Kashtan CIWS

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Kortik / Kashtan
Кортик на корвете Стерегущий.jpg
A Kashtan combat module (missiles absent)
Type Close-in weapon system
Place of origin Soviet Union, Russia
Service history
In service 1989–present[1][2]
Used by See Operators
Production history
Designer Developer:
KBP (Arkady Shipunov)[1][2]
Fire control system: RATEP[1]
Designed Late 1970s–?
Manufacturer Tulamashzavod, RATEP[1][3]
Produced 1989–present
Variants Kortik-M / Kashtan-M[1][2][4]
Weight 15,500 kg (34,200 lb) (Kashtan)[1]
12,500 kg (27,600 lb) (Kashtan-M)[1]
Height 2,250 mm (89 in) (above deck)[1][2]

Shell HEI-Frag, Frag-T, APDS-T[1][5]
Shell weight 0.39 kg (0.86 lb) (HEIF, FT)[6]
0.30 kg (0.66 lb) (APDS-T)[6]
Caliber 30×165mm AO-18[N 1]
Barrels 2 × 6 (guns); 2 × 4 launch tubes
Action Gas-operated rotary cannon
Rate of fire Kashtan:[N 2]
9,000 rounds/min (guns)[1]
Kashtan-M:[N 2]
1–2 (salvo) missiles per 3–4 sec[1]
10,000 rounds/min (guns)[1][2]
Muzzle velocity 860 m/s (2,800 ft/s) (HEIF, FT)[1]
960 m/s (3,100 ft/s) (HEIF, FT)[1][2]
1,100 m/s (3,600 ft/s) (APDS-T)[1][2]
Effective firing range By missiles:
1,500–8,000 m (4,900–26,200 ft)
1,500–10,000 m (4,900–32,800 ft)
By guns:
Kashtan: (range, altitude)
500–4,000 m (1,600–13,100 ft),[1][4]
3,000 m (9,800 ft)[1][4]
300–5,000 m (980–16,400 ft)[2][4]
Feed system Link-less, helical; 1000 rounds[1][7]
Sights Radar / TV-optical:[4][N 3]
2–3/1 m (6.6–9.8/3.3 ft) accuracy,[1]
tracks 6 targets simultaneously[1]
Warhead Continuous-rod w/ frag layer[1][2][4]

8 × 9M311K + 32 missiles[1][N 4][N 5]
8 × 9M311-1E + 24 missiles[7][N 4]
2 × AO-18K autocannon[1]
2 × AO-18KD autocannon[2][4]
Flight altitude 3,500 m (11,500 ft) (Kashtan)[1][2]
6,000 m (20,000 ft) (Kashtan-M)[1][4]
Speed 910 m/s (3,000 ft/s)[1]

The Kashtan (Russian: Каштан, English: Chestnut) close-in weapon system (CIWS) is a modern naval air defence gun-missile system deployed by the Russian Navy.

It is found on the aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, Kirov class battlecruisers, Neustrashimy class frigates, China's Sovremenny class destroyers, and other modern designs. Most typically deployed as a combined gun and missile system, it provides defence against anti-ship missiles, anti-radar missiles and guided bombs. The system can also be employed against fixed- or rotary-wing aircraft or even surface vessels such as fast attack boats or targets on shore.

The Kashtan will be replaced in Russian Navy service by the Pantsir-M CIWS, which uses similar rotary cannons but different missile and radar systems.[8]


The weapon is a modular system consisting of a command module and typically two combat modules, as in the case of China's Eminent and Thoughtful destroyers, although the number can be as many as 8 in the case of Admiral Kuznetsov. The command module detects and tracks threats, distributes targeting data to the combat modules, and interrogates IFF of approaching threats. The command module has a 3-D target detection radar, and an all weather multi-band integrated control system. Depending on the number of installed combat modules, the system can engage multiple targets simultaneously. The combat modules automatically track using either radar, electro-optronic control system (such as FLIRs) or both, and then engages targets with missiles and guns. The combat modules are typically equipped with two GSh-30K (AO-18K) six-barrel 30 mm rotary cannons, fed by a link-less feeding mechanism, and two 9M311 launchers equipped with 4 ready-to-fire missiles each and fed by a reloading system storing 32 missiles in ready-to-launch containers.

The guns used in the Kashtan are the GSh-30K six-barrel 30 mm rotary cannon. Individually, each GSh-30K has a higher rate of fire compared to other guns used by other CIWS such as the GAU-8 on the Goalkeeper and the M61 Vulcan on the Phalanx. Along with a high rate of fire, the fairly heavy round (390 g or 14 oz) used by the Kashtan is comparable to the DPU rounds of the GAU-8 Avenger (425 g or 15.0 oz), although the muzzle velocity (and therefore both the kinetic energy and effective range) is slightly lower, partially offsetting the high caliber and rate of fire.

The missiles used in the Kashtan are the 9M311 missiles, which is also used on the 9K22 Tunguska. The 9M311 is a SACLOS guided missile, however, it is steered automatically by the command module. The warhead weighs 9 kilograms (20 lb) and is either laser or radio fused. The warhead is a continuous-rod warhead with a steel cube fragmentation layer. The detonation of the warhead will form a complete circle of fragmentation that is 5 meters in radius, and damage or destroy anything in that circle.

The combination of the missiles and guns, provides more comprehensive protection when compared to other CIWS utilising either missiles or guns only. The system's combined kill probability is 0.96 to 0.99.[1][4]


Map of Kashtan operators in blue with former operators in red

Current operators[edit]

Former operators[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Not compatible with the army 30×165mm ammunition.
  2. ^ a b 6–8 sec reaction time. Kashtan-M: 5–7 sec (3–6 sec according to other sources).
  3. ^ Kashtan-M can be equipped with radar and optics, only radar or only optics.
  4. ^ a b 1.5 minutes reload time.
  5. ^ Kashtan is compatible with the Kashtan-M's 9M311-1E missiles.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "3M87 Kortik / Kashtan (SA-N-11 Grison) System". MilitaryRussia.ru (in Russian). 17 January 2009 – 22 May 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m ""Kortik" ("Kashtan", 3M87, SA-N-11, Grison), Naval Close-in Weapon System". Arms-Expo.ru (in Russian). Информационное агентство «Оружие России». Retrieved 25 March 2013. 
  3. ^ "Air Defence Missile-Gun System "KASHTAN-M"". Radio Engineering Enterprise RATEP. Almaz-Antey. Retrieved 29 March 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Kashtan, Kashtan-M, CADS-N-1, Palma, Palash close in weapon systems (CIWS)". Navy Recognition. 7 October 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2013. 
  5. ^ "30 mm AK-630 System". MilitaryRussia.ru (in Russian). 19 January 2009 – 4 July 2010. Retrieved 22 March 2013. 
  6. ^ a b Koll, Christian (2009). Soviet Cannon - A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres 12.7mm to 57mm. Austria: Koll. pp. 289–296. ISBN 978-3-200-01445-9. 
  7. ^ a b "Naval Air-Defense Missile/Gun System "KASHTAN–M"". KBP Instrument Design Bureau. Archived from the original on 4 May 2007. 
  8. ^ Pantsir-M Naval Air Defense Missile/Gun System to Enter Service with Russian Navy Before Year-End - Navyrecognition.com, 28 February 2017
  • "2001 Russian Export Arms Catalog"

External links[edit]

(in English)

(in Russian)