October 2013 which found that although sports fans want to keep the name, 59% also say Native Americans have a right to feel offended by the term redskins and 44% say that when they learn the term is defined as 'offensive' by the dictionary, they are more likely to support changing the team name. Additionally, most people (66%) say that if Snyder meets with Native American leaders, he should not refer to them as "redskins" because the term is inappropriate.
There are basic issues with the reliability of public opinion polls that overshadow their value in many cases. There has been a decline in the willingness of people to participate, now down to about 10%, so there is no way of knowing whether there is any systematic bias in the results. Survey methods influence the results, with those done by traditional mail over-sampling the elderly, and telephone surveys done using only land-lines under-sample the young, who only have cell phones.
Louis Gray, president of the Tulsa Indian Coalition Against Racism and an Osage Indian: “You wouldn’t [take a poll] with any other race. You wouldn’t have African-Americans vote to decide whether or not any sort of racial epitaph would be offensive.” 
Contrasting comments by individuals in the mainstream media (listed by date) include:
- Three Virginia Indian leaders say they not offended by the name Redskins, but are more concerned about other issues such as the lack of Federal recognition for any Virginia tribe.
- Robert "Two Eagles" Green, retired chief of the Fredericksburg area Patawomeck Tribe, stated on a radio talk show he’d be offended if the team does change its name.
- Art Monk and Darrell Green, former Redskins and Football Hall of Famers, think a name change should be considered.
- Mark Murphy CEO of the Green Bay Packers and former Redskins player: [nickname is] "derogatory to a lot of people".
- Amy Trask, former CEO of the Oakland Raiders: "As a society, we should seek to inspire people to be tolerant and respectful of others, regardless of our differences. Using Redskins as the name of an NFL team does not further this goal." 
- Rev. Graylan Hagler, pastor of the Plymouth Congregational United Church of Christ in Washington, DC has spoken against the Redskins name for 20 years, and is glad that President Obama agrees.
- Marv Levy, former NFL coach: "...a crude word, even if not intended to insult." 
- Former Redskins coach Joe Gibbs supports the name, while former Redskins Joe Theismann, Joe Jacoby, Doug Williams, and sportscaster James ‘JB’ Brown distance themselves from the current controversy.
- A brother and sister in Oneida, NY state they are both Native American (Mohawk) and ardent Redskins fans.
- Interviews at a powwow in Towson, Maryland find several Native Americans who favor a change of the Redskins name.
- Ralph Nader: While advocating a name change, states that this should not be a substitute for addressing the deeper problems faced by Native Americans.
- Thomas G. Smith, professor of history at Nichols College, sees a parallel between the current debate and the resistance to racial integration 50 years ago, when the Redskins became the last NFL team to have a black player.
- Byron Dorgan, former Senator and chairman of the Senate Indian Affairs Committee: "Most words that once were used to hurt and to reflect intolerance have been now recognized as unacceptable. That should be the case with the name Washington Redskins." 
- Stephen Pevar, Senior Staff Attorney, ACLU: "Our society continues to evolve. Many words that were in common usage decades ago have been relegated to the garbage heap because they are recognized today as demeaning and derogatory. [...] The team has a proud history and dedicated fans. Hopefully the team will soon adopt a name that isn't racially derogatory." 
- Roman Oben, former NFL player: "Dan Snyder 'Would Make More Money' Changing the Redskins Name" 
- DeAngelo Hall's response to a question during a live interview was initially interpreted as his being in favor of the team name change, but later said that he was caught off-guard. He then said he sees both sides to the argurement but he and his teammates defer to the team's management on the issue.
Native Americans and organizations opposed
The following groups have passed resolutions or issued statements regarding their opposition to the name of the Washington NFL team:
- Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians 
- Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma 
- Comanche Nation of Oklahoma 
- The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Washington) 
- Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians (Michigan)
- Hoh Indian Tribe 
- Inter Tribal Council of Arizona 
- Inter-Tribal Council of the Five Civilized Tribes 
- Juaneño Band of Mission Indians (California) 
- Little River Band of Ottawa Indians (Michigan)
- Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians, Gun Lake Tribe (Michigan) 
- Menominee Tribe of Indians (Wisconsin) 
- Oneida Indian Nation (New York)
- Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin 
- Penobscot Nation
- Poarch Band of Creek Indians 
- Samish Indian Nation (Washington) 
- Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians (Michigan) 
- Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (Idaho) 
- Standing Rock Sioux Tribe (North Dakota)
- The Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation (North Dakota) 
- United South and Eastern Tribes (USET) 
- Advocates for American Indian Children (California)
- American Indian Mental Health Association (Minnesota)
- American Indian Movement 
- American Indian Opportunities Industrialization Center of San Bernardino County
- American Indian Student Services at the Ohio State University
- American Indian High Education Consortium
- American Indian College Fund
- Association on American Indian Affairs
- Buncombe County Native American Inter-tribal Association (North Carolina)
- Capitol Area Indian Resources (Sacramento, CA)
- Concerned American Indian Parents (Minnesota)
- Council for Indigenous North Americans (University of Southern Maine)
- Eagle and Condor Indigenous Peoples’ Alliance
- First Peoples Worldwide
- Fontana Native American Indian Center, Inc. (California)
- Governor’s Interstate Indian Council
- Greater Tulsa Area Indian Affairs Commission
- Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council (Wisconsin)
- HONOR – Honor Our Neighbors Origins and Rights
- Kansas Association for Native American Education
- Maryland Commission on Indian Affairs
- Medicine Wheel Inter-tribal Association (Louisiana)
- Minnesota Indian Education Association
- National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)
- National Indian Child Welfare Association
- National Indian Education Association
- National Indian Youth Council
- National Native American Law Student Association
- Native American Caucus of the California Democratic Party
- Native American Finance Officers Association (NAFOA)
- Native American Journalists Association
- Native American Indian Center of Central Ohio
- Native American Journalists Association
- Native American Rights Fund (NARF)
- Nebraska Commission on Indian Affairs
- Nottawaseppi Huron Band of Potawatomi (Michigan)
- North Carolina Commission of Indian Affairs
- North Dakota Indian Education Association
- Office of Native American Ministry, Diocese of Grand Rapids (Michigan)
- Ohio Center for Native American Affairs
- San Bernardino/Riverside Counties Native American Community Council
- Seminole Nation of Oklahoma
- Society of Indian Psychologists of the Americas
- Southern California Indian Center
- St. Cloud State University – American Indian Center
- Tennessee Chapter of the National Coalition for the Preservation of Indigenous Cultures
- Tennessee Commission of Indian Affairs
- Tennessee Native Veterans Society
- Tulsa Indian Coalition Against Racism 
- The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation
- Unified Coalition for American Indian Concerns, Virginia
- The United Indian Nations of Oklahoma
- Virginia American Indian Cultural Resource Center
- Wisconsin Indian Education Association
- WIEA “Indian” Mascot and Logo Taskforce (Wisconsin)
- Woodland Indian Community Center-Lansing (Michigan)
- Youth “Indian” Mascot and Logo Task force (Wisconsin)
These prominent Native Americans have put their opposition to the Redskins' name on the public record:
- Sherman Alexie (author, Spokane)
- Notah Begay (Navajo, PGA pro golfer) called the Redskins' name "a very clear example of institutionalized degradation of an ethnic minority."
