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Anti-Serb sentiment (or Serbophobia) is in general a historic fear, hatred, and jealousy of Serbs. According to political scientist David Bruce MacDonald, the term Serbophobia was also popularised in the 1980s and 1990s during the re-analysis of Serbian history and became likened to anti-Semitism by Serb nationalists at the end of the 20th century creating a myth as one precondition to territorial expansion into neighbouring regions with a Serbian majority, which could therefore be presented as self-defensive and humanitarian.
Early 20th century in Croatia 
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (March 2012)|
The term was used in the literary and cultural circles since before World War I. Croatian writers Antun Gustav Matoš and Miroslav Krleža had casually described some political and cultural figures as "Serbophobes" (Krleža in the four volume "Talks with Miroslav Krleža", 1985., edited by Enes Čengić), meaning that they perceived an anti-Serbian animus in a person's behavior.
Sarajevo assassination 
The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in 1914 led to angry Croats and Muslims in Sarajevo to engage in violent anti-Serb demonstrations during the evening of 28 June and much of the day on 29 June, and this led to a deep division along ethnic lines that was unprecedented in the city's history. This was because most Croats and many Muslims considered that the Archduke represented the best chance for the establishment of a South Slav political entity within the Habsburg Empire. The crowd directed its anger principally at Serb shops and at residences of prominent Serbs. The mob attacked the cluster of structures near the New Serbian Orthodox Church, threw stones at the metropolitan's residence and sacked the Serbian Orthodox School. Other smaller groups stoned the building that housed the Serb cultural society Prosvjeta, sacked a Serb bank, and trashed the offices of the newspaper Srpska riječ. They singled out shops of Serb merchants including the family business of the assassin Neđeljko Čubrinović, and attacked Serb residences. Two Serbs were killed that day by crowd violence. That night there were anti-Serb riots also in other parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the aftermath of Sarajevo assassination anti-Serb sentiment ran high throughout the Habsburg Empire.
Taking advantage of an international wave of revulsion against this act of "Serbian nationalist terrorism", Austria-Hungary gave Serbia an ultimatum which led to World War I.
World War II 
During World War II the persecution of Serbs manifested itself in:
During the Second World War, Serbs living within the territory of the Nazi puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), were persecuted by the Ustaše alongside Jews and Roma. Between 197,000–217,000 Serbs were killed in the Independent State of Croatia by the Ustaše and their Axis allies. Overall in World War II, the number of killed Serbs exceeded 350,000, the majority of which happened in massacres by various fascist forces.
During World War II, about 250,000 people of Orthodox faith that were living within the territory of the NDH were either forced or coerced into converting to Catholicism by the Ustaša authorities.
In the 1986 draft Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Serbophobia is mentioned.
The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia submitted to the International Court of Justice in 1997 claims that acts of genocide against Serbs had been incited by anti-Serb sentiment and rhetoric communicated through all forms of the media.
- A Croatian "Patriotic Song" which read as follows: Dear mother, I'm going to plant willows, We'll hang Serbs from them. Dear mother, I'm going to sharpen knives, We'll soon fill pits again.
- The publishing in a newspaper of, "Each Muslim must name a Serb and take oath to kill him."
- The radio broadcast of "public calls for the execution of Serbs".
Persecution may refer to death, beating, torture, confiscation or destruction of property, or destruction or desecration of monasteries and churches in Goražde, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and in Kosovo.[copyright violation?][unreliable source?]
According to Diana Johnstone and others, persecution of Serbs by Kosovo Albanian extremists occurred during and after the 1998–1999 Kosovo War.[dead link][dead link][unreliable source?][dead link][unreliable source?][unreliable source?]
Current United States Vice President Joe Biden is on record as speaking in an anti-Serb manner. During the 1999 NATO attack on Slobodan Miloševiċ's Serbia, he appeared on Meet the Press (9 May 1999) and called for "a Japanese-German style occupation of that country, while his son publicly praised the Albanians' resolve in expelling the "degenerate thugs" from Kosovo".[unreliable source?] Due to these statements, during his official visit to Belgrade in 2009 he was met with heavy criticism branding him racist from media and public figures alike as well as numerous protests against his visit.[unreliable source?][unreliable source?]
