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Millennium: 2nd millennium
1816 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1816
Ab urbe condita2569
Armenian calendar1265
Assyrian calendar6566
Balinese saka calendar1737–1738
Bengali calendar1223
Berber calendar2766
British Regnal year56 Geo. 3 – 57 Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar2360
Burmese calendar1178
Byzantine calendar7324–7325
Chinese calendar乙亥年 (Wood Pig)
4513 or 4306
    — to —
丙子年 (Fire Rat)
4514 or 4307
Coptic calendar1532–1533
Discordian calendar2982
Ethiopian calendar1808–1809
Hebrew calendar5576–5577
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1872–1873
 - Shaka Samvat1737–1738
 - Kali Yuga4916–4917
Holocene calendar11816
Igbo calendar816–817
Iranian calendar1194–1195
Islamic calendar1231–1232
Japanese calendarBunka 13
Javanese calendar1742–1744
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4149
Minguo calendar96 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar348
Thai solar calendar2358–2359
Tibetan calendar阴木猪年
(female Wood-Pig)
1942 or 1561 or 789
    — to —
(male Fire-Rat)
1943 or 1562 or 790
June 19: Battle of Seven Oaks

1816 (MDCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1816th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 816th year of the 2nd millennium, the 16th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1816, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

This year was known as the Year Without a Summer, because of low temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere, possibly the result of the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora in Indonesia, causing severe global cooling, catastrophic in some locations.[1]






Date unknown[edit]



Charlotte Brontë
Princess Leonilla Bariatinskaya


Arthur de Gobineau
Paul Reuter
Werner von Siemens

date unknown[edit]



Maria I of Portugal


Francisco de Miranda

Approximate date[edit]


  1. ^ McNamara, Robert (March 24, 2018). "The Year Without a Summer Was a Bizarre Weather Disaster in 1816". ThoughtCo. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  2. ^ Who were Czars Alexander I and Alexander II of Russia?, toughissues.org (accessed 2013-12-13) Archived December 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Thompson, Roy (2004). Thunder Underground: Northumberland mining disasters, 1815-1865. Ashbourne: Landmark. p. 121. ISBN 9781843061694. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
  4. ^ K. L. Pradhan, Thapa Politics in Nepal: With Special Reference to Bhim Sen Thapa, 1806-1839 (Concept Publishing, 2012) p110
  5. ^ The Statesman's Manual: The Addresses and Messages of the Presidents of the United States, Inaugural, Annual, and Special, from 1789 to 1854 (E. Walker, 1849) p321
  6. ^ Louis L. Bucciarelli and Nancy Dworsky, Sophie Germain: An Essay in the History of the Theory of Elasticity (Springer, 2012) p138.
  7. ^ Kenneth J. Hagan and Ian J. Bickerton, Unintended Consequences: The United States at War (Reaktion Books, 2007) p48
  8. ^ Saho, Bala (2018). Contours of Change: Muslim Courts, Women, and Islamic Society in Colonial Bathurst, the Gambia, 1905-1965. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. pp. 45–51. ISBN 9781611862669.
  9. ^ "Ordonnance du 3 juillet 1816 relative aux attributions de la Caisse des dépôts et consignations créée par la loi du 28 avril 1816". Legifrance. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  10. ^ Counter, Andrew J. (2016). The Amorous Restoration: Love, Sex, and Politics in Early Nineteenth-Century France. Oxford University Press. p. 47.
  11. ^ Ceadel, Martin (1996). The Origins of War Prevention: The British Peace Movement and International Relations, 1730-1854. Clarendon Press. p. 222.
  12. ^ Snow, Edward Rowe (1979). Tales of terror and tragedy. New York: Dodd, Mead. p. 67. ISBN 978-0396077756.
  13. ^ Roger Steer, Good News for the World: 200 Years of Making the Bible Heard : the Story of Bible Society (Monarch Books, 2004) p155.
  14. ^ Darrin M. McMahon, Enemies of the Enlightenment: The French Counter-Enlightenment and the Making of Modernity (Oxford University Press, 2002) p157
  15. ^ "The Marine List". Lloyd's List (5134): 78 v. December 13, 1816. hdl:2027/uc1.c2735027. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
  16. ^ "Axa Isle of Man: History". Axa-iom.co.im. November 12, 1996. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2024.
  17. ^ "Excmo. Sr. Don Pelagio Antonio de Labastida y Dávalos (1855-1863)" (in Spanish). Arquidiocesis de Puebla. Archived from the original on May 29, 2019. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  18. ^ "Charlotte Brontë | British author". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  19. ^  Cousin, John William (1910), "Sheridan, Richard Brinsley", A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature, London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource