Beautiful Monsters Tour

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Beautiful Monsters
North American tour by Hole and Marilyn Manson
Beautiful Monsters Tour poster.jpg
The poster of the March 11, 1999 performance
Location United States and Canada
Associated album Celebrity Skin and Mechanical Animals
Start date February 28, 1999 (1999-02-28)
End date March 14, 1999 (1999-03-14)
Legs 1
Number of shows
  • 9 in North America
Hole tour chronology
  • Beautiful Monsters
  • (1999)
Marilyn Manson tour chronology
  • Beautiful Monsters
  • (1999)

The Beautiful Monsters Tour was a North American concert tour co-headlined by American rock bands Hole and Marilyn Manson. Launched in support of each band's respective third full-length studio LPs, 1998's Celebrity Skin and Mechanical Animals,[N 1] the tour was planned to run from February 28, 1999 until April 27, with 37 shows confirmed. However, due to a highly publicized quarrel between the bands' respective lead vocalists, the tour only visited arenas until March 14, for a total of 9 shows before Hole withdrew from the bill. The tour garnered a large amount of media attention and was billed by MTV as a "potentially volatile mix" due to the public feud between both band's outspoken vocalists.

The co-headlining tour was conceived by Hole's management company, Q Prime. Hole singer Courtney Love teased the press that she aimed to launch a tour with Canadian singer-songwriter Alanis Morissette. However, Hole's management aggressively pursued Marilyn Manson's eponymous band, even amid the quarrel between her and the band's singer. Both of them aired their objections in the press. Nevertheless, both groups agreed to tour together provided that costs and revenue were split 50/50.

The tour was marred by on–and–off stage squabbling between Love and Manson, as well as private disputes over the tour's financial arrangements, which resulted in Hole unwittingly financing most of Manson's production costs at their own expense. After Hole left, Marilyn Manson continued the tour under the name Rock Is Dead, despite that name being used by American rock bands Korn and Rob Zombie for their own concurrent joint tour. Marilyn Manson released two recordings that documented portions of the tour: a live video album titled God Is in the T.V. and a live album titled The Last Tour on Earth. Love and Manson finally reconciled their differences in 2015, more than 15 years after the end of the tour.

Background and development[edit]

Plans for a joint tour were conceived by Hole's management company, Q Prime, during the band's stint at the 1999 Big Day Out music festival in Australia in order to support their third studio album Celebrity Skin.[1][2] Hole guitarist Eric Erlandson admitted that the band itself had "anxiously been awaiting" their first full-scale U.S. tour for some time, but their previous attempts "kept falling apart because we couldn't find someone to tour with". Erlandson said he was "just psyched to hit the road with anybody".[3] Hole frontwoman Courtney Love toyed with the idea of touring with Canadian pop rock singer-songwriter Alanis Morissette in the press. During an interview on Los Angeles radio station KROQ-FM, Love claimed her opinions on Morissette had changed. She had previously maligned Morissette's pop work as being "too commercial [for Morissette] to ever be considered a genuine feminist symbol".[1] Nevertheless Love, who was one of the most prominent and prolific figures of feminist music in the 1990s, began to see Morissette as a positive influence on female empowerment.[1]

I'm not mad that he said he'd kick my ass, I just don't want to be used in the same sentence with Courtney Love.

—An example of the insults Marilyn Manson made at the expense of Love in the press before the tour. The quote was Manson's response to the closing lyrics of the New Radicals song "You Get What You Give", wherein both he and Love were panned.[4]

In 1998 and 1999, Love and rock singer Marilyn Manson were engaged in a highly publicized feud and regularly traded insults with each other in the press. Love took offense to Manson's depiction of her in his autobiography The Long Hard Road Out of Hell.[5] In spite of their squabble, Hole's management aggressively pursued a joint tour with Manson's eponymous rock band.[1][3] Manson was initially reluctant to accept the offer. He had reservations about Love, whom he pejoratively described in an interview with NME as "an opportunist" whom he felt tried to exploit his band's newfound fame to bolster hers. He noted that Love never attempted to befriend him until he had sold a million records.[N 2] Love also voiced her concerns about touring with Manson, whose explicit stage shows, she felt, were potentially deleterious to her young daughter, Frances Bean.[1][5] Despite their mutual enmity, Manson accepted the offer to support his band's own third studio album.[1] He joked that he agreed to the tour because he realized "what better role models to lead the youth of America into the new millennium than us two? So it had to be done".[7]

