Foreign relations between Barbados and Japan were formally established on 29 August 1967. Japan is accredited to Barbados from its regional Embassy in Port of Spain (Trinidad and Tobago) and an honorary consulate in the parish of Saint George. Barbados is represented in Japan through a non-resident ambassador in Bridgetown. Japan's new Ambassador for Barbados, Mitsuhiko Okada announced a new direct embassy to Barbados would be established located in Bridgetown In February 2016 .
In 1999, Barbadian and Japanese officials held talks aimed at defusing tensions over the transshipment of nuclear materials through the Caribbean Sea.
Barbadian and Japanese economic trade has grown steadily, in the favour of Japan. In 2005, Japan ranked as Barbados' fourth-largest financial contributor in projects. In 2009, Japan provided technical cooperation and support for the Barbados-based Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA). The thirteenth meeting between Japan and CARICOM was convened in Bridgetown, Barbados, on 19 March 2009.
In July 2008, the Senior Vice-Minister of Japan, Hitoshi Kimura, visited Barbados for high-level talks. During the discussions, both nations spoke of Barbados wanting to conclude a Double Taxation Agreement (DTA) with Japan to increase investment and trade between both countries. Additionally, the Barbados government pledged to support Japan's bid for a seat on the United Nations Security Council for 2009–2010. It was also discussed that the through countries needed to concentrate on cooperation in climate change through the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) organisation. On 27 November 2011, the national broadcaster of Barbados the Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation and TV Osaka made a jointly produced series called From Bridgetown To Tokyo showcasing the Japanese culture and Barbadians working in Japan. One of the main parts showed a Barbadian English teacher recruited through the Japanese embassy in the Caribbean and her experiences teaching in Japan.
In March 2015 the government of Japan announced it would be moving to form a new Eastern Caribbean diplomatic mission based-in Barbados to serve the Eastern Caribbean. It is expected to open by January 2016.
As of 2009, Barbadian and Japanese officials have been negotiating the details of a bilateral Double-Taxation Agreement (DTA) treaty.
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- New Japanese embassy by February, December 5, 2015, Barbados Today
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He pointed to agreements with CARICOM countries, the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Austria, Finland, The Netherlands, Norway, Malta, Sweden, Switzerland, Cuba, Venezuela, China, Mauritius, Botswana, and made the point that discussions are being held with Japan and India.
- The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Barbados
- Japanese Embassy to Trinidad and Tobago