Kirov-class battlecruiser Frunze
|Builders||Baltic Shipyard, Leningrad|
|Preceded by||Kara class|
|Active||1 (1 undergoing refit)|
|Type||Heavy guided missile cruiser/battlecruiser|
|Length||252 m (827 ft)|
|Beam||28.5 m (94 ft)|
|Draft||9.1 m (30 ft)|
|Speed||32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph)|
|Sensors and |
|Electronic warfare |
|2 × PK-2 Decoy dispensers (400 rockets)|
|Armour||76 mm plating around reactor compartment, light splinter protection|
|Aircraft carried||3 helicopters|
|Aviation facilities||Below-deck hangar|
The Kirov class, Soviet designation Project 1144 Orlan (sea eagle), is a class of nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers of the Soviet Navy and Russian Navy, the largest and heaviest surface combatant warships (i.e. not an aircraft carrier or amphibious assault ship) in operation in the world. Among modern warships, they are second in size only to large aircraft carriers, and of similar size to a World War I era battleship. The Soviet classification of the ship-type is "heavy nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser" (Russian: тяжёлый атомный ракетный крейсер). The ships are often referred to as battlecruisers by Western defence commentators due to their size and general appearance.
Originally built for the Soviet Navy, the class is named after the first of a series of four ships constructed, Admiral Ushakov, named Kirov until 1992. Original plans called for construction of five ships. The fifth vessel was planned to be named Fleet Admiral of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov, also referred as Dzerzhinsky. The name was later changed to Oktyabrskaya Revolutsiya (October Revolution), and then just Kuznetsov; but on 4 October 1990, plans for construction of a fifth vessel were abandoned.
The lead ship of the class, Kirov (renamed Admiral Ushakov in 1992), was laid down in June 1973 at Leningrad's Baltiysky Naval Shipyard, launched on 27 December 1977 and commissioned on 30 December 1980. When she appeared for the first time in 1981, NATO observers called her BALCOM I (Baltic Combatant I). She is currently in reserve.
In 1983, a command and control ship, SSV-33 Ural, was launched, although the ship would not be officially commissioned until 1989. She utilized the basic hull design of the Kirov-class vessels, but with a modified superstructure, different armament, and was intended for a different role within the Soviet Navy. Ural was decommissioned and laid up in 2001, due to high operating costs, and scrapped starting in 2010.
Frunze, the second vessel in the class, was commissioned in 1984. She was assigned to the Pacific Fleet. In 1992, she was renamed Admiral Lazarev. The ship became inactive in 1994 and was decommissioned four years later. She is currently in reserve. On 19 September 2009, General Popovkin, Deputy MOD for Armaments, said the MOD is looking into bringing Admiral Lazarev back into service.
Kalinin, now Admiral Nakhimov, was the third ship to enter service, in 1988. She was also assigned to the Northern Fleet. Renamed Admiral Nakhimov in 1992, she was mothballed in 1999 and reactivated in 2005. She is undergoing overhaul and modernization at Severodvinsk Shipyard.
Construction of the fourth ship, Yuriy Andropov, encountered many delays; her construction was started in 1986 but was not commissioned until 1998. She was renamed Pyotr Veliky (after Peter the Great) in 1992. She currently serves as the flagship of the Russia's Northern Fleet.
On 23 March 2004, English language press reported the Russian Navy Commander-in-Chief, Fleet Admiral Vladimir Kuroedov said Pyotr Veliky's reactor was in an extremely bad condition and could explode "at any moment", a statement which may have been the result of internal politics within the Russian Navy. The ship was sent to port for a month, and the crew lost one-third of their pay.
Russia initially planned to reactivate Admiral Ushakov and Admiral Lazarev by 2020, but it was later indicated that the condition of the reactor cores of both ships was such that it would prove difficult, expensive and potentially dangerous to remove the spent nuclear fuel and repair the cores. As a consequence, both ships were earmarked for scrapping in 2021. The scrapping of Admiral Lazarev began in early 2021.
Currently, only Pyotr Velikiy remains operational. Modernization of Admiral Nakhimov is ongoing and will continue until "at least" 2023, with the modernization of Pyotr Velikiy to immediately follow and last for about three years.The modernization of Admiral Nakhimov and her sister ship is to be extensive, with Admiral Nakhimov expected to receive 174 Vertical-launch (VLS) tubes: 80 for anti-surface and 94 for anti-air warfare, among other upgrades.
The Kirov class's main weapons are 20 P-700 Granit (SS-N-19 Shipwreck) missiles mounted in deck, designed to engage large surface targets. Air defense is provided by twelve octuple S-300F launchers with 96 missiles and a pair of Osa-MA batteries with 20 missiles each. Pyotr Velikiy carries some S-300FM missiles and is the only ship in the Russian Navy capable of ballistic missile defence. The ships had some differences in sensor and weapons suites: Kirov came with SS-N-14 anti-submarine warfare (ASW) missiles, while on subsequent ships these were replaced with 3K95 Kinzhal (Russian: Кинжал – dagger) surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems. The Kinzhal installation is in fact mounted further forward of the old SS-N-14 mounting, in the structure directly behind the blast shield for the bow mounted RBU ASW rocket launcher. Kirov and Frunze had eight 30 mm (1.18 in) AK-630 close-in weapon systems, which were supplanted with the Kortik air-defence system on later ships.
