Beach Pneumatic Transit
|Beach Pneumatic Transit|
Sketch of the train car and tunnel
|Locale||New York City, United States|
|Termini||Warren Street and Broadway
Murray Street and Broadway
|Opening||26 February 1870|
|Owner||Beach Pneumatic Transit Company|
|Operator(s)||Beach Pneumatic Transit Company|
|Rolling stock||1 car|
|Line length||95 m (312 ft)|
|No. of tracks||Single track|
In 1869, Alfred Ely Beach and his Beach Pneumatic Transit Company of New York began constructing a subway line beneath Broadway in which air pressure in the tube pushed the cars. Beach had earlier demonstrated the basic system at the American Institute Exhibition in 1867. Funneled through a company he set up, Beach put up $350,000 of his own money to bankroll the full-scale test project. Built in only 58 days, its single tunnel, 312 feet (95 m) long, 8 feet (2.4 m) in diameter, was completed in 1870 and ran under Broadway from Warren Street to Murray Street.
With no initial political support for his project, he started the project claiming he was building postal tubes. The initial permit was to install a pair of smaller postal tubes below Broadway but was later amended to allow the excavation of a single large tunnel wherein the smaller tubes could reside. The exact location of the tubes was determined during construction by compass and survey as well as verified by driving jointed rods of iron up through the roof of the tunnel to the pavement. The line was built as a demonstration of a pneumatic transit system, open to the public with fares donated to charity. Proceeds of the 25 cent admission went to the Union Home and School for Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans. It was planned to run about 5 miles (8.0 km) in total, to Central Park, if it was ever completed.
For the public, the project was little more than a curiosity. It ran only a single car on its one-block-long track to a dead-end at its terminus, and passengers would simply ride out and back, to see what the proposed subway might be like. During its first two weeks of operation, the Beach Pneumatic Transit sold over 11,000 rides and over 400,000 total rides. Although the public showed initial approval, Beach was delayed in getting permission to expand it due to official obstruction for various reason). By the time he finally gained permission in 1873, public and financial support had waned, and the subway was closed down within the year. The final blow to the project was a stock market crash which caused investors to withdraw support. It is unclear that such a system could have been practical for a large-scale subway network.
After the project was shut down, the tunnel entrance was sealed and the station, built in part of the basement of the Rogers Peet Building, was reclaimed for other uses. The entire building was lost to fire in 1898. In 1912, workers excavating for the present-day BMT Broadway Line dug into the old Beach tunnel, where they found the remains of the car, the tunnelling shield used during initial construction, and even the piano in the subway's waiting room. The shield was removed and donated to Cornell University, which has since lost track of its whereabouts. No part of this line remains, as the tunnel was completely within the limits of the present day City Hall station under Broadway. The New-York Historical Society commissioned a plaque honoring Alfred Beach to be placed in the City Hall station.[full citation needed]
It was designed as a very ornate project. The station was adorned with frescoes and easy chairs. Zirconia lamps revealed the luxurious interior of the station. There were statues and a gold fish pond in the station that people could look at while they waited for their turn to enter the ride.
The car could hold 22 people[full citation needed] and the riders would enter the site at Devlin's Clothing Store, a well known shop, located at 260 Broadway, on the southwest corner of Warren Street.
The ride was controlled by a 48 short tons (44 t) Roots blower, nicknamed "the Western Tornado", built by "Roots Patent Force Rotary Blowers" (see Roots Blower Company). When the car reached the end, baffles on the blower system were reversed and the car was pulled back by the suction.
In popular culture
- The 1973 novel The Taking of Pelham One Two Three by Morton Freedgood (under the pen name John Godey) features a character speculating on Beach's tunnel as a possible escape route for four men who have hijacked a subway car and demanded ransom for its passengers. The history of Beach's project is briefly described, but is ultimately unrelated to the criminals' escape plan.
- In the 1989 movie Ghostbusters II, it is referred to as the New York Pneumatic Railroad (NYPRR). The film depicts the fictional Van Horne Station beneath the intersection of East 77th Street and First Avenue, where a subterranean river of ectoplasm flows through its tunnels toward the fictional Manhattan Museum of Art. It is interesting to note that the building used for filming the Manhattan Museum of Art's exterior was actually the Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House near Battery Park, which is within a mile of the original Beach Pneumatic Transit's tunnel location.
- Neal Schusterman's Young Adult Novel Downsiders makes many references to the Beach Pneumatic Transit.
- The novel Faces in the Crowd by William Marshall depicts the abandoned station and tunnel as the headquarters of a criminal plot.
- The song Sub-Rosa Subway on the first album by the Canadian rock band Klaatu, titled: 3:47 EST, is about Beach's subway.
- The film An American Tail: The Treasure of Manhattan Island involves the main characters Fievel Mouskewitz and Tony Toponi exploring a series of caverns directly beneath one of the abandoned terminals for the Pneumatic Transit system.
- The comic book Atomic Robo Volume 6: The Deadly Art of Science depicts an entire network of pneumatic transit tubes running beneath Manhattan. Constructed in part by Nikola Tesla, the system was shut down for not being built "according to code" and is not part of common public knowledge.
- The terminus at Murray Street was a dead-end, not a station
- Beach Pneumatic Transit article on www.nycsubway.org
- "Inventor of the Week - Alfred Beach" (MIT)
- Brennan, Joseph (2005). "They found the tube in excellent condition". Beach Pneumatic. Retrieved 2008-01-17.
- "The remarkable pneumatic people mover" on Damn Interesting
- "To excavate the Earth" (Columbia University)
- Beach Pneumatic Transit on capsu.org website
- Diehl, Lorraine (2004). The Tracks that Built New York City. New York. p. 11. ISBN 9781400052271.
- "The Secret Subway" (PBS)
- Martin, Douglas (November 17, 1996). "Subway Planners' Lofty Ambitions Are Buried as Dead-End Curiosities". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- "Beach Pneumatic Transit - The Interborough Rapid Transit subway" (plrog.org)
- Diehl 2004, p. 14
- Barry, Keith (2010-02-26). "Feb. 26, 1870: New York City Blows Subway Opportunity". Wired.
- Worthington, George (12 Dec 1912). "A Subway Relic". Electrical Review and Western Electrician 61: 1137.
- "The Pneumatic Mail Tubes" (USPS)
- Beach Pneumatic Transit on fdelaitre.perso.sfr.fr website
- Beach Pneumatic Transit on shohola.com website
- "They found the tube in excellent condition" (Columbia University)
- Delaitre, Frédéric (2002-07-10). "Crystal Palace Atmospheric Railway". Lost Subways. Retrieved 2008-01-17.
- Ghostbusters II at the Internet Movie Database
- Most, Doug, The Race Underground : Boston, New York, and the incredible rivalry that built America's first subway (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2014), ISBN 9780312591328.
- The First New York Subway: Beach Pneumatic Transit Sometimes Interesting. 19 May 2012
- New York's Secret Subway
- The Secret Subway: Episode of American Experience about the subway
- No. 1474: Beach's Secret Subway: Episode of The Engines of Our Ingenuity about the subway
- "Pneumatic Transit" Animation by Abby Digital
- The Beach Pneumatic Transit Company - Just a Bunch of Hot Air? from the Museum of the City of New York Collections blog
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Beach Pneumatic Transit.|
- Abandoned Stations, by Joseph Brennan
- Santora, Marc (August 14, 2013). "When the New York City Subway Ran Without Rails".