- Clyde Bellecourt (Ojibwe, co-founder of the American Indian Movement)
- Bob Burns (Blackfeet elder)
- Vine Deloria, Jr. (Sioux, historian/author)
- Ben Nighthorse Campbell (Northern Cheyenne, U.S. Senator)
- Kevin Gover (Pawnee, director of The Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of the American Indian) 
- Suzan Shown Harjo (Cheyenne/Hodulgee Muscogee, author/activist)
- Litefoot (Cherokee/Chichimeca, rapper) ironically celebrates Native American team names as "recreational genocide" on the track 'Stereotipik'.
- Russell Means (Oglala Lakota, activist/actor)
- Billy Mills (Sioux, Olympic gold medal winner)
- Ted Nolan (First Nations Ojibway, NHL player and coach)
- Buford Rolin (Creek tribal chairman)
- Shoni Schimmel (Umatilla, Louisville Cardinals guard, class of 2015)
- Charlene Teters (Spokane, artist/lecturer)
Comments in the media
Major news organizations continue to use the Redskins name, however the following publications limit their use of the team nickname, although most said they would not strike "Redskins" from quotations:
- The Portland Oregonian (April 1992): Following Native American protests at the World Series and Super Bowl, the editor made the decision to stop using all Native American names.
- Kansas City Star (September 24, 2012): The Star's public editor defended his publications' "longtime policy" of avoiding the term "Washington Redskins" by finding "no compelling reason ... to reprint an egregiously offensive term as a casual matter of course."
- Washington City Paper (October 18, 2012): The alt weekly WCP unveiled the results of its readers poll, referring to the capital's NFL team thereafter only as "Washington Pigskins" (or "'Skins") "instead of the name the team prefers, which is a pejorative term for Native Americans."
- The New Republic's editor, Franklin Foer, tweeted that his publication would follow Slate's "air-tight" logic and drop "Redskins" from its stylebook.
- Mother Jones magazine said it would be "tweaking our house style guide" by following Slate, The New Republic, and the Washington City Paper, referring thereafter to "Washington's pro football team."
- The Richmond Free Press announced October 17, 2013 that it will no longer use the Washington NFL team name in news or editorial columns because it is "insulting to Native Americans, racist, and divisive".
- San Francisco Chronicle (October 30, 2013): The Chronicle's managing editor Audrey Cooper told KCBS that the paper would refer to the team as "Washington," adding, "Why should we err on the side of using an offensive term when we don't have to?
- The Syracuse New Times (October 30th, 2013) 
- Orange County Register (November 7, 2013): Speaking on 'Redskins,' OCR sports editor Todd Harmonson said, "It is the Register’s policy to avoid using such slurs, so we will not use this one, except in stories about the controversy surrounding its use.”
These publications, while continuing to print the name, have published editorials advocating a change:
- Brainerd Dispatch (Minnesota) 
- The Chicago Tribune: The owner should acknowledge the trend toward the elimination of Indian mascots and let the fans choose a new name.
- The Denver Post 
- The Frederick News-Post (Maryland) 
- The Utica Observer-Dispatch 
- DCist (February 11, 2013): The Washington-area news website DCist published an editorial announcing it would refer to the local NFL club as the Washington football team instead of its trademarked name, which DCist agreed is "distasteful, vulgar, and racist."
- Slate in a story (August 8, 2013) stated, "This is the last Slate article that will refer to the Washington NFL team as the Redskins."
- Sports Grid (September 17, 2013) 
- The Capital News Service (October 31, 2013): This news wire service at the Merrill College of Journalism at the University of Maryland said it would thereafter call the team “Washington’s NFL franchise.”
Robert Lipsyte states that there has been discussion about the use of the name at ESPN, but it is unlikely that it or any other major sports network will stop using Redskins in reporting due to a general consensus that it should report the news (including the controversy) but not take sides, and that taking sides would injure their ability to cover the games. There are also the corporate affiliations that make it unlikely. Steven Gaydos, Vice President & Executive Editor of Variety states his opinion that the broadcast networks should tackle the Redskins name issue.
Writers / Commentators
The following individuals in the media have taken a position that the name should be changed, some also deciding that they will stop using it in their own reporting.
Support for the name
In 1992, columnist Andy Rooney wrote that protesting team names such as "Redskins" is silly, but after receiving many letters from Native Americans he wrote "when so many people complain about one thing, you have to assume you may have been wrong".
In 2005, Marc Fisher wrote that the issue of Native American sports team names was not clear-cut given the support for some teams by native leaders. "Most people simultaneously cherish history and want to do the right thing", which for Fisher explained the results of the 2002 poll supporting the Washington Redskins name.
Sports writer Rick Reilly of ESPN, making a case similar to the owner and fans that all discussions about native mascots and names are mere political correctness, "silly", and do not take into account the Native Americans who are not offended. As proof Reilly quotes his father-in-law, a member of the Blackfeet tribe of Montana. However, the father-in-law, Bob Burns, has replied that he was misquoted, and actually said "if the name offends someone, change it". Dave Zirin, sports editor for The Nation, replied in an article that Reilly's was the "Most Irredeemably Stupid Defense of the Redskins Name You Will Ever Read". (Many writers and bloggers were quick to point out that Reilly's 2013 column could be used as a point-for-point counter-argument to his 1991 Sports Illustrated column titled "Let's Bust Those Chops: Native Americans have every reason to object to the way they're caricatured by teams.")
In a commentary published by The National Interest, conservative W. James Antle III supports the position that, based upon public opinion polls, the number of Native American opposed to "Redskins" has not reached the number needed to warrant defining the name as an offensive slur. He rejects the criticism of polls as unrepresentative based upon the lack of identification of respondents as members of tribes who are culturally Native American, and labels the those who oppose the name as "activists" who have manufactured the controversy. Similar opinions emphasizing the view that the entire controversy is a liberal invention were stated in National Review by Rich Lowry and Dennis Prager; and by Rush Limbaugh on his radio broadcast.
