Disruptive Pattern Material

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Disruptive Pattern Material
DPM Combat 95 Camouflage Material MOD 45149982.jpg
British DPM Soldier 95 camo pattern
TypeMilitary camouflage pattern
Place of originUnited Kingdom
Service history
In service1960 - 2016 (For main British forces)
Used bySee Users
Production history
Designed1960
Produced1969 - Present
VariantsSee Variants

Disruptive Pattern Material (DPM) is the commonly used name of a camouflage pattern used by the British Armed Forces as well as many other armies worldwide, particularly in former British colonies such as Kenya.

The main variants of DPM are a four-colour woodland pattern, and desert patterns in two, three or four colours. The Woodland Pattern DPM was used with the mediumweight No.8 Temperate Combat Dress (c.1966/1968) and lightweight No.9 Tropical Combat Dress (c.1976). The later Desert Pattern DPM (c.late 1980s) was designated the No.5 Desert Combat Dress.[1]

DPM has also been produced in black/white/grey Urban DPM, in various blue tones and even in purples (this last for the Swazi Royal Guard).

DPM has been phased out in British military service, superseded by Multi-Terrain Pattern.[2]

History[edit]

The British Army first used a form of DPM for the famous Denison smock issued to the Parachute Regiment and British Commandos from the early 1940s. The first examples of this design were said to be hand-painted.[3] The Denison smock design went through minor changes, and continued in use with the Royal Marines and the Parachute Regiment until the 1970s.

Development[edit]

1960 Pattern[edit]

From 1960, the British Army was issued with the so-called 1960 Pattern field-uniform range to replace earlier plain green uniforms. The 1960 Pattern field-uniform consisted of a Combat Smock, Combat Trousers, a Combat Hood attached to the smock by two epaulette buttons and a third button concealed under the collar, and, for exceptionally cold conditions, a Parka.[4]

First limited use[edit]

A new British DPM was developed in the early 1960s, using the four basic western European temperate colours of black, dark brown, mid-green and a dark sand to make a very effective camouflage that has survived in its basic design, with no more than slight changes to the colours and pattern, until current times.

This design was probably used first on a very small scale for a hooded Smock, Windproof, 1963 Pattern, issued only to special forces.

In 1966 the Army introduced, though not universally, a camouflage field uniform. Known informally as the 1966 Pattern, it was in fact identical in design to the 1960 Pattern kit, though now made in DPM fabric. It is labelled, like the earlier plain olive green version, Smock, Combat, 1960 Pattern and Trousers, Combat, 1960 Pattern.

The 1966 DPM range did not completely replace the plain olive green 1960 Pattern Smock and Trousers, which continued to be worn widely until the 1968 DPM kit was issued. Both the Royal Marines and the Parachute Regiment continued to wear the Trousers, Combat, 1960 Pattern with the Denison smock, and examples of these trousers were made even after 1968. These units eventually stopped issuing the Denison smock (in mid to late 1970s) and adopted smocks in the general-issue DPM while still for a time wearing the plain olive 1960 Pattern Trousers.

The 1968 Pattern range—first general use[edit]

Before the 1966 Pattern equipment had reached all units a slightly revised design of Smock, Combat and Trousers, Combat were introduced as the 1968 Pattern range. The 1966 Pattern DPM fabric design was changed very little for the 1968 issue, and it seems that the 1968 Pattern garments were made for some time in the two very similar DPM fabrics. A Hood, Combat, DPM, made of DPM cotton fabric and with a plain olive green lining, was also included in the range, fastened as required to the back of the Smock with the two epaulette buttons and a third under the collar.

In doing this the British Army was the first to adopt a camouflage uniform universally.

For the Royal Marines, which had a responsibility for NATO's northern flank, a Smock, Windproof, Arctic and Trousers, Windproof, Arctic were introduced circa 1972. These were made in a lightweight, but wind-proof, DPM fabric and could be worn over quilted jacket and trousers in extreme cold conditions. The design of both smock and trousers differ radically from both the standard and para designs. The smock is long and loose-fitting, and incorporates a voluminous wired-rim hood, while the trousers have zips in the lower leg to allow them to be put on over boots.

In the mid 1970s a new Smock Parachutist DPM (Para smock) was introduced for the Parachute Regiment and other airborne units. Though made in the 1968 Pattern cotton fabric, its design was closer to that of its predecessor, the Denison smock.

At the same time a Smock, Sniper, was introduced, based heavily on the Smock Parachutist DPM and sharing many of its details. It was distinguished by its padded elbows and shoulders, relocated lower pockets, multiple loops for securing natural camouflage material and hooks for the rifle sling.

During the late 1970s, batches of the 1968 Pattern camouflage were used by the USAF Police Tactical Neutralisation Teams at RAF Upper Heyford as a temporary stand-in for the ERDL/M81 Woodland fatigues.[5]

Later developments[edit]

The pattern was changed slightly with subsequent issues. On early 1960 Pattern (manufactured from 1966) and 1968 Pattern DPM uniforms the sand coloured base would appear to lighten in tone at night, becoming dangerously conspicuous. This was addressed in the late 1970s, when the sand and brown colours were slightly darkened. The 1985 Pattern has fewer, less precise dots and the brown is much darker; 1990 and later has a band of new shapes and is smaller; 1994 has an orangey colour instead of a tan. Tropical poly-cotton DPM uniforms varied even more; early versions were very brightly coloured notably with a russet brown and emerald green which faded to rather unexpected pastel tones of blueish green and pink-brown with washing. Late 1970s and early 1980s Tropicals have a more yellowish sand base and are greatly sought-after by those wishing to appear stylish, while the final production style in the early 1990s used colours closer to temperate uniforms.

