Japan and Poland established relations in 1919, a year after Poland regained its independence. Both countries formed a silent alliance against the Soviet Union and agreed upon sharing intelligence they obtained. The Japanese relied heavily on the new Polish secret service for training in decryption, and continued their close military co-operation even after the Polish declaration of war, which was rejected by Japan for this reason. The Japanese relied on the vast Polish network of spies, and allowed the Poles to openly place their agents inside embassies of its protectorate of Manchukuo. The military cooperation was so close, that in fact the Japanese ambassador was one of the people involved in smuggling of a Polish flag made for the London-based Polish Air Squadron.
During World War II, despite being allied with Nazi Germany, the Empire of Japan did not support its invasion of Poland and actively supported the Polish government in exile. This decision was dictated by the Japanese distrust of their Nazi ally, who made a secret pact with the Soviet Union. Thus, the Japanese government decided to continue to rely on Polish spies to gather information on both the Soviet Union and Third Reich. The Japanese agents in Europe during the World War II continued to support Polish struggle for freedom against Soviet Union and Third Reich, and sheltered Polish refugees fleeing occupation from both German and Soviet forces. Throughout this whole secret alliance, the Japanese never used the Polish spy network to obtain information on Polish western allies. The Polish agents never disclosed information about their Western allies and shared information only pertaining to the Third Reich and Soviet Union.
Japanese poem "Porando kaiko" of Major Fukushima Yasumasa mentions the Polish struggle for freedom.
Japan established relationship with the PZPR party that represented the Soviet controlled Polish puppet state at 1957, while at the same time continuing to be allied with the London-based Polish national government in exile, and later supported the merging of these two in 1989 to form the modern Polish state. Both share mutual interests and alliance that forged them closer to each other. The two nations celebrated 50 years of relationship in 2009.
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