Current interest in the controversy began in February 2013 with a symposium "Racist Stereotypes and Cultural Appropriation in American Sports" at the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian. The Washington Redskins name and imagery was the topic of the final panel discussion of that symposium. Although team representatives were invited, none attended. In May 2013 ten members of Congress sent a letter to the team owner and the NFL Commissioner requesting that the name be changed since it is offensive to Native Americans. Snyder famously told USA Today in May 2013, "We'll never change the name. [...] It's that simple. NEVER — you can use caps." However, team lawyer Lanny Davis started walking back that idea, telling D.C. radio station 106.7 The Fan, “I don’t always tell [Snyder] what he wants to hear. [...] I don’t think saying all caps — never is the right tone. [...] I don’t think [Snyder] is going to say all caps — never again.” In June 2013 Roger Goodell cited the nickname's origins and traditions and polls that support its popularity.
The Oneida Indian Nation of New York sponsored a series of radio ads in each city to coincide with games of the 2013 season, each featuring a targeted message. The campaign also began with a symposium and protest that coincided with the Fall meeting of the NFL in Washington, DC. The topic then came up in an interview of President Barack Obama, who stated that if he were the owner of the Redskins, he would consider changing the name because it offends many Native Americans. Rep. Dan Maffei, (D-NY), said in a speech on the House floor that he was siding with the Oneida Indian Nation and its push to drop the football team's name. Both House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV) have stated that the name should be changed.
Team and NFL responses
In response to the continued controversy, the team owner Dan Snyder sent an open letter to fans that was published in The Washington Post on October 9, 2013. In the letter Snyder states that the most important meaning of the name Redskins is the association that fans have to memories of their personal history with the team. Snyder also states that the name was chosen in 1933 to honor Native Americans in general and the coach and four players at that time who were Native American; and that in 1971 the then coach George Allen consulted with the Red Cloud Indian Fund on the Pine Ridge reservation when designing the logo. However the Red Cloud Athletic Fund sent a letter to the Washington Post stating that "As an organization, Red Cloud Indian School has never—and will never—endorse the use of the name “Redskins.” Like many Native American organizations across the country, members of our staff and extended community find the name offensive."
In direct response to the President's comment, the team's lawyer, Lanny Davis, repeated the team position that no offense is intended to Native Americans, and refers to both the 2004 poll and a recent AP poll that show a large majority of people nationally support the continued use of the name.
On October 30, 2013, NFL commissioner Roger Goodell was scheduled to meet with the Oneida Indian Nation and Dan Snyder separately to discuss the Redskins name. Snyder informed Goodell that he does not intend to change the team's name. NFL representatives, rather than the commissioner, then met with the Oneida. According to Oneida spokesman Joel Barkin, the league defended the use of the Redskins name. "We are very disappointed," Barkin said. "This is the beginning of a process. It's clear that they don't see how this is not a unifying term. They don't have a complete appreciation for the breadth of opposition of Native Americans to this mascot and name."
Snyder has met with tribal leaders in Alabama and New Mexico to discuss charitable donations and economic development; which have received mixed responses from Native Americans. Some welcome any assistance with poverty and the other problems poverty creates; while others see it as purely public relations. Robert McGhee, treasurer of the Poarch Band of Creek Indians in Atmore, AL said: "I thought the whole meeting was odd."
The team continues to cite public opinion polls showing opposition to changing the name. The most recent was part an annual poll of issues regarding the NFL, which included one question indicating 71% of the general public are in favor of keeping the name, with 18% in favor of a change. On their web site the team states: “This poll, along with the poll taken among Native Americans by the Annenberg Institute, demonstrates continued, widespread and deep opposition to the Redskins changing our name. The results of this poll are solidly in line with the message we have heard from fans and Native Americans for months – our name represents a tradition, passion and heritage that honors Native Americans. We respect the point of view of the small number of people who seek a name change, but it is important to recognize very few people agree with the case they are making.”  The Onieda Indian Nation "believes more Americans would favor changing the team name of the Washington NFL club if they understood the full context of what the Oneidas and others consider a racial slur."  Mike Florio points out that since an AP poll taken in April 2013 showed 79% in favor of keeping the name; the 71% result in the new poll is a significant decrease in support in a short time.
Continuing calls for change
The National Congress of American Indians has issued a report summarizing opposition to Indian mascots and team names generally, and the Washington Redskins in particular. Leaders of the Five Civilized Tribes passed a resolution calling for the Washington football team to drop the name Redskins.
A group of sixty-one religious leaders in Washington, D.C. sent a letter to NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell and team owner Dan Snyder stating their moral obligation to join the Change the Mascot movement due to the offensive and inappropriate nature of the name which causes pain whether or not that is intended.
At its annual conference the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights passed a unanimous resolution of the 85 representatives present that, while recognizing that a business has the First Amendment right to use any name that it chooses, others need not be complicit in the use of a pejorative and insulting name; and calling upon all Federal, state and local government entities "to end any preferential tax, zoning, or policy treatment that could be viewed as supporting the franchise as long as it retains its current team name". The resolution also commended the "current and former government officials, media outlets, and other entities that have encouraged the Washington Redskins franchise to change its team name or that have refused to be complicit in promoting the current team name". In response, the team released a brief statement reiterated their previous position, and quoting two individuals as being both Native American and Redskins fans who do not want the name to change.
Sen. Maria Cantwell (D-WA), chairwoman of the Committee on Indian Affairs and Rep. Tom Cole (R-OK), a member of the Chickasaw Nation, have written a letter to Commissioner Roger Goodell about the NFL’s stance on the Washington Redskins name.   The letter makes the following points:
- The National Congress of American Indians represent over 250 tribes and millions of Native Americans. They aggressively support a name change as they find the name of the Washington NFL team to be offensive.
- Continuing to defend the name on the basis of public opinion polls and claiming that the name "honors Native Americans" perpetuates a charade and dishonors the NFL.
- The name has been determined to be a slur by virtually every civil rights organization and the US Patent and Trademark Office.
- The NFL is on the wrong side of history in continuing to perpetuate and profit from the degradation of tribes and Indian people while enjoying the benefits of being a tax-exempt, non-profit organization.
Cantwell stated that the letter is in response to comments made by Goodell in a recent news conference. A spokesman for the Redskins, Tony Wyllie, responded in an email: “With all the important issues Congress has to deal with, such as a war in Afghanistan to deficits to health care, don’t they have more important issues to worry about than a football team’s name?” 
In a meeting March 1, 2014, the Board of Directors of the Central Atlantic Conference of the United Church of Christ unanimously passed a resolution proposing that its members boycott Washington Redskins games and shun products bearing the team’s logo until the team changes its name and mascot. Team spokesman Tony Wyllie offered a response, saying, “We respect those who disagree with our team’s name, but we wish the United Church of Christ would listen to the voice of the overwhelming majority of Americans, including Native Americans, who support our name and understand it honors the heritage and tradition of the Native American community.”