Some Kosovo Albanians publicly use the ethnic slur "Shki" or "Shkije" to refer to the Serb minority in Kosovo.
- The current Croatian mayor of the city of Split, Željko Kerum makes a public statement to the media claiming "There has never been, nor will there ever be a Serb in my family, that's how I was raised" to which the Serbian government responded by condemning the statement as racist and sending a letter of protest to the Croatian embassy.
- In September 2009, a doctor refused to treat a stroke patient because he was a Serb. Upon their arrival the doctor started verbally abusing them and almost physically attacked them at one point. He called them "Chetniks" and "vermin from Vrhovljani", threatening to "take Chetnik badges from both their heads". Once treated at another hospital the patient was diagnosed as having suffered a stroke. The doctors only reaction was that he "doesn't care about journalists". The Serb patient who was forced to flee Croatia during the war had just recently returned, but discrimination and human rights violations as evidenced continue in the present which is a major factor keeping the remaining refugees from returning.
- In Melbourne, Australia a restaurant with owners of Croatian descent held a celebration to honor World War II Croatian Ustasha leader Ante Pavelić, whose genocidal policies led to the deaths of an estimated 400,000 Serbs, Jews and Gypsies. The event was an "outrageous affront" both to his victims and to any persons of morality and conscience who oppose racism and genocide, the Simon Wiesenthal Center's chief Nazi-hunter and Israel director Dr. Efraim Zuroff stated. Zuroff also noted this was not the first time that Croatian émigrés in Australia had openly defended Croatian Nazi war criminals.
- In November 2008, a Croatian expatriate in Edmonton, Canada published a website selling Ustaša memorabilia, which was publicly protested by a group of young Canadian Serbs.
- On 6 October 2009, the Croatian extreme right-wing NGO (The Croatian Cultural Movement) announced plans to erect a monument in honor of former Croatian Ustasha president Ante Pavelić in Zagreb adjacent to the capitals centre square. The Israeli director of the Simon Wiesenthal Center slammed the proposed monument, saying it "constitutes an outrageous falsification of Croatia's World War II history and is an insult to the memory of the hundreds of thousands of innocent civilians – Serbs, Jews, Roma. He went on to say that the decision to erect the monument reflected "historical revisionism of the worst sort imaginable and a whitewash of the horrific crimes committed by the NDH-Independent State of Croatia as state policy. It is simply inconceivable that a country on the verge of entry to the European Union would allow such a monument to be erected in its capital city or anywhere else on its territory."
- On 12 October 2009, a European Under 21 Championship qualifying match was played in Varaždin, Croatia where Serbia was the visiting side. Several hours prior to the match, Serbian youth squad manager Milovan Đorić was assaulted by a group of "some seven or eight hooligans" while walking around town in his Serbian squad tracksuit. Đorić was subsequently treated for minor facial injuries. The match itself was also marred by racist abuse directed towards the Serbian players from the crowd such as with offensive chants such as "Ubij Srbina" (Kill Serbs) and "Srbe na vrbe" (Hang Serbs from the willow trees; see below) being heard throughout and the subsequent burning of the Serbian flag.
- In October 2009, Croatia's state TV HRT Director Vanja Sutlić insulted one of his own journalists because she is married to a Serb. Witness reports state that "rough insults" were directed at Ivana Dragičević-Veličković including being called a "Chetnik whore". Lela Knežević, an editor with HRT, added that this was not the first similar outburst Sutlić was involved in. After attending a journalist seminar in Belgrade, Sutlić informed her that all business trip expenses were to be cancelled and may now only be funded through personal means due to his ethnically motivated objection to the business trip which he explained by stating, 'what business do you have being a guest on the Serb channel B92'.
- Nationalist Croats have been known to shout the slogan "Kill the Serb" frequently during public events, most notable during Marko Perković Thompson's concerts, but also frequently during sporting events. During the summer of 2009, as more Serb tourists began arriving in coastal resorts in Croatia, several of them have seen their cars being vandalized.
- In late October 2012, Madeleine Albright was filmed screaming "Disgusting Serbs, get out!" in the turmoil that broke out at a book-signing, where a group of Czech protesters brought war photographs from Kosovo and handed them to her.
