Women in Uzbekistan

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Women in Uzbekistan
Jeunes Boukhariotes (Ouzbékistan) (5670562210).jpg
Women in Uzbekistan
Gender Inequality Index[1]
Value NR
Rank NR out of 148
Maternal mortality (per 100,000) 28
Women in parliament 22.1% (2012)
Females over 25 with secondary education 65.9% (2010)
Women in labour force 49.7% (2011)
Global Gender Gap Index
Value NR
Rank NR out of 136

The social and legal situation of women in Uzbekistan has been influenced by local traditions, religion, the Soviet rule, and changing social norms since independence.[2]

Maternal healthcare and availability of contraceptives[edit]

The availability of contraceptives and maternal healthcare is mixed. 62.3% of women were using free contraceptives in 2003.[3] However, the UN estimates that about 13.7% of women in Uzbekistan who would like to prevent, or delay, their next pregnancy are unable to do so because of limited access to contraceptives.[4] In 2000, there were approximately 20,900 midwives in the country.[5]

Forced sterilization[edit]

There are reports that forced sterilization of women is practiced in Uzbekistan. [6][7][8] A BBC World Service "Assignment" report on 12 April 2012 uncovered evidence that women are being sterilised, often without their knowledge, in an effort by the government to control the population.[9]

Suicide[edit]

Self-immolation [setting one’s self on fire] is a common form of suicide among women in Uzbekistan.[10] In 2001 it was estimated that approximately 500 women a year kill themselves because of abusive situations.[11]

Trafficking[edit]

The UN has recognized some efforts of the government to curtail human trafficking.[12] For example, telephone hotlines are available for trafficking victims,[13] and trafficking carries a jail sentence of five to eight years.[14]

However, trafficking still persists, as Uzbekistan is both a supplier and consumer of trafficked women.[15]”Trafficking occurs as an extension of the ‘shuttle’ trade. The women are sent as tourists with promises of employment as nannies, tutors or baby-sitters, but they often end up working in the sex industry.”[11]

Women’s economic opportunities[edit]

While the Uzbek state has programs in place to help increase economic opportunities for women, there are persistent problems. For example, the labor market is sex-segregated, and women are usually paid lower wages.[16] "Unskilled personnel in the non-production sector are comprised virtually entirely of women.” [17] Women also cannot be used for night time or overtime work.[18] As of 2003 there was no known law against sexual harassment.[19]

Mothers with disabled children or many children can retire at 50—up to five years earlier than the stipulated retirement age (55).[20]

Women’s legal rights and government representation[edit]

As of 2004 Uzbekistan’s election law requires political parties to nominate at least 30 per cent female candidates for the parliament. However, underrepresentation of women is endemic at all levels of government.[21]

Uzbekistan has universal suffrage;[22] however, "according to data from surveys conducted by the Public Opinion Centre, 64% of urban and 50% of rural women consider that men have greater opportunities for implementing their rights in the political sphere".[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2013. p. 156. 
  2. ^ http://www.theadvocatesforhumanrights.org/uploads/uzbekreport.pdf
  3. ^ UN, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/ - Reports may be accessed at http://www.bayefsky.com 2004 24
  4. ^ UN Statistical Database, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/default.htm 2003
  5. ^ UN, Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), http://www.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cescr/ 2004 104
  6. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-17612550
  7. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01fjx63
  8. ^ http://iwpr.net/report-news/birth-control-decree-uzbekistan
  9. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/p00qbnlq/Assignment_Forcible_Sterilisation_In_Uzbekistan/
  10. ^ http://www.iwpr.net/?apc_state=henfrca352298&l=tg&s=f&o=352298, 7 May 2009) para 14
  11. ^ a b International Women's Rights Action Watch (IWRAW), CEDAW Shadow Report, http://iwraw.igc.org/publications/countries/uzbekistan.htm 2001
  12. ^ UN, CEDAW: Concluding Observations, 2006) 5
  13. ^ UNFPA, State of the World Population 2006: A Passage to Hope; Women and International Migration, 2006) 49
  14. ^ http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/ - Reports may be accessed at http://www.bayefsky.com 2000 30
  15. ^ UN, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (CCPR), http://www.ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm - full report can be found at http://www.bayefsky.com 2004 23
  16. ^ CEDAW: Concluding Observations, 2006, Uzbekistan, 6)
  17. ^ UN, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/ - Reports may be accessed at http://www.bayefsky.com 2000 58
  18. ^ UN, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/ - Reports may be accessed at http://www.bayefsky.com 2000 18
  19. ^ "Not a Minute More: Ending Violence Against Women", UNIFEM, http://www.cities-localgovernments.org/uclg/upload/docs/notaminutemore-endingviolenceagainstwomen.pdf, 2003, 11 July 2007) Appendix 1
  20. ^ UN, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/ - Reports may be accessed at http://www.bayefsky.com 2000 52
  21. ^ UN, CEDAW: Concluding Observations, 2006) 5. Reports may be accessed at http://www.bayefsky.com
  22. ^ UN, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/ - Reports may be accessed at http://www.bayefsky.com 2000 33
  23. ^ UN, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/ - Reports may be accessed at http://www.bayefsky.com 2000 32

External links[edit]