- "Legislative efforts to eliminate native-themed mascots, nicknames, and logos: Slow but steady progress post-APA resolution". American Psychological Association. August 2010. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
- "Letter to Goodell and Snyder". The Washington Post.
- "Full text: Resolution on the changing of the Washington Redskins name". The Washington Post. December 12, 2013.
- Tom Pollin (June 6, 2013). "Dropping Back In NFL History: Lone Star And The Redskins". Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- Richard Leiby (November 6, 2013). "The legend of Lone Star Dietz: Redskins namesake, coach — and possible impostor?". The Washington Post.
- "A Linguist's Alternative History of 'Redskin'". The Washington Post. October 3, 2005. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- Ives Goddard (2005). ""I AM A RED-SKIN":The Adoption of a Native American Expression (1769–1826)". European Review of Native American Studies 19 (2).
- Bruce Stapleton (March 6, 2001). Redskins: Racial Slur or Symbol of Success?. iUniverse. ISBN 0595171672.
- Steinberg, Dan (October 23, 2012). "‘Around the Horn’ and the Redskins". The Washington Post. Retrieved 02/06/2013.
- "Definition of REDSKIN". Merriam-Webster.
- The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. 2011.
- "Redskin". Dictionary.com.
- "definition of redskin". RANDOM HOUSE KERNERMAN WEBSTER'S College Dictionary.
- "Definition of redskin". Collins English Dictionary.
- Charles Krauthammer (October 17, 2013). "Redskins and reason". The Washington Post. Retrieved 01/10/2014.
- "We Are Very Proud To Be Called Redskins". February 11, 2013. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- "McLoud: 'Our Community Is Proud Of Our Name'". February 12, 2013. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- "Lamar: 'Once A Redskin, Always A Redskin.'". February 13, 2013. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- Michelle Peirano (May 1, 2013). "In debate over Redskins name, is the ‘R-word’ for racism or respect?". Cronkite News. Retrieved 02/06/2014.
- "The Other Redskins". Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- Troy Blevins. "Houston ISD votes to change school mascots". KPRC.
- Page, Clarence (September 21, 1992). "'Redsins' - A name that insults". The Free Lance-Star. Tribune Media Services. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
- Stillman, Nick (February 9, 2001). "Dolan Defends Logo That Students Call Racist". The Oberlin Review. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
- Kogod, Sarah (December 11, 2012). "Redskins fan gives himself an Indian name, gets DeAngelo Hall’s helmet". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
- "Letter from Washington Redskins owner Dan Snyder to fans". The Washington Post. 10/09/2013.
- "Society of Indian Psychologists". January 27, 1999. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- "Opposition to Use of Stereotypical Native American Images as Sports Symbols and Mascots". American Counseling Association. 2001. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
- "Summary of the Resolution Recommending Retirement of American Indian Mascots". American Psychological Association. 2005.
- "Statement by the Council of the American Sociological Association on Discontinuing the Use of Native American Nicknames, Logos and Mascots in Sport". American Sociological Association. March 6, 2007. Retrieved January 23, 2013.
- Fryberg, Stephanie A. (September 2008). "Of Warrior Chiefs and Indian Princesses: The Psychological Consequences of American Indian Mascots". Basic and applied social psychology. 30(3): 208.
- MURPHY PAUL, ANNIE (October 6, 2012). "It’s Not Me, It’s You". The New York Times. Retrieved 02/11/2013.
- Chaney, John (January 1, 2011). "Do American Indian Mascots = American Indian People? Examining Implicit Bias towards American Indian People and American Indian Mascots". American Indian and Alaska native mental health research. 18(1): 42.
- Kim-Prieto, Chu (March 2010). "Effect of Exposure to an American Indian Mascot on the Tendency to Stereotype a Different Minority Group". Journal of Applied Social Psychology 40 (3): 534.
- Vedantam, Shankar (March 25, 2010). "Native American imagery as sports mascots: A new problem". Psychology Today. Retrieved 02/05/2013.
- "APA Resolution Justifications". American Psychological Association. 2005. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- CARTER MELAND and DAVID E. WILKINS (November 22, 2012). "Stereotypes in sports, chaos in federal policy". The Star Tribune. Retrieved January 30, 2013.(Carter Meland (Anishinaabe heritage) and David E. Wilkins (Lumbee) are professors of Native American Studies at the University of Minnesota)
- "Indians Protest". The Pittsburg Press. January 23, 1988. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
- "2,000 at Metrodome protest Indian mascots". The New York times. January 27, 1992.
- "Battle over controversial Redskins name comes to Dallas". The Dallas Morning News. Associated Press. October 13, 2013.
- Simon Moya-Smith. "'It's always been about the hatred of Indian skin': Native Americans, allies protest Washington Redskins in Denver". NBC News. Retrieved 11/02/2013.
- Will Brinson (October 26, 2013). "Metrodome will use 'Redskins' name in stadium despite protests". CBS News. Retrieved 11/02/2013.
- Mark Maske (November 7, 2013). "Hundreds gather outside Mall of America Field to protest Redskins’ name". Retrieved 11/08/2013.
- Dan Steinberg (November 7, 2013). "Minneapolis mayor condemns Redskins name". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11/12/2013.
- Tad Vezner (11/07/2013). "Metrodome protesters condemn nickname of Vikings' opponent". TwinCities.com. Retrieved 11/12/2013.
- "Our View: Name is what it is - a racial slur". St. Cloud Times. November 6, 2013. Retrieved 11/12/2013.
- RANDY FURST (November 8, 2013). "Dayton, protesters at Metrodome blast Washington nickname". Star Tribune. Retrieved 11/12/2013.
- Theresa Vargas (November 25, 2013). "Redskins name condemned by black and Latino groups outside FedEx Field". The Washington Post.
- John Gonzalez (November 25, 2013). "Redskins name controversy: Prince George's protesters demand name change". WJLA TV.
- Kovaleski, Serge (October 28, 1993). "Delays Push Back Stadium's Chances for 1995 Opening". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
- DeBonis, Mike (January 9, 2013). "Redskins name change should be discussed, Vincent Gray says". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
- "United States Patent and Trademark Office". Retrieved October 16, 2013.
- Erik Brady (May 10, 2013). "New generation of Native Americans challenges Redskins". USA Today. Retrieved 05/10/2013.
- "UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE (USPTO) OFFICE ACTION (OFFICIAL LETTER) ABOUT APPLICANT’S TRADEMARK APPLICATION". December 29, 2013. Retrieved 01/08/2014.
- Theresa Vargas (January 28, 2014). "From pork rinds to cheerleaders, the trademark office rejects the word ‘Redskins’". The Washington Post.
