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Millennium: 2nd millennium
1775 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1775
Ab urbe condita2528
Armenian calendar1224
Assyrian calendar6525
Balinese saka calendar1696–1697
Bengali calendar1182
Berber calendar2725
British Regnal year15 Geo. 3 – 16 Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar2319
Burmese calendar1137
Byzantine calendar7283–7284
Chinese calendar甲午年 (Wood Horse)
4472 or 4265
    — to —
乙未年 (Wood Goat)
4473 or 4266
Coptic calendar1491–1492
Discordian calendar2941
Ethiopian calendar1767–1768
Hebrew calendar5535–5536
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1831–1832
 - Shaka Samvat1696–1697
 - Kali Yuga4875–4876
Holocene calendar11775
Igbo calendar775–776
Iranian calendar1153–1154
Islamic calendar1188–1189
Japanese calendarAn'ei 4
Javanese calendar1700–1701
Julian calendarGregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar4108
Minguo calendar137 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar307
Thai solar calendar2317–2318
Tibetan calendar阳木马年
(male Wood-Horse)
1901 or 1520 or 748
    — to —
(female Wood-Goat)
1902 or 1521 or 749
April 19: Battles of Lexington and Concord
June 17: Battle of Bunker Hill

1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1775th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 775th year of the 2nd millennium, the 75th year of the 18th century, and the 6th year of the 1770s decade. As of the start of 1775, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.



The American Revolutionary War began this year, with the first military engagement on April 19 Battles of Lexington and Concord on the day after Paul Revere's ride. The Second Continental Congress took various steps toward organizing an American government, appointing George Washington commander-in-chief (June 14), Benjamin Franklin postmaster general (July 26) and creating a Continental Navy (October 13) and a Marine force (November 10) as landing troops for it, but as yet the 13 colonies have not declared independence, and both the British (June 12) and American (July 15) governments make laws. On July 6, Congress issues the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms and on August 23, King George III of Great Britain declares the American colonies in rebellion, announcing it to Parliament on November 10. On June 17, two months into the colonial siege of Boston, at the Battle of Bunker Hill, just north of Boston, British forces are victorious, but only after suffering severe casualties and after Colonial forces run out of ammunition, Fort Ticonderoga is taken by American forces in New York Colony's northern frontier, and American forces unsuccessfully invade Canada, with an attack on Montreal defeated by British forces on November 13 and an attack on Quebec repulsed December 31.

Human knowledge and mastery over nature advanced when James Watt built a successful prototype of a steam engine, and a scientific expedition continued as Captain James Cook claims the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands in the south Atlantic Ocean for Britain. Nature's power over humanity is dramatically demonstrated when the Independence Hurricane (August 29 – September 13) devastates the east coast of North America, killing 4,173, and when, on the western side of the North American continent, Tseax Cone erupts in the future British Columbia, as well as when a smallpox epidemic begins in New England. Smallpox vaccine was then developed by Edward Jenner. There is no cure for smallpox.



August 18: Tucson is founded.

Date unknown[edit]


Stanisław Kostka Zamoyski born 13 January
Walter Savage Landor born 30 January
Gurun Princess Hexiao born 2 February
Charles Lamb born 10 February
William Hall (governor) born 11 February
Miguel Ramos Arizpe born 15 February
Simmons Jones Baker born 15 February
Jean-Baptiste Girard (soldier) born 21 February
Adolf Stieler born 26 February
Sophie Tieck born 28 February
Adam Elias von Siebold born 5 March
Constance Mayer born 9 March
Pauline Auzou born 24 March
Adam Albert von Neipperg born 8 April
J. M. W. Turner born 23 April
Alexander Johnston (1775–1849) born 25 April
George Kinloch (politician) born 30 April
Angélique Mongez born 1 May
Alexander McNair born 5 May
Pablo Morillo born 5 May
Jacob Brown born 9 May
Antoine Charles Louis de Lasalle born 10 May
Micah Brooks born 14 May
Johann Baptist Malfatti von Monteregio born 12 June
Judah Touro born 16 June
Lucy Mack Smith born 8 July
Matthew Lewis (writer) born 9 July
Richard Westmacott born 15 July
John Andrew Shulze born 19 July
Anna Harrison born 25 July
Emmanuel Dupaty born 31 July
George Tucker (politician) born 20 August
Vasily Orlov-Denisov born 8 September
Guillaume Capelle born 9 September
Murray Maxwell born 10 September
John Henry Hobart born 14 September
Giuseppe Rosaroll born 16 September
Philip Milledoler born 22 September
Robert Adrain born 30 September
Bahadur Shah Zafar born 24 October
Pierre Capelle born 4 November
Achille Fontanelli born 8 November
Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach born 14 November
James Carnahan born 15 November
Philander Chase born 14 December
Phineas Riall born 15 December






John Baskerville died 8 January
Yemelyan Pugachev died 10 January
Shuja-ud-Daula died 26 January
Claude Pouteau died 10 February
William Small died 25 February
Empress Xiaoyichun died 28 February
Anne Catherine Hoof Green died 23 March
Jan Caspar Philips died 24 April
Peter Boehler died 27 April
Benjamin Dass died 5 May
Caroline Matilda of Great Britain died 10 May
Samuel of Constantinople died 10 May
Egidio Duni died 11 June
Ignaz Günther died 27 June
Szymon Czechowicz died 21 July
Zahir al-Umar died 21 August
Felipe de Castro died 25 August
John Parker (captain) died 17 September
Polixénia Daniel died 24 September
Fukuda Chiyo-ni died 2 October
Christian August Crusius died 18 October
Maria Wilhelmina von Neipperg died 21 October
Gabriel François Venel died 29 October
Guillaume de Barrême de Châteaufort died 6 November
Giovanni Bianchi (physician) died 3 December
Marie-Angélique Memmie Le Blanc died 15 December














  1. ^ Warren, James Francis (1981). The Sulu Zone, 1768-1898: The Dynamics of External Trade, Slavery, and Ethnicity in the Transformation of a Southeast Asian Maritime State. Singapore: NUS Press. p. 36.
  2. ^ a b de Madriaga, Isabel (January 1974). "Catherine II and the Serfs: A Reconsideration of Some Problems". The Slavonic and East European Review. 52 (126): 34–62. JSTOR 4206834.
  3. ^ "Battles of Lexington and Concord", Britannica Student Encyclopedia, 2006, p. 454, The American Revolution began on April 19, 1775, with the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
  4. ^ Scherer, F. M. (1965). "Invention and Innovation in the Watt-Boulton Steam-Engine Venture". Technology and Culture. 6 (2): 165–87. doi:10.2307/3101072. JSTOR 3101072. S2CID 112618665.
  5. ^ "The Invention of the Steam Engine: The Life of James Watt. Part 4: The Steam Engine Gains Popularity". About.com Inventors. Archived from the original on May 25, 2012. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  6. ^ Carvill, James (1981). Famous names in engineering. London Boston: Butterworths. p. 1. ISBN 9780408005401.
  7. ^ George Holbert Tucker (1995). Jane Austen the Woman: Some Biographical Insights. St. Martin's Griffin. p. 6.

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