Administrative divisions of India

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The administrative divisions of India are subnational administrative units of India; they are composed of a nested hierarchy of administrative divisions.

Indian states and territories frequently use different local titles for the same level of subdivision (e.g., the mandals of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana correspond to tehsils of Uttar Pradesh and other Hindi-speaking states but to talukas of Gujarat, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu).[1]

The smaller subdivisions (villages and blocks) exist only in rural areas. In urban areas, urban local bodies exist instead of these rural subdivisions.

Tiers of India[edit]

The diagram below outlines the six tiers of government:

Country
(India)
State
(e.g. West Bengal State)
Division
(e.g. Presidency Division)
District
(e.g. North 24 Parganas District)
Subdistrict
(e.g. Basirhat Subdivision)
Block
(e.g. Basirhat II Block)

Zones and regions[edit]

Zones[edit]

The six zones of India

The states of India have been grouped into six zones having an Advisory Council "to develop the habit of cooperative working" among these States. Zonal Councils were set up vide Part-III of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. The North Eastern States' special problems are addressed by another statutory body - The North Eastern Council, created by the North Eastern Council Act, 1971.[2] The present composition of each of these Zonal Councils is as under:[3]

Cultural zones[edit]

Each zone has a zonal headquarters where a zonal cultural center has been established.[7] Several states have membership in multiple zones, but no state subdivisions are utilized in the zonal divisions. In addition to promoting the culture of the zones they are responsible for, each zonal center also works to cross-promote and create exposure to other cultural zones of India by organizing functions and inviting artistes from other zones.

Location of the headquarters of each cultural zone
Zone Zonal Centre Extent
South Culture Zone South Zone Cultural Centre, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Puducherry, Tamil Nadu, Telangana[8]
South Central Culture Zone South-Central Zone Cultural Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Telangana[9]
North Culture Zone North Zone Cultural Centre, Patiala, Punjab Chandigarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand[10]
North Central Culture Zone North-Central Zone Cultural Centre, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh Bihar, Delhi, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand[11]
East Culture Zone East Zone Cultural Centre, Kolkata, West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Manipur, Odisha, Sikkim, Tripura, West Bengal[12]
North East Culture Zone North East Zone Cultural Centre, Dimapur, Nagaland Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura[13]
West Culture Zone West Zone Cultural Centre, Udaipur, Rajasthan Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Goa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan[14]

States and union territories[edit]

India is composed of 28 states and eight union territories (including a national capital territory).[15]

States[edit]