Srbe na Vrbe 
The slogan Srbe na vrbe!, meaning "Hang Serbs from the willow trees!" is hate speech calling for the extermination of Serbs. The slogan originates from a poem of the Slovene politician Marko Natlačen published in 1914, at the beginning of the war of Austria-Hungary against Serbia.
It was popularized before World War II by Mile Budak, the chief architect of the Ustaše ideology against Serbs, and during World War II there were mass hangings of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia as part of the Ustaše persecution of the Serbs.
In present-day Croatia, Croatian neo-Nazis, extreme nationalists and people who oppose the return of Serbian refugees often use the slogan. Graffiti with the phrase is common, and has been observed by the press when it was painted on a church in 2004, 2006, on another church in 2008, and in 2010, when a banner with the slogan appeared in the midst of the tourist season at the entrance to Split, a major tourist hub in Croatia, during a Davis Cup tennis match between the two countries. It was removed by the police within hours and otherwise ignored. The police later apprehended the author of the banner and charged him with a felony.
Criticism and controversy 
The description of Serbophobia has been controversial, as some sources state it runs contrary to the facts. Some controversy with the term Serbophobia purportedly corresponds to its interplay with perceived historical revisionism practiced by the Milosevic government in the 1990s, and the contention that Serbian writers constructed the "myth of Serbophobia," as "...an anti-Semitism for Serbs, making them victims throughout history."
Serbian socialist Dimitrije Tucović believed that the hatred of Serbia by the Albanian people was caused by Serbian colonialism, which victimised overwhelmingly Albanian Kosovo. Tucović stated that Serbia's attempt to annex Albanian-populated territory in the Balkan wars caused the Albanian people to feel hatred of everything Serbian. He concluded that Serbia wanted the sea and the colony, but left without getting the sea, and by colonising Kosovo created a blood enemy.
Critics associate the use of the term Serbophobia with the politics of Serbian nationalist victimization of late 1980s and 1990s as described, for example, by Christopher Bennett. According to him, Serbian nationalist politicians have made associations to Serbian "martyrdom" in history (from the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 to the genocide during World War II) to justify Serbian politics of the 1980s and 1990s; these associations are allegedly exemplified in Slobodan Milošević's Gazimestan speech at Kosovo Polje in 1989. The reaction to the speech as well as the use of the associated term Serbophobia is a matter of heated debate even today. In late 1988, months before the Revolutions of 1989, Milošević accused his critics and political tactics like the Slovenian leader Milan Kučan of "spreading fear of Serbia". The term Serbophobia was often likened to anti-Semitism, and expressed itself as a re-analysis of history where every event that had a negative effect on the Serbs was likened to a "tragedy". Often associated with the politics of Serbian victimization of late 1980s and 1990s.
See also 
- An essential precondition and follow-up to Serbian machinations in the Krajina and East Slavonia involved proving the existence of a historic nationalist project aimed against the Serbs. The myth of ‘Serbophobia’ (a historic fear, hatred, and jealousy of Serbs that Serb nationalists have likened to anti-Semitism) allowed nationalists to trace a continuous legacy of hatred and violence against the Serbs among the Croats. The actions of the JNA and Serbian irregular militias in Croatia could therefore be presented, both at home and to the outside world, as self-defensive and humanitarian – saving the Krajina Serbs from annihilation. Balkan Holocausts?: Serbian and Croatian Victim-centred Propaganda and the War in Yugoslavia, By David Bruce MacDonald, Manchester University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-7190-6467-8, p. 82-83 (Google Books)
- Sarajevo: a biography, by Robert J. Donia. Google Books. 29 June 1914. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Beginning the twentieth century: a history of the generation that made the war, by Joseph Ward Swain. Google Books. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Yugoslavia's bloody collapse: causes, course and consequences, by Christopher Bennett. Google Books. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Mitrović 2007, pp. 223.
- "Resistance to the Persecution of Ethnic Minorities in Croatia and Bosnia During World War II (9780773447455): Lisa M. Adeli: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Žerjavić, Vladimir (1993). Yugoslavia - Manipulations with the number of Second World War victims. Croatian Information Centre. ISBN 0-919817-32-7.
- Bideleux, Robert (2007). The Balkans: a post-communist history. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-22962-6.
