|Type||Superheavy Intercontinental ballistic missile|
|Place of origin||Russia|
|Used by||Russian Strategic Missile Troops|
|Designer||Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau|
|Manufacturer||KrasMash, Zlatous MZ, NPO Energomash, NPO Mashinostroyeniya, KBKhA|
|Warhead||10–24 MIRVs (various type and yield, including HGVs; At the maximum reported throw-weight of up 10,000 kg, the missile could deliver a 50 Mt charge (the maximum theoretical yield-to-weight ratio is about 6 megatons of TNT per metric ton, and the maximum achieved ratio was apparently 5.2 megatons of TNT per metric ton in B/Mk-41).|
|Engine||First stage: PDU-99 (RD-274 derived)|
|approx. 10,900 kilometres (6,800 mi)|
|Speed||over Mach 20.7; 25,000 km/h (16,000 mph)|
|Inertial guidance, GLONASS, Astro-inertial|
The RS-28 Sarmat (Russian: РС-28 Сармат, named after the Sarmatians - NATO reporting name SS-X-30) is a Russian liquid-fueled, MIRV-equipped, superheavy thermonuclear armed intercontinental ballistic missile, in development by the Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau since 2009. It is intended to replace the old R-36M missile (SS-18 Satan).
Its large payload of about 10 tonnes would allow for up to 10 heavy MIRV warheads or 15 lighter ones (350 kilotons yield each) or up to 24 Avangard hypersonic glide vehicles, or a combination of warheads and massive amounts of countermeasures designed to defeat anti-missile systems; it was heralded by the Russian military as a response to the U.S. Prompt Global Strike.
Sarmat has a short boost phase, which shortens the interval when it can be tracked by satellites with infrared sensors, like Space-Based Infrared System and makes it harder to intercept.
It is speculated that RS-28 could fly a trajectory over the South Pole, completely immune to any current U.S. missile defense system. It is suspected to have a Fractional Orbital Bombardment (FOBS) capability.
In February 2014, a Russian military official announced the Sarmat is expected to be ready for deployment around 2020. In May that year another official source suggested that the program was being accelerated and that it would, in his opinion, constitute up to 100 percent of Russia's fixed land-based nuclear arsenal by 2021. At the end of June 2015, it was reported that the production schedule for the first prototype of the Sarmat was slipping. The RS-28 Sarmat was expected to become operational in 2016. On 10 August 2016, Russia successfully tested the RS-28's first-stage engine named PDU-99 "ПДУ-99". The first image of this new missile was declassified and unveiled in October 2016. In early 2017, prototype missiles had been reportedly built and delivered to Plesetsk for trials but the test program was being delayed to re-check key hardware components before initial launch.
According to the commander of the Russian Strategic Forces, Col. Gen. Sergei Karakayev, the RS-28 Sarmat will be deployed with the 13th Red Banner Rocket Division, 31st Missile Army at Dombarovsky (Orenburg Oblast) and the 62nd Red Banner Rocket Division, 33rd Guards Missile Army at Uzhur (Krasnoyarsk Krai), replacing the previous R-36Ms (SS-18 Satan) currently located there.
The first successful ejection test of the missile was reportedly carried out in late December 2017 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome. According to the report, the missile flew several dozen kilometers and fell within the test range.
On 1 March 2018, Russian president Vladimir Putin, in his annual address to the Federal Assembly, said that "the active phase of tests" of the missile had begun. Shortly after, an anonymous military source was cited as saying that the information about the Sarmat missile had in 2007 been leaked to the West deliberately.
- Strategic Missile Troops
- RS-24 Yars
- RS-26 Rubezh
- R-36 (missile)
- RT-2PM Topol
- RT-2PM2 Topol-M
- LGM-30 Minuteman
- В обойме – «Сармат», «Кинжал», «Авангард»...: interview by deputy defence minister Yuriy Borisov, redstar.ru, 12 March 2018.
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- Ракета "Сармат" взлетит в 2016 году, 16 September 2015.
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