- Theresa Vargas (January 6, 2014). "Agency rejects trademark of ‘Redskins Hog Rinds,’ calling term ‘derogatory’". The Washington Post.
- "MEMBERS OF CONGRESS URGE SNYDER AND THE NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE TO CHANGE THE WASHINGTON TEAM’S NAME". Retrieved October 30, 2013.
- Johnson, Andrew (March 21, 2013). "House Dems Introduce Bill to Ban ‘Redskins’ Trademark". The National Review. Retrieved March 21, 2013.
- Hannah Hess (November 13, 2013). "Congress Punts on Redskins Name". Roll Call.
- Wesley Lowery (February 11, 2014). "Lawmakers say Redskins should change name without congressional strong arm". The Washinton Post.
- Andrew Johnson (June 11, 2013). "Congressmen, Former FCC Officials Ask Agency to Punish Use of ‘Redskins’ on Air". National Review. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- John Eggerton (October 10, 2013). "FCC Officials Push for Broadcaster Forum on NFL 'Redskins' Name". Retrieved 11/08/2013.
- Mike DeBonis; Aaron C. Davis (November 5, 2013). "D.C. Council calls on Washington Redskins to ditch ‘racist and derogatory’ name". The Washington Post.
- Bill Turque (November 25, 2013). "Leggett considers asking Montgomery council to join in call for renaming Redskins". The Washington Post.
- Bill Turque (November 25, 2013). "Montgomery County Council punts on resolution calling for Redskins name change". The Washington Post.
- Susan Svrluga (November 8, 2013). "Loudoun County wades into Redskins name debate, supporting Dan Snyder". The Washington Post.
- Mike DeBonis (October 16, 2013). "Prince George’s County executive calls on Redskins to consider name change". The Washington Post.
- Florio, Mike (24 January 2014). "Oneida Indian Nation to meet with UN over Redskins name". NBC Sports- Pro Football Talk. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Brady, Erik (24 January 2014). "Oneida Indians to meet with U.N. over Redskins name". USA Today. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "Redskins Name Debate Reaches United Nations". CBS DC. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Alex Jackson (February 5, 2014). "Maryland lawmakers introduce resolution to urge Redskins name change". The Capitol.
- Jeff Newman (February 07, 2014). "Del. Wilson legislation urges Redskins name change: Resolution calls current NFL team name ‘disparaging’". Southern Maryland Newspapers.
- "Native American Chief Talks About Redskins".
- Cindy Boren (June 12, 2013). "Roger Goodell defends Redskins nickname in a letter to Congress". The Washington Post.
- Dave McKenna (June 27, 2013). "Redskins' Indian-Chief Defender: Not A Chief, Probably Not Indian". Deadspin.
- Staff report (December 27, 2013). "2013 Man of the Year: Chief Dodson". Washington Free Beacon.
- Mike Jones (November 25, 2013). "Redskins honor members of the Navajo Code Talkers Association". The Washington Post.
- Erik Brady (November 27, 2013). "Woman suing Redskins says Code Talkers honor 'sugercoats' racism". USA Today.
- Benjamin Freed (November 26, 2013). "Redskins Honor World War II-Era Navajo Code Talkers, Awkwardness Ensues: No one was fooled by the team’s publicity stunt". The Washingtonian.
- Tim Vanderpool (05/10/2001). "The Price of Doing Business: After eight years in federal prison, former Navajo Tribal Chairman Peter MacDonald has returned to the reservation". Tucson Weekly. Retrieved 03/11/2014.
- Jacqueline Keeler (03/11/2014). "Redsk*n Jarheads Go Political". Indian Country Today Media Network.
- Andrew Johnson (February 10, 2014). "Redskins Spotlight Supporters of Team Name while Dismissing Critics". The National Review.
- King, C. Richard. The Native American Mascot Controversy: A Handbook p.268. Peter Harris Research Group. (2002) Methodology for Sports Illustrated survey on the use of "Indian" nicknames, mascots, etc. Document produced by The Peter Harris Research Group and shared with Ellen Staurowsky in January 2003.
- King, C. R.; Staurowsky, E. J.; Baca, L.; Davis, L. R.; Pewewardy, C. (2002). "Of Polls and Race Prejudice: Sports Illustrated’s Errant "Indian Wars."". Journal of Sport & Social Issues 26 (4): 381–402. doi:10.1177/0193732502238255.
- Springwood, Charles (February 2004). "I’M Indian Too!": Claiming Native American Identity, Crafting Authority in Mascot Debates 28. Journal of sport and social issues. p. 56.
- "Some collected materials about the NCAA's decision to ban "Indian" sports mascots from the Indianapolis area". Retrieved January 27, 2013.
- "11 Reasons to Ignore the 10-Year-Old Annenberg Survey About the Washington Football Team’s Offensive Name". Glushko-Samuelson Intellectual Property Law Clinic. February 11, 2014.
- *Ben Nuckols (05/03/2013). "Poll: Controversial Redskins name has support". Associated Press. Retrieved 10/12/2013.
- Tom Geoghegan (09/12/2013). "Washington Redskins: Time to change the name?". BBC. Retrieved September 17, 2013.
- "Should the Washington Redskins change their name?". The Washington Post. July 30, 2013. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
- Will Oremus (May 17, 2012). "Minority Opinions:Hardly anyone responds to public opinion surveys anymore. Can we still trust them?". Slate. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
- John E. Hoover (October 19, 2013). "Gray: Redskins is a slur, but other nicknames objectify Native Americans". Tulsa World. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- Paul Woody (May 15, 2013). "American Indians in Va. have no problem with "Redskins"". Richmond Times-Dispatch.
- Dan Steinberg (May 29, 2013). "Retired Patawomeck chief says he’d be offended if Redskins change name". The Washington Post. Retrieved 01/22/2014.
- Mike Florio (July 23, 2013). "Art Monk, Darrell Green think Redskins should consider name change". NBC Sports. Retrieved 12/01/2013.
- Bob Wolfley (August 6, 2013). "Packers' Mark Murphy on Redskins' nickname: 'Derogatory to a lot of people'". Journal Sentinel.
- Mike Florio (August 26, 2013). "Amy Trask makes case for Redskins to change their name". NBC Sports.
- Erik Brady (October 11, 2013). "D.C. preacher glad Obama on his side in 'Redskins' fight". USA TODAY Sports.
- Sean Kirst (October 14, 2013). "Marv Levy on 'Redskins' as a nickname: 'A crude word,' even if intent is not to insult". Syacuse, NY: The Post-Standard.
- Chris Lingebach (September 20, 2013). "Gibbs, Theismann, Wilbon and James Brown on Redskins Name Debate".
- Mark Maske (November 3, 2013). "Some former Redskins greats steer clear of team-name controversy". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11/12/2013.
