RS-28 Sarmat

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RS-28 (Sarmat)
RS-28 Sarmat.png
RS-28 Sarmat
TypeSuperheavy Intercontinental ballistic missile
Place of originRussian Federation
Service history
Used byRussian Strategic Missile Forces
Production history
DesignerMakeyev Rocket Design Bureau
ManufacturerKrasMash, Zlatous MZ, NPO Energomash, NPO Mashinostroyeniya, KBKhA
Mass208.1 tons[1]
Length35.5 m[2]
Diameter3.5 m[2]

Warhead10–15 MIRVs[3] (various type and yield, including HGVs; At the maximum reported throw-weight of up 10,000 kg, the missile could deliver a 50 Mt charge (the maximum theoretical yield-to-weight ratio is about 6 megatons of TNT per metric ton, and the maximum achieved ratio was apparently 5.3 megatons of TNT per metric ton in B/Mk-41).

EngineFirst stage: PDU-99 (RD-274 derived)
~18,000 kilometres (11,000 mi)[4]
SpeedMach 20.7; 25,560 km/h (15,880 mph); 7.1 km/s (4.4 mi/s)
Inertial guidance, GLONASS, Astro-inertial

The RS-28 Sarmat (Russian: РС-28 Сармат,[6] named after the Sarmatians[7]; NATO reporting name: SS-X-29[8] or SS-X-30[9]) is a Russian liquid-fueled, MIRV-equipped, heavy thermonuclear intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), under development by the Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau since 2009.[6][10] It is intended to replace the R-36M ICBM (SS-18 'Satan') in Russia's arsenal.[11][12]

The Sarmat is one of the six new Russian strategic weapons unveiled by Russian President Vladimir Putin on 1 March 2018.[13][14]


In February 2014, a Russian military official announced the Sarmat is expected to be ready for deployment around 2020.[15] In May the same year, another official source suggested that the program was being accelerated and that it would, in his opinion, constitute up to 100 percent of Russia's fixed land-based nuclear arsenal by 2021.[16][17]

In late June 2015, it was reported that the production schedule for the first prototype of the Sarmat was slipping.[18][19] The RS-28 Sarmat was expected to become operational in 2016.[20]

On 10 August 2016, Russia successfully tested the RS-28's first-stage engine named PDU-99.[21]

The first image of the missile was declassified and unveiled in October 2016.[22]

In early 2017, prototype missiles had been reportedly built and delivered to Plesetsk Cosmodrome for trials but the test program was being delayed to re-check key hardware components before initial launch.[23]

According to the commander of the Russian Strategic Forces, Col. Gen. Sergei Karakayev, the RS-28 Sarmat will be deployed with the 13th Red Banner Rocket Division of the 31st Missile Army at Dombarovsky Air Base, Orenburg Oblast and with the 62nd Red Banner Rocket Division of the 33rd Guards Rocket Army at Uzhur, Krasnoyarsk Krai, replacing the previous R-36M ICBMs currently located there.[11]

In late December 2017, the first successful ejection test of the missile was carried out at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome. According to the report, the missile flew several dozen kilometers and fell within the test range.[24][25]

On 1 March 2018, Russian president Vladimir Putin, in his annual address to the Federal Assembly, said that "the active phase of tests" of the missile had begun.[26] Shortly after, an anonymous military source was cited as saying that the information about the Sarmat missile had in 2007 been leaked to the West deliberately.[27]

On 30 March 2018, the Russian Defence Ministry published a video showing the Sarmat performing its second successful test-launch at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome.[28]

On 24 December 2019, during the exhibition of the modern weapon systems at the National Defense Management Center, it was reported that Sarmat is capable of a "35,000 km sub-orbital flight". The trials of the missile complex are expected to be completed in 2021, and, during the 2020-2027 period, "twenty missile regiments are planned to be rearmed with the RS-28".[29]


The RS-28 Sarmat will be capable to carry about 10 tonnes of payload for either up to 10 heavy or 15 light MIRV warheads,[30] up to 3 Avangard hypersonic glide vehicles (HGVs)[31][32][33][34] or a combination of warheads and massive amounts of countermeasures designed to defeat anti-missile systems.[35][36] The Russian ministry of Defense said that the missile is Russia's response to the U.S. Prompt Global Strike system.[16]

Sarmat has a short boost phase, which shortens the interval when it can be tracked by satellites with infrared sensors, such as the U.S. Space-Based Infrared System, making it more difficult to intercept.[37][38][39][40] It is speculated that the Sarmat could fly a trajectory over the South Pole, completely immune to any current missile defense system,[38] and that it has the Fractional Orbital Bombardment (FOBS) capability.[11]

According to various sources, RS-28's launch sites are to be equipped with the "Mozyr"[41] active protection system, designed to negate potential adversary's first strike advantage by kinetically destroying incoming bombs, cruise missiles and ICBM warheads at altitudes of up to 6 km.[42][43][44][45][46][47]