State ISO 3166-2:IN Vehicle
code
Zone Capital Largest city Statehood Population
(census 2011)[citation needed]
Area
(km2)
Official
languages[16]
Additional official
languages[16]
Andhra Pradesh IN-AP AP Southern Amaravati Visakhapatnam 1 November 1956 49,506,799 162,975 Telugu
Arunachal Pradesh IN-AR AR North-Eastern Itanagar 20 February 1987 1,383,727 83,743 English
Assam IN-AS AS North-Eastern Dispur Guwahati 26 January 1950 31,205,576 78,550 Assamese Bengali, Bodo
Bihar IN-BR BR Eastern Patna 26 January 1950 104,099,452 94,163 Hindi Urdu
Chhattisgarh IN-CT CG Central Raipur[a] 1 November 2000 25,545,198 135,194 Chhattisgarhi Hindi, English
Goa IN-GA GA Western Panaji Vasco da Gama 30 May 1987 1,458,545 3,702 Konkani Marathi
Gujarat IN-GJ GJ Western Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1 May 1960 60,439,692 196,024 Gujarati
Haryana IN-HR HR Northern Chandigarh Faridabad 1 November 1966 25,351,462 44,212 Hindi Punjabi[17][18]
Himachal Pradesh IN-HP HP Northern Shimla (Summer)
Dharamshala (Winter)[19]
Shimla 25 January 1971 6,864,602 55,673 Hindi Sanskrit[20]
Jharkhand IN-JH JH Eastern Ranchi Jamshedpur 15 November 2000 32,988,134 74,677 Hindi Angika, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Bhumij, Ho, Kharia, Khortha, Kurmali, Kurukh, Magahi, Maithili, Mundari, Nagpuri, Odia, Santali, Urdu[21][22]
Karnataka IN-KA KA Southern Bangalore 1 November 1956 61,095,297 191,791 Kannada
Kerala IN-KL KL Southern Thiruvananthapuram 1 November 1956 33,406,061 38,863 Malayalam English[23]
Madhya Pradesh IN-MP MP Central Bhopal Indore 26 January 1950 72,626,809 308,252 Hindi
Maharashtra IN-MH MH Western Mumbai (Summer)
Nagpur (Winter)[24][25]
Mumbai 1 May 1960 112,374,333 307,713 Marathi
Manipur IN-MN MN North-Eastern Imphal 21 January 1972 2,855,794 22,347 Meitei English
Meghalaya IN-ML ML North-Eastern Shillong 21 January 1972 2,966,889 22,720 English Khasi[b]
Mizoram IN-MZ MZ North-Eastern Aizawl 20 February 1987 1,097,206 21,081 English, Hindi, Mizo
Nagaland IN-NL NL North-Eastern Kohima Dimapur 1 December 1963 1,978,502 16,579 English
Odisha IN-OR OD Eastern Bhubaneswar 26 January 1950 41,974,218 155,820 Odia
Punjab IN-PB PB Northern Chandigarh Ludhiana 1 November 1966 27,743,338 50,362 Punjabi
Rajasthan IN-RJ RJ Northern Jaipur 26 January 1950 68,548,437 342,269 Hindi English
Sikkim IN-SK SK North-Eastern Gangtok 16 May 1975 610,577 7,096 English, Nepali Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang
Tamil Nadu IN-TN TN Southern Chennai 1 November 1956 72,147,030 130,058 Tamil English
Telangana IN-TG TS Southern Hyderabad[c] 2 June 2014 35,193,978[30] 112,077[30] Telugu Urdu[31]
Tripura IN-TR TR North-Eastern Agartala 21 January 1972 3,673,917 10,492 Bengali, English, Kokborok
Uttar Pradesh IN-UP UP Central Lucknow 26 January 1950 199,812,341 243,286 Hindi Urdu
Uttarakhand IN-UT UK Central Bhararisain (Summer)
Dehradun (Winter)[32]
Dehradun 9 November 2000 10,086,292 53,483 Hindi Sanskrit[33]
West Bengal IN-WB WB Eastern Kolkata 26 January 1950 91,276,115 88,752 Bengali, Nepali[d] Hindi, Odia, Punjabi, Santali, Telugu, Urdu
  1. ^ Naya Raipur is planned to replace Raipur as the capital city of Chhattisgarh.
  2. ^ Khasi language has been declared as the Additional Official Language for all purposes in the District, Sub-Division and Block level offices of the State Government located in the Districts of Khasi-Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya.
  3. ^ Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014.[26][27][28] Hyderabad, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.[29] The Government of Andhra Pradesh and the Andhra Pradesh Legislature completed the process of relocating to temporary facilities in the envisaged new capital city Amaravati in early 2017.[citation needed]
  4. ^ Bengali and Nepali are the Official Languages in Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of Darjeeling district.

Union territories[edit]

Union territory ISO 3166-2:IN Vehicle
code
Zone Capital Largest city UT established Population Area
(km2)
Official
languages
Additional official
languages
Andaman and Nicobar Islands IN-AN AN Southern Port Blair 1 November 1956 380,581 8,249 Hindi English
Chandigarh IN-CH CH Northern Chandigarh 1 November 1966 1,055,450 114 English
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu IN-DH DD Western Daman 26 January 2020 586,956 603 Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, English
Delhi IN-DL DL Northern New Delhi Delhi 1 November 1956 16,787,941 1,490 Hindi, English Punjabi, Urdu[34]
Jammu and Kashmir IN-JK JK Northern Srinagar (Summer)[35][36]
Jammu (Winter)[36][37]
Srinagar 31 October 2019 12,258,433 42,241 Kashmiri, Dogri, Urdu, Hindi, English
Ladakh IN-LA LA Northern Leh (Summer)
Kargil (Winter)[38]
Leh 31 October 2019 290,492 59,146 Hindi, English
Lakshadweep IN-LD LD Southern Kavaratti 1 November 1956 64,473 32 Malayalam, English
Puducherry IN-PY PY Southern Puducherry 16 August 1962 1,247,953 492 Tamil, English Telugu, Malayalam, French

Autonomous administrative divisions[edit]

Autonomous councils in India

The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India allows for the formation of autonomous administrative divisions which have been given autonomy within their respective states.[39]

Presently, 10 Autonomous Councils in Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura are formed by virtue of the Sixth Schedule[40] with the rest being formed as a result of other legislation.

Autonomous district councils operating under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India are shown in bold.