During their negotiations, both sides agreed that the opening act from the inaugural show until their scheduled performance on April 4 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania would be Manson's option, stoner rock band Monster Magnet. A dispute arose on who would take over. According to Erlandson and Hole bassist Melissa Auf der Maur, the two groups had a two-hour meeting to arrive at a resolution. Manson and his band voted for early 1980s Brit-pop groups like Fun Boy Three and Fine Young Cannibals, while members of Hole wanted "more modern" bands. Auf der Maur noted that "we want romance and they want theater. We want love and they want shtick. We had to explain to them that those kinds of bands make them look good, but us look silly".[3] Eventually, Manson's band ceded the selection of the subsequent opening act to Love, who chose Imperial Teen.[8] During their negotiations, both band's agreed to split the cost of producing each show, which resulted in Hole unwittingly financing most of Manson's production costs at their own expense. The revenue earned at each show would be split 50/50 between the two bands.[5][9]

Promotion and naming[edit]

Love officially announced Manson's attachment to the tour on January 6, 1999 by phoning in to the MTV show Total Request Live. She told host Carson Daly, "Yeah, Brian [real name of frontman Marilyn Manson] wants it," claiming that they had reconciled and that both had mutual admiration. She also confirmed the lineup for each respective date on the tour.[10] The tour was scheduled to begin on February 28, 1999 with 37 dates confirmed for the tour, spanning a total of 8 weeks. Ticket prices retailed for $30 and the tour was to be hosted at 10,000-20,000 capacity venues.[7]

The name "Beautiful Monsters" was fashioned by Auf der Maur as an acknowledgement of both band's roots in dark, angry and abrasive alternative rock music, and their transformation in sound and appearance for each of their respective third albums. The allusion also extended to the polarity between each group's approach to the change.[3] Hole revamped their grunge sound into wholesome high-sheen, glitzy alternative pop, while Marilyn Manson abandoned goth subculture-tinged industrial metal in favor of a hedonistic David Bowie-like glam rock.[3] Auf der Maur thought, "I think it's a perfect complement. We bring on the light after they've dragged out the dark. It's two different worlds, so I can't see how one could make the other look bad. Theirs is black and ours is white."[3]

The tour was covered extensively by MTV who anticipated it being a "potentially volatile mix". They noted the "strange juxtaposing" of two bands whose extremely outspoken lead vocalists were engaged in a public row.[2][3]


I asked myself what is the last band in the world I would ever, ever want to tour with, and it was Hole, beyond a doubt. But then I thought, I love a challenge, I like to surround myself with aggravation, it helps me perform better. And I thought, well, here’s a chance to show Courtney the difference between being a celebrity and being a real rock star. We're just going to blow her off the stage. My show will be the biggest and greatest rock show of the '90s.

—Marilyn Manson on why he joined the tour[5]

The feud between Love and Manson carried over into their shows immediately after the tour began. They traded nightly exchanges of thinly-veiled insults during their respective sets.[2] MTV also noted the extreme difference between both band's production, set design and use of special effects. Hole opted for a minimal set design consisting of a projected backdrop and a series of garlands draped across the monitors and drum kit. Their special effects were limited to occasional use of a pressurized cannon that projected an explosion of glitter during their performance of the song "Dying", and a rain of rose petals that were dropped from the rafters onto the stage during the song "Celebrity Skin". Manson's performance, by contrast, utilized expensive pyrotechnics, elaborate props and set pieces as well as numerous costume changes. Much to Love's chagrin, the majority of concertgoers were Manson fans who were less interested in the Hole performance.[6]