Other weapons are the automatic 130 mm (5 in) AK-130 gun system (except in Kirov which had two single 100 mm (4 in) guns instead), 10 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo/missile tubes (capable of firing SS-N-15 ASW missiles on later ships) and Udav-1 with 40 anti-submarine rockets and two sextuple RBU-1000 launchers.
|Kirov / Admiral Ushakov||Frunze / Admiral Lazarev||Kalinin / Admiral Nakhimov||Yuri Andropov / Pyotr Velikiy|
|Anti-ship missiles||20 x SS-N-19 Shipwreck|
|Anti-submarine missiles||1 x twin SS-N-14 Silex|
|SS-N-15 Starfish (via 533mm torpedo tube)|
|Surface-to-air missiles||12 x 8 SA-N-6 Grumble||6 x 8 SA-N-6 Grumble|
|6 x 8 SA-N-20 Gargoyle|
|2 x 20 SA-N-4 Gecko|
|Space reserved for 16 x 8. Only installed on Pyotr Veiliky (8 x 8) SA-N-9 Gauntlet|
|Guns||2 x 1 AK-100 100 mm||1 x 2 AK-130 130 mm|
|CIWS||8 x AK-630||6 x CADS-N-1|
|Antisubmarine rockets||2 x RBU-1000|
|1 x RBU-12000|
|Torpedo tubes||10 x 533mm torpedo tubes for Type 53|
- 2 × Top Dome for SA-N-6 fire control radar (the forward Top Dome is replaced with Tomb Stone (Passive electronically scanned array) in Pyotr Veliky)
- 4 × Bass Tilt for AK-360 CIWS System fire control (not in Admiral Nakhimov or Pyotr Veliky)
- 2 × Eye Bowl for SA-N-4 fire control (also for SS-N-14 in Admiral Ushakov)
- 2 × Hot Flash/Hot Spot for SA-N-11 Grisom (CADS-N-1 units only)
- 1 × Kite Screech for AK-100 or AK-130
- 2 × Cross Sword for SA-N-9 (Gauntlet-equipped units only)
|Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov||Baltiysky Zavod, Leningrad||27 March 1974||26 December 1977||30 December 1980||Laid up, to be scrapped in 2021|
|Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev||27 July 1978||26 May 1981||31 October 1984||Scrapping commenced April 2021|
|Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov||17 May 1983||25 April 1986||30 December 1988||Undergoing refit|
|Peter the Great||11 March 1986||29 April 1989||9 April 1998||In service with the Northern Fleet|
|Admiral Flota Sovetskogo
(ex-Dzerzhinsky, ex-Oktyabrskaya Revolutsiya)
|Nikolay Gerasimovich Kuznetsov||N/A||Cancelled, 4 October 1990|
- List of naval ship classes in service
- List of active Russian Navy ships
- List of ships of Russia by project number
- List of ships of the Soviet Navy
- "Kirov (Orlan) Class (Type 1144.1/1144.2) (CGN)". Jane's. 8 September 2000. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009.
- "Russian Warship Tests Missile Defense Capability". RIA Novosti. 20 September 2012. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Armi da guerra, De Agostini, Novara, 1985.
- Middleton, Drew (13 March 1981). "Pentagon likes budget proposal, but questions specifics". The New York Times. p. A14.
- Bishop, p. 80.
- Miller & Miller, p. 114.
- Апалков, Ю.В. (2003). Ударные корабли, Том II, часть I (in Russian). Санкт-Петербург: Галея Принт.
- Pike, John (19 March 2012). "Kirov Class - Project 1144.2". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- Pike, John. "Kirov Class - Project 1144.2". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- "Agentsvo Natsionalnykh Novostey" (in Russian). 19 September 2009.
- Digges, Charles (23 March 2004). "Kuroyedov declares 'Peter the Great' could explode 'at any moment'". Bellona. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
- "Upgraded Nuclear Cruiser to Rejoin Russian Navy in 2018". RIA Novosti. 13 June 2013. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
- "Карточка контракта № 1770641334821000012: Утилизация тяжелого атомного ракетного крейсера "Адмирал Лазарев" проекта 1144.1 заводской № 801" [Contract card No. 1770641334821000012: Disposal of the heavy nuclear missile cruiser "Admiral Lazarev" of project 1144.1 serial number 801]. Federal Treasury (in Russian). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
- "Handover of Admiral Nakhimov battlecruiser to Russian navy postponed — source". TASS. 7 April 2021.
- "Russia's flagship nuclear battle cruiser – the world's largest – puts in for repairs". Bellona.org. 9 September 2015. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- "This Deadly Russian Warship Is the Closest Thing to a Battleship Sailing Today". The National Interest. 20 February 2019. Archived from the original on 1 May 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
- madeinrussia. "Admiral Nakhimov modernization. February 2020". Facebook. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- "Ракеты "Циркон" окончательно определили технологическое превосходство России над США" [The "Zircon" missiles definitively determine Russia's technological superiority over the United States]. Ruspolitica.ru (in Russian). 28 October 2016. Archived from the original on 10 June 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
- "Для гиперзвуковых крылатых ракет в России создано принципиально новое топливо" [A fundamentally new fuel has been created in Russia for hypersonic cruise missiles]. vesti.ru (in Russian). 17 March 2016. Archived from the original on 29 May 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
- @seawaves_mag (30 April 2021). "Project 1144 Admiral Lazarev departed Strelok Bay today for the breakers" (Tweet). Retrieved 1 May 2021 – via Twitter.
- "Russian Shipyard Sevmash Ordered New Equipment for Overhaul of Kirov Class Cruiser Nakhimov". Navyrecognition.com. 6 January 2015. Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
- Bishop, Chris (1988). The Encyclopedia of World Sea Power. New York: Crescent Books. ISBN 978-0-517-65342-5. OCLC 18199237.
- Miller, David; Chris Miller (1986). Modern Naval Combat. London: Salamander Books. ISBN 978-0-86101-231-2. OCLC 17397400.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kirov class battlecruiser.|