- Theresa Vargas (November 16, 2013). "One Indian says he loves the Redskins and doesn’t want Dan Snyder to change the name". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
- "Many Native Americans Back Push To Change Redskins Name". CBS Baltimore. November 9, 2013.
- Ralph Nader (11/14/2013). ""Redskins": More Than Just a Name".
- Thomas G. Smith (November 14, 2013). "JFK, Obama: Redskins needs to change". CNN. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
- Byron Dorgan (November 24, 2013). "Time to change name of Redskins". USA Today.
- Stephen Pevar (11/25/2013). "Why "Redskins" Is Wrong". ACLU.
- "Forner NFL Player Roman Oben: Dan Snyder 'Would Make More Money' Changing the Redskins Name". cnsnews.com. December 2, 2013.
- Mike Jones (January 17, 2014). "DeAngelo Hall tries to clarify remarks about Redskins name change topic". The Washington Post.
- "Supporters of Change". Retrieved 01/21/2014.
- "Hoh Indian Tribe: Letter to The Honorable Maria Cantwell, Chairwoman of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs". 10/17/2013.
- "Letter to The Honorable Maria Cantwell, Chairwoman of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs". 2013-11-01.
- "Resolution Supporting Renaming of the Washington Redskins". 07/10/2013.
- "A Resolution Supporting Renaming of the Washington "Redskins"". 10/10/2013.
- Theresa Vargas; Annys Shin (November 16, 2013). "Oneida Indian Nation is the tiny tribe taking on the NFL and Dan Snyder over Redskins name". The Washington Post.
- "Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin: Letter to The Honorable Maria Cantwell, Chairwoman of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs". 09/10/2013.
- "Letter to The Honorable Maria Cantwell, Chairwoman of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs". 09/23/2013.
- "Samish Indian Nation: Letter to The Honorable Maria Cantwell, Chairwoman of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs". 10/23/2013.
- "Letter to The Honorable Maria Cantwell, Chairwoman of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs". 09/12/2013.
- "Letter to The Honorable Mike Crapo". 10/17/2013.
- "Resolution of the Governing Body of the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation: Renaming the Washington "Redskins"".
- "USET Resolution No. 2014:015 CALLING ON THE NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE TO END THE USE OF THE WASHINGTON D.C. RACIALLY OFFENSIVE SLUR TEAM MASCOT NAME". 10/31/2013.
- "National Coalition on Racism in Sports and Media". Retrieved January 21, 2014.
- "Letter to Chair of Senate Committee on Indian Affairs". 2013-10-07.
- Kara Briggs and Dan Lewerenz, "Reading Red Report 2003, A Call for the News Media to Recognize Racism in Sports Team Nicknames and Mascots," Native American Journalists Association (2003), http://www.ais.illinois.edu/documents/2003_reading-red.pdf
- "Tulsa Coalition Supports Bill To Ban Indian Mascots". January 30, 2009.
- Bill Moyers, "Sherman Alexie on Living Outside Cultural Borders," Moyers & Company (PBS, April 16, 2013), http://truth-out.org/news/item/15773
- Steinberg, Dan (February 25, 2013). "Notah Begay calls Redskins nickname ‘institutionalized degradation’". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- "Change the Mascot: Pressure Grows for NFL Team to Drop Redskins Name and Logo as Thousands Protest," Democracy Now (November 9, 2013),http://www.democracynow.org/2013/11/8/change_the_mascot_pressure_grows_for
- Bob Burns, "Blackfeet Elder Says Rick Reilly Misquoted Him; Wants ‘Redskins’ Banned," Indian Country Today (October 10, 2013), http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2013/10/10/blackfeet-elder-says-rick-reilly-misquoted-him-wants-redskins-banned-151696
- Teresa Wiltz, "The Indian Who Overturned The Stereotypes," Washington Post (November 16, 2005) http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/11/15/AR2005111501722.html
- Ben Nuckols, "US Poll Finds Widespread Support for Redskins Name," Associated Press (May 2, 2013), http://bigstory.ap.org/article/us-poll-finds-widespread-support-redskins-name
- "American Indian Museum Holds Public Debate On Redskins' Name". WUSA 9. February 7, 2013.
- David Gianatasio, "Will Controversial Sports Team Names Be Gone in Five Years? Prominent Native American activist says yes," ADWEEK (September 11, 2013), http://www.adweek.com/news/advertising-branding/will-controversial-sports-team-names-be-gone-five-years-152370
- Litefoot, "Stereotipik," http://www.litefoot.com/the-music/litefoot-lyrics/the-messenger-lyrics/
- Dirk Lammers, "Russell Means, Indian Activist and Fighting Sioux Nickname Critic, Dies at 72," Associated Press (October 22, 2012), http://www.wdaz.com/event/article/id/15378/#sthash.E0OseRD4.dpuf
- Brian Daffron, "Billy Mills: Redskins Name Calls to Mind 'Our Own Holocaust'," Indian Country today (November 9, 2013), http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2013/11/09/billy-mills-redskins-name-calls-mind-our-own-holocaust-152165
- Mike Florio, "Former NHL coach doesn’t want to be called 'Redskin'," NBC Sports (June 19, 2013), http://profootballtalk.nbcsports.com/2013/06/19/former-nhl-coach-doesnt-want-you-to-call-him-redskin/
- Erik Brady, "Redskins' Daniel Snyder meets with Alabama tribe," USA Today (November 6, 2013), http://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/nfl/redskins/2013/11/06/daniel-snyder-washington-indians-poarch-mascot/3459141/
- ICTMN Staff, "Hoops Star Shoni Schimmel Says Redskins Name Should Go," Indian Country Today (November 8, 2013),http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2013/11/08/hoops-star-shoni-schimmel-says-redskins-name-should-go-152139
- Charlene Teters, "American Indians are People, Not Mascots," National Coalition on Racism in Sports and Media (n.d.), http://www.aimovement.org/ncrsm/
- Jeff Bercovici (2013-09-04). "New York Times, AP Will Keep Using 'Redskins' Name, For Now". Forbes. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
- Chris Kent. "Oregonian Shuts Out Redskins, Braves".
- Derek Donovan, "Star policy on Washington NFL team's name," Sep 24, http://adastrum.kansascity.com/?q=node/1534. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
- Mike Madden, "Hail to the Pigskins!" http://www.washingtoncitypaper.com/blogs/citydesk/2012/10/18/hail-to-the-pigskins/ (Retrieved September 9, 2013).