DPM items in the Combat Soldier 95 clothing system have similar colours to the 1966 uniform. However, instead of all four colours being printed onto a whitish base, the material is in fact woven in the sand shade and overprinted only with three colours. This leads to a loss in contrast between the colours after washing and wear, and the clothing tends to appear darker when wet than previous types did.[citation needed]

Although slight changes have been made to DPM and the colours, the pattern is easy to recognise. There are also jungle versions of DPM where the colours are brighter, and on one variation the tan is darker than the green. A desert variant was first issued on a limited basis in the late 1980s. This appeared very similar, but consisted of subdued sand and khaki hues. This was replaced by a two-colour version by 1990 because four-colour versions had been adopted by some Middle Eastern countries, notably Iraq.[6][7][better source needed]

A Desert DPM camo patter sample.

From 1990[citation needed] a system of Personal Load Carrying Equipment was introduced, initially produced in olive green. The olive type was quickly replaced in production by a disruptively patterned version, and now almost all British issue webbing and rucksacks are disruptively patterned in the Multi-Terrain Pattern (MTP).[8]

Current issued DPM equipment is IRR (Infrared Reflective) coated. This coating has a specific reflective wavelength in order to blend in with natural colours in the infra-red light spectrum.[9] This reduces the visibility of soldiers to night vision devices, which detect infra-red light, as trees and other green plants reflect deep red and infra-red light (the Wood Effect).

Variants[edit]

New Zealand DPM[edit]

Users[edit]

Current[edit]

Former[edit]

Others[edit]

  • Known to be used by anti-Assad forces.[34]

Replacement[edit]

Multi-Terrain Pattern (MTP) is a six-colour camouflage pattern intended to replace both the four colour woodland DPM uniform and the desert pattern uniform used by the British Armed forces. MTP was procured and announced in late 2009, predicated around use in the Afghanistan theatre of operations but applicable to other theatres. A range of patterns were tried and evaluated in Britain, Cyprus, Kenya and Afghanistan against DPM, desert patterns and existing commercially available patterns. In April 2010 MTP combat uniforms began being issued to forces deployed in Afghanistan.[2][35] It is intended for DPM to be phased out completely for British Regular and Reserve forces by 2016,[36] but the use of jungle pattern DPM could still be retained by special forces for jungle operations.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Emery, Daniel (20 December 2009). "British Army to get new camouflage uniform". BBC. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  2. ^ a b Emery, Daniel (20 December 2009). "British Army to get new camouflage uniform". BBC News Online. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  3. ^ Drucquer, Amy (26 September 2013). "The Camo Collection". Lyle & Scott. Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  4. ^ "Trousers, Camouflage DPM Combat Dress 1968 pattern". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  5. ^ Park, Duane (11 September 2011). "Air Police/Security Police". RAF Upper Heyford Memorial Website. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  6. ^ "United Kingdom". Camopedia.
  7. ^ "Iraq". Camopedia.
  8. ^ "Personal Clothing". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  9. ^ "British DPM Webtex Under Armour Combat Shirt". Airsoft. 24 January 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  10. ^ Martin. "Indonesian DPM Ripstop hat". camouniforms.net.
  11. ^ Martin. "Indonesian DPM shirt". www.camouniforms.net.
  12. ^ a b c d e Epochs. "Epochs Field Guide to Camouflage". epochs.co.
  13. ^ Martin. "2000s Kumul DPM Shirt". camouniforms.net.
  14. ^ Martin. "2000s Kumul DPM Trousers". camouniforms.net.
  15. ^ Martin. "Late 1980s - early 1990s Kumul DPM Shirt". camouniforms.net.
  16. ^ Martin. "Late 1980s - early 1990s Kumul DPM Trousers". camouniforms.net.
  17. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20180810072646/http://www.army.mil.ph/ASCOM/pdf_files/logistics_magazine.pdf
  18. ^ Martin. "Smog jacket". www.camouniforms.net.
  19. ^ Martin. "Smog trousers". www.camouniforms.net.
  20. ^ "Specijalne-jedinice.com - Special Anti-terrorist Unit-SAU". specijalne-jedinice.com.
  21. ^ "Donbas Battalion - Military Land".
  22. ^ "Kulchitskyi Battalion - Military Land".
  23. ^ "Svyatoslav Company - Military Land".
  24. ^ "Ternopil Company - Military Land".
  25. ^ http://militaryland.net/ukraine/special-police-forces/luhansk1-battalion/
  26. ^ "Shtorm Battalion - Military Land".
  27. ^ "RAAF Commonwealth of Australia DPM Combat Smock 01". Camouniforms.net. Retrieved 2018-09-21.
  28. ^ "RAAF Commonwealth of Australia DPM Combat Smock 02". Camouniforms.net. 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-09-21.
  29. ^ "Iraqi DPM Para Smock". Middle East Militaria.
  30. ^ Martin. "Philippine Coast Guard K9 Unit red DPM jacket". www.camouniforms.net.
  31. ^ Martin. "Philippine Coast Guard K9 Unit red DPM trousers". www.camouniforms.net.
  32. ^ "The Complex Guide To Camo1958, Tigerstripe, Vietnam". Complex.
  33. ^ Copping, Jasper (20 December 2009). "British Army to get new uniforms – turned down by the US and made in China" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  34. ^ "A snapshot of camouflage patterns in Syria – Armament Research Services". armamentresearch.com.
  35. ^ "New camouflage arrives in Afghanistan". Ministry of Defence. 21 May 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  36. ^ Copping, Jason (20 December 2009). "British Army to get new uniforms – turned down by the US and made in China". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 January 2014.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]