The tour commenced, as scheduled, on February 28, 1999 at the Spokane Arena in Spokane, Washington. MTV reported that the inaugural show only sold 8,500 tickets, less than half of the arena's 18,000-person capacity.[6] Monster Magnet's opening slot lasted 45 minutes and, as noted by MTV, displayed "the same energy that made them a hit on Rob Zombie's last US tour." During Hole's performance, Love frequently joked with the audience in-between songs. She also gave away two guitars and her boots to audience members. However, Hole left the stage after only 45 minutes into their show (out of a scheduled hour and a half set) due to Love's disappointment with the audience turnout.[2][6] Marilyn Manson was due to perform after Hole's scheduled exit from the stage, but started 90 minutes late due to problems that arose from having to construct their complicated theatrics in a rush after Hole's impromptu walkout.[N 3] After the problems were resolved, they played an hour and a half show marked by deliberate destruction of their instruments and explicit onstage antics that were the band's trademark. They ended the show with a performance of their signature song "The Beautiful People" followed by an encore.[N 4][11]

Two incidents occurred at the tour's second stop at the PNE Coliseum on March 2, 1999 in Vancouver, Canada. After Manson made a lewd remark about Love during his band's performance, Love ran onstage, hiked her dress and jumped on Manson's back while he sang. Later in the show, Manson suffered from dizziness and fainted onstage, injuring his hand on a monitor as he fell. Initially he pretended it was part of the show, but left the stage after performing their signature song to seek medical attention. When he returned onstage, he pulled the plugs off of their instrument amplifiers and stormed offstage without performing an encore. The rest of the band left the stage afterward.[2][12]

The Seattle, Washington show on March 3, 1999 at the KeyArena included Manson's then-fiancee Rose McGowan and Pearl Jam frontman Eddie Vedder in the audience. It was also a homecoming concert for Hole. Love had mixed feelings about returning to Seattle, which was where she and her late husband Kurt Cobain settled to start their family shortly before he committed suicide in 1994. It was also the epicenter of the grunge music scene and close to the riot grrrl scene of nearby Olympia, Washington, genres which Hole were often misidentified with during its early history.[13] On the return to Seattle, Love lightheartedly quipped:

"Grunge is dead. Grunge is over, okay everyone? I'm here, and we're here to soothe [things] and to help everyone move through this. And it was like the grunge receptacle."[13]

Press speculation on Hole's departure from the tour began on March 11, 1999 the day after the tour's sixth show at the Cow Palace in Daly City, California. Manson had renamed the tour "Hole is Dead" on his official website as a taunt which exacerbated conjecture. He also prefaced the show with an interview in the San Francisco Chronicle who asked him jokingly if any cows were going to be sacrificed during the concert. He facetiously remarked, "well ... there's always Courtney."[2][6]

During the concert, Love polled the audience as to whether or not they wanted her band to continue performing. After the audience responded encouragingly, she derided both Manson's use of pyrotechnics and the audience's expectations of a decadent spectacle, then justified Hole's performance approach as musically-focused[N 5]. Manson initially resisted responding to Love's criticism during their turn on stage. However, after they performed their single "The Dope Show", Manson retorted by holding his own poll, asking how much of the audience were there to watch his band. After the majority of concertgoers erupted in a loud cheer he taunted, "I show pity for the older people on this tour ... the graying mothers" in reference to Love.[6]

The next day, Manson issued a statement on his website that apologized for his band's inability to attend the post-show after-party due to "extreme problems being caused by Hole". He acknowledged the existence of "a war between us and Hole", and predicted that the latter would not be a part of the tour for much longer. Love also spoke to MTV and cited serious production issues as the cause of the rift. She confirmed that she and her band seriously considered leaving the tour but that both bands would meet over the weekend ahead of the March 14, 1999 performance at The Forum in Inglewood, California to discuss their concerns and resolve their conflict.[6]

Less than a day after Love announced the probability of her band leaving the tour, DJ Bill Abbate of Boston, Massachusetts-based radio station WCBN FM read a press release issued by Cambridge, Massachusetts-based tour promoter Don Law Concert Promotions, stating that Hole had already withdrawn from the double bill. The release was sent to several alternative rock radio stations in the Boston area. Hole spokesperson Gayle Fine and Don Law public relations director Pamela Fallon challenged the announcement. Fine did not guarantee that Hole would be on the tour after March 14, 1999, but she assured ticket holders that the band would perform at the March 13, 1999 concert at The Pond and The Forum. News of Hole's possible departure put the future of the tour into question among industry experts. Industry trade publication Pollstar's editor-in-chief Gary Bongiovanni commented, "Historically, Manson has gotten arena-level press but not sold-out arenas."[2]