- "The Serbs and Croats: So Much in Common, Including Hate, May 16, 1991". The New York Times. 16 May 1991. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Tomasevich (2001), p. 542
- "SANU". Web.archive.org. 16 June 2008. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE 17 December 1997 Case Concerning Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishmnent of the Crime of Genocide. Retrieved 26 August 2007.
- Attila, Marko (25 May 2009). "The persecution of Serb civilians in wartime Gorazde". Greatersurbiton.wordpress.com. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- American Council for Kosovo. "KOSOVO & Systematic Persecution by KLA". Savekosovo.org. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- "The genocide of the Serb population and persecution of the non-Albanian population must be stopped". Unmikonline.org. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- PERSECUTION OF NON-ALBANIANS CONTINUES IN KOSOVO
- "In the Aftermath: Continued Persecution of Roma, Ashkalis, Egyptians and Others Perceived as "Gypsies" in Kosovo". Errc.org. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- INTERNATIONAL FORCES HAVE FAILED TO PROTECT NON-ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO
- "Kosovo: Serbia's Troublesome Province". Batakovic.com. 6 March 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- "The Lie of a "Good War"". Counterpunch.org. 24 June 2004. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- 15:24 (19 May 2009). "Biden calls Serbs illiterate degenerates, 19/05/09". Index.hr. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- "Biden recognized as racist in Serbia, 21/05/09". Russiatoday.com. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- byClive Leviev-Sawyer (29 August 2008). "Serbian nationalists bash Joe Biden, August 29, 2008". Sofiaecho.com. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- "Biden is on the record as being very belligerent towards Serbia, May 20th, 2009". Russiatoday.com. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- gets mixed reception in Belgrade, 20 May 2009[dead link]
- 'Go home Nazi scum,' Serb hardliners tell Biden, 20 May 2009/
- "Civil Rights Defense Minority Communities, March 2006". Web.archive.org. 28 September 2007. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Split mayor in media swipe at Serbs, September 21, 2009". B92.net. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- "Protest to Croatia over Split mayor's comments, September 22, 2009". B92.net. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Lowen, Mark (10 September 2009). "Croatian medic denies Serb, BBC News, September 10, 2009". BBC News. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- "Croatian doctor refuses to help Serb, B92, September 7, 2009". B92.net. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Lefkovits, Etgar (16 April 2008). "Melbourne eatery hails leader of Nazi-allied Croatia, Jerusalem Post, April 16, 2008". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
- "Croatian 'Hate' Site Linked To Edmonton". National Post. 11 December 2008.
- Blondy, Brian (6 October 2009). "Croatian NGO plans monument to Nazi collaborator Ante Pavelic, Jerusalem Post, October 6th, 2009". Fr.jpost.com. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
- "Croat hooligans attack Serbia manager, B92, October 12th, 2009". B92.net. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- "Football match marred by racist violence, RTS, October 12th, 2009" (in (Serbian)). Rts.rs. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- "Croat state TV boss in chauvinist outburst, B92, October 19th, 2009". B92.net. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- M. Č. P (19 October 2011). "Croatian TV Director Against "Chetniks", Novosti, October 19th, 2009". Novosti.rs. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- "HRT Director ethnically insults reporter, Press Online, October 19th, 2009" (in (Serbian)). Pressonline.rs. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- 15:26 (30 May 2008). "Vijesti.net – Thompson pozdravio Norca, rulja uzvikivala "Ubij Srbina!"". Index.hr. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- "60 tisuća ljudi po nevremenu dočekalo Thompsona, vikalo se i 'Ubij, ubij Srbina!'". Dnevnik.hr. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- 15:26. "If you want to kill Serbs, go to the Maksimir stadium, November 1st, 2008". Index.hr. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- "Serb tourists targeted in Croatia, July 27, 2009". Blic.rs. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Pratele Srbu na Kosovu (2012). Madeleine Albright in Prague: "Disgusting Serbs!" (in Czech). Prague, Palác Knih Luxor: YouTube: pratelesrbunakosovu. Event occurs at 1:00. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
- Dr. Božo Repe (2005). "Slovene History – 20th century, selected articles" (PDF). Department of History of the University of Ljubljana. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
- Petition of 120 Croatian intellectuals. "O Mili Budaku, opet: Deset činjenica i deset pitanja – s jednim apelom u zaključku" (in Croatian). Index.hr. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
- "Ominous Ustashe graffiti on churchyard wall of Church of the Dormition of the Most Holy Mother of God in Imotski". Information Service of the Serbian Orthodox Church. 28 April 2004. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
- "World Report 2006 – Croatia". Human Rights Watch. January 2006.