State/UT Autonomous Council Headquarters Formation
Assam Bodoland Territorial Council Kokrajhar 2003
North Cachar Hills (Dima Hasao) Autonomous Council Haflong 1951
Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council Diphu 1952
Tiwa Autonomous Council Morigaon 1995
Mising Autonomous Council Dhemaji 1995
Rabha Hasong Autonomous Council Dudhnoi 1995
Sonowal Kachari Autonomous Council Dibrugarh 2005
Thengal Kachari Autonomous Council Titabar 2005
Deori Autonomous Council Narayanpur 2005
Moran Autonomous Council ** 2020
Matak Autonomous Council ** 2020
Bodo Kachari Welfare Autonomous Council Simen Chapori 2020
Kamatapur Autonomous Council Abhayapuri 2020
Ladakh LAHDC Kargil Kargil 2003
LAHDC Leh Leh 1995
Manipur Chandel Autonomous District Council Chandel 1971[41]
Churachandpur Autonomous District Council Churachandpur 1971[41]
Sadar Hills Autonomous District Council Kangpokpi 1971[41]
Manipur North Autonomous District Council Senapati 1971[41]
Tamenglong Autonomous District Council Tamenglong 1971[41]
Ukhrul Autonomous District Council Ukhrul 1971[41]
Meghalaya Garo Hills Autonomous District Council Tura 1973
Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council Jowai 1973
Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council Shillong 1973
Mizoram Chakma Autonomous District Council Kamalanagar 1972
Lai Autonomous District Council Lawngtlai 1972
Mara Autonomous District Council Siaha 1972
Tripura Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council Khumulwng 1982
West Bengal Gorkhaland Territorial Administration Darjeeling 2012

Divisions[edit]

Many of the Indian states are subdivided into divisions, which have official administrative governmental status, and each division is headed by a senior IAS officer called Divisional Commissioner.

As of September 2022, divisions exist in 18 of the 28 states and 3 of the 8 union territories. As of September 2022, there are a total of 102 divisions in India.

No. of divisions in each state or UT
State/ Union Territory No. of divisions Population[42] Population per division
Andhra Pradesh - 49,386,799 -
Arunachal Pradesh 2 1,383,727 691,864
Assam 5 31,169,272 6,233,854
Bihar 9 104,099,452 11,566,606
Chhattisgarh 5 25,545,198 5,109,040
Goa - 1,458,545 -
Gujarat - 60,439,692 -
Haryana 6 25,351,462 4,225,244
Himachal Pradesh 3 6,864,602 2,288,201
Telangana - 35,193,978 -
Jharkhand 5 32,988,134 6,597,627
Karnataka 4 61,095,297 15,273,824
Kerala - 33,406,061 -
Madhya Pradesh 10 72,626,809 7,262,681
Maharashtra 6 112,374,333 18,729,056
Manipur - 2,721,756 -
Meghalaya 2 2,966,889 1,483,445
Mizoram - 1,097,206 -
Nagaland 1 1,978,502 1,978,502
Odisha 3 41,974,218 13,991,406
Punjab 5 27,743,338 5,548,668
Rajasthan 7 68,548,437 9,792,634
Sikkim - 610,577 -
Tamil Nadu - 72,147,030 -
Tripura - 3,673,917 -
Uttar Pradesh 18 199,812,341 11,100,686
Uttarakhand 2 10,086,292 5,043,146
West Bengal 5 91,276,115 18,255,223
Andaman and Nicobar Islands - 380,581 -
Chandigarh - 1,055,450 -
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu - 586,956 -
Jammu and Kashmir 2 12,258,433 6,129,217
Ladakh 1 290,492 290,492
Lakshadweep - 64,473 -
Delhi 1 16,787,941 16,787,941
Puducherry - 1,247,953 -
Total  102 1,210,854,977 11,871,127

Regions within states[edit]

Some states consist of regions, which have no official administrative governmental status. They are purely geographic regions; some correspond to historic countries, states or provinces. A region may comprise one or more divisions, averaging about three divisions per region. However, the boundaries of the regions and the boundaries of the divisions do not always coincide exactly. So far there has been no movement to give the regions official administrative status. If this was to be done, it would presumably require that the boundaries of the regions be slightly modified so that they correspond exactly with their constituent districts.

Districts[edit]

States and territories (or divisions) are further subdivided into districts (zilla), of which there are 776 (as of Aug 2022). Each District is headed by an IAS officer called District Magistrate.