Hole's departure[edit]

On March 14, 1999, Hole officially announced their withdrawal from the tour as they took the stage at The Forum arena. Love cited public ridicule as well as the inability of the two groups to resolve the financial issues related to Manson's expensive production among their reasons. Due to their 50/50 arrangement, Hole inadvertently subsidized a huge portion of the large cost of mounting Manson's shows which depleted their revenue.[5][9] At their final performance, Love told the audience, "We're history after this. You'll get to see the crack of someone's ass (a reference to Manson's habit of dropping his pants onstage). It will be fun."[14] Manson suffered a hairline fracture on one of his ankles during their performance later in the evening. His injury caused the tour to be temporarily suspended.[5]


Further information: Rock Is Dead Tour

Following their departure, Hole had a series of shows in North America and the United Kingdom. They joined the British Glastonbury Festival in Pilton, Somerset, England on June 22, 1999 and performed two shows with the female-focused music festival Lilith Fair on August 10, 1999 at the Polaris Amphitheater in Columbus, Ohio and August 11, 1999 at the Riverbend Music Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, respectively.[15][16][17] Marilyn Manson resumed the tour on March 21, 1999, renaming it the Rock Is Dead Tour after their single "Rock Is Dead", despite the fact that the name was already being used by American rock bands Korn and Rob Zombie for their own concurrent joint US tour.[18] Manson kept all of the remaining scheduled engagements intact.[8]

Imperial Teen's billing was withdrawn in favor of Grammy-nominated American psychobilly band Nashville Pussy, who took over the opening act slot from Monster Magnet beginning from the April 2, 1999 concert at the Memorial Coliseum in Winston-Salem, North Carolina until the completion of all North American dates on the tour. Manson explained to MTV that the initial inclusion of Imperial Teen on the tour was "by Courtney's request. I think we're probably better off, because that would've been an additional torment for our fans that they didn't need." He added that while he enjoyed their music on CD, he felt there was too much difference in their musical and performance approach for their continued inclusion on the tour to work.[8]

Marilyn Manson released a live video album on November 2, 1999 titled God Is in the T.V., which contained unreleased footage including a behind-the-scenes backstage look at some of the experiences the band underwent during the Beautiful Monsters Tour. He claimed it clarified the real motive for Hole's departure. He added, "There's a really great speech [Love] gives about me and her insecurity and lack of fans at the concerts. Although it disparages her somewhat, I find it very amusing." He also released a live album on November 12, 1999 titled The Last Tour on Earth that documented curated performances by his band from various concerts during the tour.[19]

2015 reconciliation[edit]

More than 15 years after the tour ended, Love and Manson settled their differences and reconciled. In December 2014, Love posted a picture on the social networking service Instagram of her, Manson and their mutual friend Billy Corgan[N 6] sitting together with a caption that read "all hatchets buried."[20][21] In an interview with Esquire magazine on January 20, 2015, Manson elaborated on their reconciliation[N 7] which prompted a sarcastic response from Love on the social networking service Twitter.[N 8]



Marilyn Manson[edit]

Tour dates[edit]