Future operators[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Technical Characteristics of Russian Sarmat ICBM Disclosed for 1st Time at Army-2019 Forum". Sputnik.
  2. ^ a b "Technical Characteristics of Russian Sarmat ICBM Disclosed for 1st Time at Army-2019 Forum". Sputnik.
  3. ^ "Global Security Newswire – Russia Reportedly Approves Production of New Liquid-Fueled ICBM". 1 June 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  4. ^ "Army 2019: Russian army discloses RS-28 Sarmat ICBM characteristics". Army Recognition. 2 July 2019.
  5. ^ "SS-X-30 "Satan II" (RS-28 Sarmat) | Missile Threat".
  6. ^ a b Новую тяжелую ракету "Сармат" будут делать в Красноярске Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 2 Feb 2015.
  7. ^ "Key facts about Russia's advanced Sarmat ICBM system". TASS (in Russian). Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  8. ^ Kristensen, Hans M.; Korda, Matt (4 March 2019). "Russian nuclear forces, 2019". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 75 (2): 73–84. doi:10.1080/00963402.2019.1580891.
  9. ^ "Russia's Nuclear Weapons: Doctrine, Forces, and Modernization" (PDF). 2 January 2020. p. 14. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  10. ^ "Перспективная тяжелая МБР РС-28 / ОКР Сармат, ракета 15А28 - SS-X-30 (проект) - MilitaryRussia.Ru — отечественная военная техника (после 1945г.)".
  11. ^ a b c "Sarmatian ICBM & FOBS Reintroduction". Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  12. ^ В обойме – «Сармат», «Кинжал», «Авангард»...: interview by deputy defence minister Yuriy Borisov,, 12 March 2018.
  13. ^ "Here's The Six Super Weapons Putin Unveiled During Fiery Address". 1 March 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  14. ^ "Putin: Russia Creates Advanced Weapons Responding to US Scrapping Missile Treaty". Sputnik (news agency). 1 March 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  15. ^ "Sarmat ICBM to be ready by 2020". 25 February 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  16. ^ a b "Минобороны рассказало о тяжелой баллистической ракете - неуязвимом для ПРО ответе США".
  17. ^ "Russia Fast Tracking "Unique" Missile". The Moscow Times. 1 June 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  18. ^ "Russian Program to Build World's Biggest Intercontinental Missile Delayed". The Moscow Times. 26 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  19. ^ Начало испытаний новой ракеты «Сармат» отложено, 26 June 2015.
  20. ^ Ракета "Сармат" взлетит в 2016 году, 16 September 2015.
  21. ^ "Испытания тяжелой стратегической ракеты "Сармат" начнутся в ближайшее время". 10 August 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  22. ^ "Russia unveils first image of prospective ICBM set to replace 'Satan' missile". 26 October 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  23. ^ "Russia's Deadliest Nuke Program Faces Delays". The Diplomat. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  24. ^ "В России успешно прошло первое бросковое испытание прототипа ракеты "Сармат"". Moskovskij Komsomolets. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  25. ^ "Sarmat ejection test, at last". Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  26. ^ Russia begins tests of promising Sarmat missile complex TASS, 2 March 2018.
  27. ^ Источник сообщил об утечке по ракетам "Сармат" специально для США‍ RIA Novosti, 3 March 2018.
  28. ^ "WATCH Test-Launch of Russia's Newest Sarmat ICBM". Sputnik (news agency). 30 March 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  29. ^ "Испытания комплекса "Сармат" планируется завершить в 2021 году - Национальный центр управления обороной РФ" (in Russian). Interfax. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  30. ^ Litovkin, Nikolai (2 March 2018). "Which new weapons has Putin given Russia?".
  31. ^ "Objekt 4202 / Yu-71 / Yu-74". Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  32. ^ Batchelor, Tom (15 June 2016). "Russia testing hypersonic nuclear glider that holds 24 warheads and travels at 7,000mph".
  33. ^ Sputnik. "Russian Top Secret Hypersonic Glider Can Penetrate Any Missile Defense".
  34. ^ "Russia upgrades its missile defense" (PDF).
  35. ^ "SS-30 ?? / R-X-? Sarmat New Heavy ICBM". Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  36. ^ "Russia plans new ICBM to replace Cold War 'Satan' missile". Reuters. 17 December 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  37. ^ Majumdar, Dave (12 March 2018). "Russia's Most Lethal Nuclear Missile Ever Will "Enter Duty in the Near Future"".
  38. ^ a b Majumdar, Dave (1 March 2018). "Russia's Nuclear Weapons Buildup Is Aimed at Beating U.S. Missile Defenses".
  39. ^ "Russia's Most Lethal Nuclear Missile Ever Will "Enter Duty in the Near Future"".
  40. ^ Trevithick, Joseph. "Russia Fires Topol Ballistic Missile to Test New Tech to Defeat Missile Defense Systems".
  41. ^ "Mozyr active defense complex (KAZ)". Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  42. ^ "Sarmat ICBM: 8 Megatons at Hypersonic Speeds, Arriving 2 Years Ahead of Schedule". Sputnik (news agency). 7 September 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  43. ^ "New Russian Sarmat and Rubezh ICBM missiles able to defeat all deployed anti-missile systems". 25 February 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  44. ^ "Последний рубеж ПРО вооружат стрелами и шариками" (in Russian). Izvestia. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  45. ^ "В ожидании "Сармата"" (in Russian). Vzglyad (newspaper). 17 December 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  46. ^ "Защита шахтных пусковых установок МБР от высокоточного оружия" (in Russian). 27 April 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  47. ^ "Министерство обороны возобновляет испытания комплекса активной защиты от ракет и высокоточного оружия с перспективными поражающими элементами" (in Russian). 11 December 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2019.

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