- Franklin Foer, @FranklinFoer (twitter), cited in "The New Republic Joins Slate, Will Stop Using ‘Redskins," http://dcist.com/2013/08/the_new_republic_joins_slate_in_ban.php. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
- Ian Gordon, "Ditching the Redskins, Once and for All," Aug 9, 2013, http://www.motherjones.com/mojo/2013/08/ditching-redskins-nfl-dan-snyder-slate. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
- "Richmond Free Press banishing name ‘Redskins’ in coverage of Washington NFL team". The Washington Post. Associated Press. October 18, 2013.
- Melissa Curlos (October 30, 2013). "San Francisco Chronicle Will Not Use Washington Redskins Name". KCBS radio.
- Renee K. Gadoua (October 30, 2013). "What’s in a Name? - Syracuse New Times drops a name".
- Michael Lev (November 7, 2013). "ESPN Can't Flex,But MNF is Still Strong".
- "Get rid of the Redskins nickname". Brainerd Dispatch. October 28, 2013.
- "Redskins should change name: Let the fans choose a new name for the Washington Redskins". The Chicago Tribune. November 30, 2013.
- The Denver Post Editorial Board (10/26/2013). ""Redskins" no more". The Denver Post.
- "The Thickskins". The Frederick News-Post. December 28, 2013.
- "Time to punt this name into history". The Utica Observer-Dispatch. September 17, 2013.
- "We Are Very Proud to Omit the Name of the Local NFL Team "
- David Plotz (August 8, 2013). "The Washington _________: Why Slate will no longer refer to Washington’s NFL team as the Redskins". Retrieved September 9, 2013.
- Matt Rudnitsky (September 17, 2013). "We Need You To Come Up With A Better Name Than The ‘Redskins’: What’s The Wittiest You’ve Got?". SportsGrid.
- David Ottalini (October 31, 2013). "Merrill College’s Capital News Service Will No Longer Use the Name "Redskins""". University of Maryland. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
- Robert Lipsyte (September 6, 2013). "So what if ESPN refused to use the R-word?". ESPN.
- Steven Gaydos. "Hey, Broadcast Chiefs: Time To Tackle Redskins’ Racist Mascot Problem". Variety.
- James Arcellana (September 27, 2013). "Why I refuse to use the term "Redskins"".
- "I’m Fighting Ignorance By Ignoring A Team Name". CBS Chicago. September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
- Jeff Bercovici (October 14, 2013). "For Redskins, Name Change Is A Question Of When, Not If". Forbes. Retrieved 11/06/2013.
- Christine Brennan (September 12, 2013). "Brennan: It's time I stopped calling team 'Redskins'". USA TODAY Sports. Retrieved September 17, 2013.
- Christine Brennan (October 10, 2013). "Brennan: Snyder in a storm Goodell needs to solve". USA Today.
- Michael Brick (October 19, 2013). "A Washington Football Fan Breaks With Tradition". The New York Times.
- Ruben Castaneda (January 4, 2013). "Hell to the Redskins (Why I hate them)". Baltimore Post-Examiner.
- Dan Steinberg (October 16, 2013). "Cris Collinsworth: ‘Redskins’ no longer works". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11/12/2013.
- Brett LoGiurato (October 14, 2013). "Bob Costas on Redskins name: ‘Insult,’ ‘slur’". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
- "Bob Costas Explains His Redskins Remarks". The Washington Post. October 14, 2013.
- Maureen Dowd (October 8, 2013). "Call an Audible, Dan". The New York Times. Retrieved 10/21/2013.
- Danny Dundalk (August 11, 2013). "Redskin’s racist name needs to be changed". Baltimore Post-Examiner.
- Mike Florio (October 8, 2013). "Opponents, proponents of Redskins name are dug in, with no middle ground".
- Kevin Ewoldt (February 8, 2013). "4 Reasons a Redskins Name Change Should Not Bother You".
- Dan Steinberg (May 13, 2013). "John Feinstein says Daniel Snyder ‘knows no shame’". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- Mike Florio (October 5, 2013). "Redskins go on offensive in defending team name". NBC Sports. Retrieved 11/03/2013.
- Bob Glauber (September 14, 2013). "Washington Redskins' owner can no longer ignore outrage over nickname". Newsday.
- Tim Graham (June 10, 2013). "I don't need Daniel Snyder's, NFL's permission to stop saying R-word". The Buffalo News. Retrieved 11/03/2013.
- Robert Harding (June 10, 2013). "Time for the Washington Redskins to dump their racist name". The Citizen.
- Sally Jenkins (February 13, 2013). "On Washington Redskins’ name, it’s time the grown-ups talk sense into Daniel Snyder". The Washington Post.
- Peter King, "A note from me about the use of the nickname 'Redskins'," Monday Morning Quarterback, Sep 5, 2013, http://mmqb.si.com/2013/09/06/eli-manning-new-york-giants-dallas-cowboys/2/ (Retrieved September 9, 2013)
- Dan Steinberg (February 14, 2013). "When Tony Kornheiser wrote about the Redskins nickname". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
- Dan Steinberg. "MSNBC's Maddow Refers To Redskins As 'R-Words' For Entire Segment". Fox News Channel.
- Robert McCartney (February 6, 2013). "Drop ‘Redskins’ name? Time to take a stand". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- Milloy, Cortland (January 8, 2013). "What’s in a name? The Redskins’ bad karma". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- Phil Mushnick (October 17, 2013). "Nothing gained in keeping shameful Redskins name". New York Post.
- Tony Norman (October 15, 2013). "Redskins term just keeps piling on insult". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- Leonard Pitts Jr. (June 16, 2013). "‘Redskins’ is an offensive word, period". The Miami Herald.
- Plaschke, Bill (September 18, 2009). "'Redskins' is no honor, it's an insult". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- Ronnie Polaneczky (November 17, 2013). "What's in a name?". Philadelphia Daily News.
- Bud Poliquin (September 11, 2013). "Altogether now: It's time for Washington's NFL team to change its offensive nickname". The Post-Standard.
- Mark Purdy (September 28, 2013). "Redskins nickname shameful to NFL". San Jose Mercury News.
- William C. Rhoden (October 12, 2013). "Redskins’ Owner Stubbornly Clings to Wrong Side of History". Retrieved October 21, 2013.
- Barry Horn (October 18, 2013). "Why 'Redskins' was rarely mentioned in Brad Sham's call of the Cowboys-Washington game". The Dallas Morning News.
- By John Smallwood (June 16, 2013). "Taking a stand against Washington football team's offensive Redskins name". Philadelphia Daily News. Retrieved 11/03/2013.
- Steinberg, Dan (January 9, 2012). "Jim Vance on Jeremy Lin and the ‘Redskins’". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- DeWayne Wickham (November 11, 2013). "Wickham: Redskins' Snyder no misguided good guy". USA Today. Retrieved November 14, 2013.
- Dan Steinberg (June 13, 2013). "Wilbon: Goodell’s support for Redskins name is ‘gutless’". The Washington Post.