List of planned tour dates for The Beautiful Monsters Tour[3][7]
Date City State Country Venue Opening act
28 February 1999 Spokane Washington United States Spokane Arena Monster Magnet
2 March 1999 Vancouver British Columbia Canada PNE Coliseum
3 March 1999 Seattle Washington United States KeyArena
6 March 1999 Portland Oregon Rose Garden Arena
7 March 1999 Nampa Idaho Idaho Center
10 March 1999 Daly City California Cow Palace
11 March 1999 Sacramento California Arco Arena
13 March 1999 Anaheim California The Pond
14 March 1999 Inglewood California The Forum
16 March 1999 San Diego California The Sports Arena
17 March 1999 Las Vegas Nevada Thomas & Mack Center
18 March 1999 Phoenix Arizona Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum
21 March 1999 Houston Texas The Summit
22 March 1999 San Antonio Texas Alamodome
23 March 1999 Dallas Texas Reunion Arena
25 March 1999 New Orleans Louisiana Uno Arena
27 March 1999 Tampa Florida Ice Palace
29 March 1999 Orlando Florida Orlando Arena
30 March 1999 Fort Lauderdale Florida National Car Rental Center Arena
2 April 1999 Winston-Salem North Carolina Winston-Salem Memorial Coliseum
3 April 1999 Fairfax, Virginia Virginia Patriot Center
4 April 1999 Philadelphia Pennsylvania First Union Spectrum
6 April 1999 East Rutherford New Jersey Meadowlands Sports Complex Imperial Teen
7 April 1999 Uniondale New York Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum
9 April 1999 Worcester Massachusetts The Centrum
10 April 1999 New Haven Connecticut New Haven Coliseum
11 April 1999 Buffalo New York Marine Midland Arena
13 April 1999 Cleveland Ohio CSU Arena
15 April 1999 Detroit Michigan The Palace of Auburn Hills
16 April 1999 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Pittsburgh Arena
17 April 1999 Fort Wayne Indiana Ft. Wayne Coliseum
20 April 1999 Rosemont Illinois Rosemont Horizon
21 April 1999 Grand Rapids Michigan Van Andel Arena
22 April 1999 Indianapolis Indiana Market Square Arena
24 April 1999 Madison Wisconsin Dane County Coliseum
25 April 1999 Milwaukee Wisconsin Bradley Center
27 April 1999 Minneapolis Minnesota Target Center
List of completed tour dates with Hole
Date City State Country Venue Opening act
28 February 1999 Spokane Washington United States Spokane Arena Monster Magnet
2 March 1999 Vancouver British Columbia Canada PNE Coliseum
3 March 1999 Seattle Washington United States KeyArena
6 March 1999 Portland Oregon Rose Garden Arena
7 March 1999 Nampa Idaho Idaho Center
10 March 1999 Daly City California Cow Palace
11 March 1999 Sacramento California Arco Arena
13 March 1999 Anaheim California The Pond
14 March 1999 Inglewood California The Forum



  1. ^ Both albums also shared the same record producer, Michael Beinhorn.
  2. ^ Complete statement: "Courtney never bothered to say hi to me until I sold a million records. She's an opportunist and I wouldn't consider her a friend ... the way she's behaved towards me in the media has seemed very exploitative. I'm not interested in being anything to her".[6]
  3. ^ Some examples of the Marilyn Manson's complex stage props: 1.) During performances of "The Reflecting God" from their 1996 album Antichrist Superstar, Manson would appear onstage affixed to a large crucifix made of television sets that rose out of the ground. He would climb out and begin performing. Near the end of the song the crucifix was regularly set ablaze. 2.) During performances of "I Don't Like The Drugs (But The Drugs Like Me)" from Mechanical Animals, the band performed while a large Hollywood-style sign flashed the word 'DRUGS' behind them.[6][11]
  4. ^ "Coma White" and their rendition of Patti Smith's song "Rock N Roll Nigger"[12]
  5. ^ Courtney Love: "I guess you're sort of waiting for the pyrotechnics show. We don't know how to do fire and stuff. We're just a rock 'n' roll band, you little shits ... We're sort of all about the music."[6]
  6. ^ Lead singer of American alternative rock band The Smashing Pumpkins. Corgan contributed largely to the songwriting process on Celebrity Skin and acted as a musical consultant on Mechanical Animals.
  7. ^ Extract from Marilyn Manson's Esquire magazine interview titled, Marilyn Manson on 'Inventing' Grunge, Sons of Anarchy, and Why He's a Furby: "We never really had a falling out. We've always been weird with each other, because she's slept with pretty much every one of my friends, supposedly. Not me, though. She, one time, told me she was mad at me because I didn't want to fuck her and I was smarter than her. I said, "Well, you kind of proved your own point right there on that one." But it was cool. We didn't work any scenes together (on American television series Sons of Anarchy), but I saw her on the red carpet. Her dress broke, and I said, "You okay? Your pussy didn't show, did it?" and she said, "No," and I went, "Thank God! That would've been horrible!" That was the only time I fucked with her. Other than that, I'm cool with Courtney."[22]
  8. ^ Love's Twitter response to Manson's Esquire interview: "Omg @marilynmanson all this time thought u're gay. Of course I'll fuck u. Im free Fri from 1:15 to 1:18 gives us plenty time 4 a smoke too x"[23]