- "Uvredljivi grafiti na Pravoslavnoj crkvi u Splitu (Offensive graffiti on the Serbian Orthodox church in Split)" (in Croatian). Nova TV/Dnevnik.hr. 18 January 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
- "Na ulazu u Split osvanuo sramotni transparent (Shameful banner appears at the entrance to Split)". Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 9 July 2010. Archived from the original on 11 July 2010. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
- "Otkriven idejni začetnik izrade rasističkog transparenta – Antonio V. (23) osmislio transparent "Srbe na vrbe"". Večernji list (in Croatian). 23 July 2010. Archived from the original on 26 July 2010. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
- Croatian Parliament (21 October 1997). "Kazneni zakon" (in Croatian). Narodne novine NN 110-1997. Retrieved 6 August 2010. "Rasna i druga diskriminacija – Članak 174."
- MacDonald (2002), pp. 82-88
- MacDonald (2002), p. 83
- Dimitrije Tucović, Serbia and Albania: A Contribution to the Critique of the Conqueror Policy of the Serbian Bourgeoisie
- Dimitrije Tucović, Srbija i Arbanija (u Izabrani spisi, knjiga II, str. 131) Prosveta, Beograd, 1950.
- Dimitrije Tucović, Srbija i Arbanija (u Izabrani spisi, knjiga II, str. 117) Prosveta, Beograd, 1950.
- Comment: Serbia's War With History by C. Bennett, Institute for War & Peace Reporting, 19 April 1999
- Communism O Nationalism!, Time Magazine, 24 October 1988
- MacDonald, D. B. (2003), pp. 82-88
- Bennett, C. (1999)
- MacDonald, David Bruce (2002). Balkan Holocausts?: Serbian and Croatian Victim Centred Propaganda and the War in Yugoslavia. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-6466-X.
- Mitrović, Andrej (2007). Serbia's Great War, 1914-1918. West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press. ISBN 978-1-55753-476-7.
- Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: Occupation and Collaboration 2. San Francisco: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4.
Further reading 
National Library of Serbia's catalogue lists following books written about serbophobia:
- Serbophobia and its sources: Mitrović, Jeremija D. (1991). Srbofobija i njeni izvori. Belgrade: Naučna knjiga. ISBN 86-23-03053-2. (second edition Srbofobija i njeni izvori. Belgrade: Službeni glasnik. 2005. ISBN 86-7549-423-8.)
- Serbophobia and antisemitism: Ekmedžić, Milorad (2000). Srbofobija i antisemitizam. Šabac: Beli anđeo.
- On serbophobia through centuries: Blagojević, Lazar; Ilišković, Rajko; Pavlović, Ilija (2004). O srbofobiji kroz vijekove. Šamac: Prosvjeta. ISBN 99938-687-2-8.
- Србообија и њени извори, Јеремија Д. Митровић, Издање: Политика и друштво, 1992, ISBN 86-23-03053-2 (Serbian)
- International Initiative for Anti-Serbism Monitoring, Monitoring the Anti-Serb hate speech and media bias
- Cambridge Papers article Victim Chic? The Rhetoric of victimhood including Serbophobia
- Mentioned in Library of Congress of USA
- Globalizing the Holocaust: A Jewish "useable" past in Serbian nationalism, by David McDonald, University of Otago, New Zealand
Use in various languages 
- Neue Serbophilie und alte Serbophobie, "New Serbophilia and Old Serbophobia", a Junge Welt article, in German
- Marc Fumaroli, an article from Lire, a French literary magazine, in French
- Europa e nuovi nazionalismi, an article by Luca Rastello, in Italian
- Бомбы или гражданская война, a Sevodnya article, in Russian
- Сатанизација Срба, коме она треба?, a book by Boris Olijnik, in Serbian
- Ku është antimillosheviqi?, an AIM article, in Albanian
- Ethnic cleansing of Kosovo and Metohija, From World War II to present (Serbian)