- Juan Williams (October 16, 2013). "Redskins debate -- if team gets new name it's gotta be good". Fox News Channel. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
- Wise, Mike (January 11, 2013). "Only RGIII can make the Redskins change their name. Here’s why he won’t.". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- Mike Wise. "Chief Zee, the Redskins and the setting sun". The Washington Post. Retrieved 09/08/2013.
- Dave Zirin (February 11, 2013). "Redskins: The Clock Is Now Ticking on Changing the Name". The Nation.
- Dave Zirin, "Enough: An open letter to Dan Snyder," grantland.com, Jun 13, 2013, http://www.grantland.com/story/_/id/9376010/rename-washington-redskins. Retrieved September 9, 2013.
- "In pros or preps, `Redskin' is a slur". Chicago Tribune. October 4, 2012.
- Andy Rooney (April 16, 1992). "An Apology to Indians... Sort of". The Hour. Retrieved 11/02/2013.
- Marc Fisher (November 17, 2005). "Block That Mascot? Bite Your Tongue". The Washington Post. Retrieved 01/22/2014.
- Rick Reilly (September 18, 2013). "Have the people spoken?". ESPN. Retrieved October 15, 2013.
- Ryan Van Bibber (October 10, 2013). "Rick Reilly allegedly misquoted Native American father-in-law in Redskins column". Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- Dave Zirin (September 18, 2013). "Most Irredeemably Stupid Defense of the Redskins Name You Will Ever Read". Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- Rick Reilly, "Let's Bust Those Chops: Native Americans have every reason to object to the way they're caricatured by teams," Sports Illustrated (October 28, 1991), http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1140310/index.htm
- Dan Steinberg (October 15, 2013). "Charles Krauthammer and George Will debate ‘Redskins’". The Washington Post.
- W. James Antle III (November 13, 2013). "Redskins: A Manufactured Controversy". The National Interest.
- Rich Lowry (October 8, 2013). "Liberals Fabricate Outrage Over ‘Redskins’: The team name is an anachronism, but a harmless one". National Review.
- Dennis Prager (August 13, 2013). "The Left vs. the Redskins: Teaching people to take offense is one of the Left’s black arts". National Review.
- Dan Steinberg (July 2, 2013). "Rush Limbaugh on the Redskins name". The Washington Post.
- Erik Brady, "Daniel Snyder says Redskins will never change name," USA Today (May 10, 2013), http://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/nfl/redskins/2013/05/09/washington-redskins-daniel-snyder/2148127/
- Dan Steinberg, "Redskins lawyer says ‘put it in caps’ language will change," Washington Post DC Sports Bog (October 9, 2013), http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/dc-sports-bog/wp/2013/10/09/snyder-lawyer-says-put-it-in-caps-language-will-change/
- "U.S. reps urge end to 'Redskins'". ESPN. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- "Roger Goodell defends Washington Redskins' nickname". NFL.com Wire Reports. June 12, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- "NY tribe launches radio ad against Washington Redskins, saying name is a racial slur". The Washington Post. Associated Press. September 5, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- MICHAEL HILL (10/03/13). "Redskins Name Controversy: Oneida Indian Nation Plans Symposium To Coincide With NFL Meeting In DC". Huffington Post.
- David Nakamura (10/05/2013). "Obama: ‘I’d think about changing’ Washington Redskins team name". The Washington Post. Retrieved 10/05/2013.
- Mark Weiner (November 19, 2013). "Rep. Dan Maffei jumps into controversy over Washington Redskins". The Post Standard.
- Andrew Johnson (October 28, 2013). "Pelosi Joins Anti-‘Redskins’ Chorus". The National Review. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
- Bob Cusack (December 19, 2013). "Harry Reid: Redskins should change name". The Hill.
- "Letter from Red Cloud Indian School on the Washington Redskins name". The Washington Post. 10/12/2013. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- "Redskins attorney responds to Obama". USA Today. October 16, 2013.
- Don Van Natta Jr. (October 30, 2013). "Oneida, NFL meet about 'Redskins'". ESPN. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
- Erik Brady (November 6, 2013). "Redskins' Daniel Snyder meets with Alabama tribe". USA TODAY Sports.
- Theresa Vargas; Liz Clarke (December 21, 2013). "Redskins owner Dan Snyder makes visits to Indian Country amid name-change pressure". The Washington Post.
- "3rd Annual NFL Poll". Public Policy Polling. January 2, 2014.
- "Poll: Americans Don't Want Name Change". January 2, 2014.
- Erik Brady (January 3, 2014). "Oneida Indian Nation disputes phrasing in Redskins poll". USA TODAY Sports.
- Mike Florio (January 2, 2014). "Redskins tout new poll that actually shows increasing support for name change". NBC Sports.
- "NCAI Releases Report on History and Legacy of Washington's Harmful "Indian" Sports Mascot". Retrieved 10/11/2013.
- Gene Lehmann. "Leaders of Five Tribes gather at Chickasaw Nation's Artesian Hotel for Intertribal Council". Chickasaw Times. Retrieved October 21, 2013.
- Theresa Vargas (December 5, 2013). "Faith leaders urge Redskins owner Dan Snyder and NFL to change team’s name". The Washington Post.
- Theresa Vargas (December 12, 2013). "Civil rights coalition asks Washington Redskins to change name". The Washington Post.
- "Washington Redskins Response Statement". December 13, 2013.
- "Letter to Roger Goodell on Redskins name". The Washington Post. February 9, 2014.
- "Lawmakers send letter to Roger Goodell about Redskins name". NFL.com. February 10, 2014.
- EMMARIE HUETTEMAN (February 9, 2014). "Lawmakers Press N.F.L. on Name Change for Washington Redskins". The New York Times.
- Carol Morello (March 1, 2014). "Churches propose a boycott of Redskins unless the team changes its name". The Washington Post.
- King, C. R., and Charles F. Springwood, eds. Team Spirits The Native American Mascots Controversy. New York: University of Nebraska, 2001. 191-207.Print.
- Ming, Robert D., ed. "How Politically Correct Must a Trademark Be?" Pepperdine Law Review 22.4 (1995): 13-19. Hein Online. Web.
- Delacruz, Elizabeth M. "Racism American Style and Resistance to Change: Art Education's Role in the Indian Mascot Issue." Art Education 56.3 (2003): 16. Web.
- Vickers, Scott. "American Identities: From Stereotype to Archetype in Art and Literature." Michigan Civil Rights Commission Report (1998): 68-69. Print.
- Miller, Jackson B. ""Indians" "Braves" and "Redskins". A Performative Struggle for Control of an Image." Quarterly Journal of Speech 85 (1999): 188-202. JSTOR. Web.