  1. ^ a b c d e f "Courtney Love Considers Manson, Morissette Tours As Hole Gets Six CMA Nods". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. 1998-12-02. Retrieved 2015-07-05. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Kaufman, Gil (1998-03-12). "Best Of ’99: Boston Promoter Says Hole Dropping Off Manson Tour". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. Retrieved 2015-07-16. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Kaufman, Gil (1999-01-27). "Marilyn Manson, Hole Schedule 'Beautiful Monsters' Tour". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. Retrieved 2015-07-06. 
  4. ^ "New Radicals Discuss Slighting Marilyn Manson And Courtney Love, Manson Responds". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. 1998-12-02. Retrieved 2015-07-06. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Hole Walks Out On Tour, Manson Injury Postpones Several Dates". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. 1999-03-15. Retrieved 2015-07-05. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kaufman, Gil (1999-03-11). "Hole Threaten To Drop Off Marilyn Manson Joint Tour". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. Retrieved 2015-07-07. 
  7. ^ a b c "Marilyn Manson, Hole Announce Two Months Worth Of Dates". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. 1999-01-27. Retrieved 2015-07-05. 
  8. ^ a b c "Manson Resumes Tour Without Hole, Taps Nashville Pussy And Jack Off Jill For Upcoming Dates". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. 1999-03-22. Retrieved 2011-03-07. 
  9. ^ a b "Marilyn Manson Says Hole's Departure From Tour "Not A Personal Thing"". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. 1999-03-15. Retrieved 2011-03-07. 
  10. ^ "Courtney Talks About Hole/Manson Tour". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. 1999-01-07. Retrieved 2015-07-05. 
  11. ^ a b "Manson, Hole Get Tour On The Road". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. 1999-03-02. Retrieved 2015-07-06. 
  12. ^ a b "Marilyn Manson Falls For Vancouver". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. 1999-03-04. Retrieved 2015-07-16. 
  13. ^ a b "Hole, Marilyn Manson Avoid Nostalgia As Tour Rolls Into Seattle". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. 1999-03-05. Retrieved 2011-03-07. 
  14. ^ Moran, Caitlin (1999-09-01). "The Girl Who Wanted To Be God". Select (Emap International Limited): 92. 
  15. ^ "ALL'S FAIR IN LOVE". NME. Time Inc. UK. 1999-04-18. Retrieved 2015-07-15. 
  16. ^ "Hole To Play A Pair Of Lilith Dates". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. 1999-05-28. Retrieved 2015-07-15. 
  17. ^ "Hole Playing Two Lilith Shows". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. 1999-05-28. Retrieved 2015-07-15. 
  18. ^ "Marilyn Manson Talks Rock Survival As Tour With Hole Marches On". MTV News. Viacom Media Networks. 1999-03-10. Retrieved 2015-07-14. 
  19. ^ "MANSON: LOVE HATE HATE LOVE". NME. Time Inc. UK. 1999-05-28. Retrieved 2015-07-15. 
  20. ^ Kreps, Daniel (2014-12-06). "Courtney Love, Billy Corgan and Marilyn Manson Mend Longstanding Rift". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media LLC. Retrieved 2015-07-15. 
  21. ^ Carley, Brennan (2015-01-21). "Marilyn Manson Claims Courtney Love Got Mad That He Wouldn’t Sleep With Her". Spin. SpinMedia. Retrieved 2015-07-15. 
  22. ^ Thompson, Barry (2015-01-20). "Marilyn Manson on 'Inventing' Grunge, Sons of Anarchy, and Why He's a Furby". Esquire. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved 2015-07-16. 
  23. ^ Mcrady, Rachel (2015-01-21). "Marilyn Manson: Courtney Love Slept With My Friends, Billy Corgan Warned Me Rose McGowan Would Ruin My Life". Us Weekly. Wenner Media LLC. Retrieved 2015-07-16. 


  • Schippers, Mimi A. (2002). Rockin' out of the Box: Gender Maneuvering in Alternative Hard Rock. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-8135-3075-8.