Number of districts in each state or UT
State/Union Territory No. of districts Population Population/ district
Andhra Pradesh 26 49,577,103 1,906,812
Arunachal Pradesh 26 1,383,727 53,220
Assam 35 31,205,576 891,588
Bihar 38 104,099,452 2,739,459
Chhattisgarh 33 25,545,198 774,097
Goa 2 1,458,545 729,273
Gujarat 33 60,439,692 1,831,506
Haryana 22 25,351,462 1,152,339
Himachal Pradesh 12 6,864,602 572,050
Jharkhand 24 32,988,134 1,374,506
Karnataka 31 61,095,297 1,970,816
Kerala 14 33,406,061 2,386,147
Madhya Pradesh 52 72,626,809 1,396,669
Maharashtra 36 112,374,333 3,121,509
Manipur 16 2,570,390 160,649
Meghalaya 12 2,966,889 247,241
Mizoram 11 1,097,206 99,746
Nagaland 16 1,978,502 123,656
Odisha 30 41,974,218 1,399,141
Punjab 23 27,743,338 1,206,232
Rajasthan 33 68,548,437 2,077,225
Sikkim 6 610,577 101,763
Tamil Nadu 38 72,147,030 1,898,606
Telangana 33 35,003,674 1,060,717
Tripura 8 3,673,917 459,240
Uttar Pradesh 75 199,812,341 2,664,165
Uttarakhand 13 10,086,292 775,869
West Bengal 23 91,276,115 3,968,527
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 3 380,581 126,860
Chandigarh 1 1,055,450 1,055,450
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu 3 586,956 195,652
Jammu and Kashmir 20 12,258,093 612,905
Ladakh 2 290,492 145,246
Lakshadweep 1 64,473 64,473
Delhi 11 16,787,941 1,526,176
Puducherry 4 1,247,953 311,988
Total 766 1,210,576,856 1,580,388

Subdistricts[edit]

States use varying names for their sub-districts. Detailed information is as follows (as of 2018):[43]

State/ Union territory Subdistrict title No. of
subdistricts
Andhra Pradesh Mandal 664[44]
Arunachal Pradesh Circle 149
Assam Subdivision 155
Bihar Subdivision 101
Chhattisgarh Tehsil 228
Goa Taluk 12
Gujarat Taluk 248[45]
Haryana Tehsil 67
Himachal Pradesh Tehsil 109
Jharkhand Subdivision 210
Karnataka Taluk 240
Kerala Taluk 75
Madhya Pradesh Tehsil 412
Maharashtra Taluka 353
Manipur Subdivision 38
Meghalaya Subdivision 39
Mizoram Subdivision 22
Nagaland Circle 93
Odisha Tehsil 485
Punjab Tehsil 172
Rajasthan Tehsil 268
Sikkim Subdivision 9
Tamil Nadu Taluk 201
Telangana Mandal 452
Tripura Subdivision 38
Uttar Pradesh Tehsil 350
Uttarakhand Tehsil 113
West Bengal Subdivision 69
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Tehsil 7
Chandigarh Tehsil 1
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Taluk 3
Delhi Tehsil 33
Jammu and Kashmir Tehsil 55
Ladakh Tehsil 4
Lakshadweep Subdivision 4
Puducherry Taluk 8
Total 5487

Rural level[edit]

Blocks[edit]

The Community Development Block also known as CD Block or just block, is often the next level of administrative division (for development purposes, whereas tehsil is next to the district for revenue purposes).

State CD Block Number of
CD Blocks
Bihar CD Block 534
Haryana CD Block 140
Jharkhand CD Block 263[46]
Kerala CD Block 152[47]
Odisha CD Block 314
Tripura CD Block 58
Uttarakhand CD Block 95
Uttar Pradesh CD Block 822[48]
West Bengal CD Block 342[49][50]

Villages[edit]

Villages are often the lowest level of subdivisions in India. The governmental bodies at the village level are called Gram Panchayat, of which there were an estimated 256,000 in 2002. Each Gram Panchayat covers a large village or a cluster of smaller villages with a combined population exceeding 500 Gram Sabha. Clusters of villages are also sometimes called Hobli or Patti.

Habitations[edit]

Certain governmental functions and activities - including clean water availability, rural development, and education - are tracked at a sub-village level.[51] These hamlets are termed "habitations". India is composed of 1,714,556 habitations [52] In some states, most villages have a single habitation; in others (notably Kerala and Tripura) there is a high ratio of habitations to villages.[53]

Metropolitan area[edit]

A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighbourhoods, townships, cities, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, states, and even nations like the eurodistricts. As social, economic, and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities, towns, and intervening rural areas that are socio-economically tied to the urban core, typically measured by commuting patterns The metropolitan cities of India are: Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Pune.

Historical administrative divisions[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]