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Kutch district

Coordinates: 23°54′54″N 70°22′1″E / 23.91500°N 70.36694°E / 23.91500; 70.36694
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Clockwise from top-left: Prag Mahal, Sun Temple in Kotai, Mundra Port, Rann of Kutch, Dholavira
Interactive map outlining Kutch district
Location of Kutch district in Gujarat
Location of Kutch district in Gujarat
Coordinates (Bhuj): 23°54′54″N 70°22′1″E / 23.91500°N 70.36694°E / 23.91500; 70.36694
Country India
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesKutch
 • Vidhan Sabha constituencies6
 • Total45,674 km2 (17,635 sq mi)
 • Total2,092,371
 • Density46/km2 (120/sq mi)
 • Literacy70.59
 • Sex ratio908
 • Language
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (Indian Standard Time)
Vehicle registrationGJ-12
Major highways1
Official nameDholavira: A Harappan City
CriteriaCultural: (iii)(iv)
Designated2021 (44th session)
Reference no.1645
RegionSouthern Asia

Kutch district, officially spelled Kachchh, is a district of Gujarat state in western India, with its headquarters (capital) at Bhuj. Covering an area of 45,674 km2,[1] it is the largest district of India. The area of Kutch is larger than the entire area of other Indian states like Haryana (44,212 km2) and Kerala (38,863 km2), as well as the country of Estonia (45,335 km2).[2] The population of Kutch is about 2,092,371.[3] It has 10 talukas, 939 villages and 6 municipalities.[3] The Kutch district is home to the Kutchi people who speak the Kutchi language.

Kutch literally means something which intermittently becomes wet and dry; a large part of this district is known as Rann of Kutch which is shallow wetland which submerges in water during the rainy season and becomes dry during other seasons. The same word is also used in Sanskrit origin for a tortoise. The Rann is known for its marshy salt flats which become snow white after the shallow water dries up each season before the monsoon rains.

The district is also known for ecologically important Banni grasslands with their seasonal marshy wetlands which form the outer belt of the Rann of Kutch.

Kutch is surrounded by the Gulf of Kutch and the Arabian Sea to the south and west, while the northern and eastern parts are surrounded by the Great and Little Rann (seasonal wetlands) of Kutch. It is also next to the border with Pakistan, a neighbouring country of India. When there were not many dams built on its rivers, the Rann of Kutch remained wetlands for a large part of the year. Even today, the region remains wet for a significant part of year. The district had a population of 2,092,371 as of 2011 census, of which 30% were urban.[4] Motor vehicles registered in Kutch district have a registration number starting with GJ-12. The district is well connected by road, rail and air. There are four airports in the district: Naliya, Anjar, Mundra, and Bhuj. Bhuj and Anjar are well connected with Mumbai airport. Being a border district, Kutch has both an army and an air force base.


Maharao Khengarji III of Cutch - c. 1900

The history of Kutch can be traced back to prehistoric times. There are several sites related to the Indus valley civilization in the region, and it is mentioned in Hindu mythology. The region is also mentioned in Greek writings during the reign of Alexander the Great. For a time, it was ruled by Menander I of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, which was then overthrown by Indo-Scythians. The region was later ruled by the Maurya Empire and Sakas. In the first century CE, it was under the Western Satraps, followed by the Gupta Empire. By the fifth century, the Maitraka dynasty of Valabhi took over from which its close association with the ruling clans of Gujarat started.

Hieun Tsang refers to Kutch as Kiecha in his writings. In the seventh century, Kutch was being ruled by Charans, Kathis, and Chavdas.[5][6] The Chavdas ruled the eastern and central parts by the seventh century, but Kutch came under the rule of the Chaulukya dynasty by the tenth century. After the fall of Chaulukya, the Vaghelas ruled the state. By the thirteenth century, the Vaghelas controlled the whole of Kutch and adopted a new dynastic identity, Jadeja.

For three centuries, Kutch was divided and ruled by three different branches of the Jadeja brothers. In the sixteenth century, Kutch was unified under one rule by Rao Khengarji I of these branches, and his direct descendants ruled for two centuries and had a good relationship with the Gujarat Sultanate and Mughals. One of his descendants, Rayadhan II, left three sons, of whom two died, and a third son, Pragmalji I took over the state and founded the current lineage of rulers at the start of the seventeenth century. The descendants of the other brothers founded states in Kathiawar. After turbulent periods and battles with the armies of Sindh, the state was stabilized in the middle of the eighteenth century by a council known as Bar Bhayat ni Jamat who placed Rao as a titular head and ruled independently. The state accepted the sovereignty of the British East India Company in 1819, when Kutch was defeated in battle. That same year, the state was devastated by an earthquake. The state stabilized and flourished in business under subsequent rulers.

Upon the independence of India in 1947, Kutch acceded unto the dominion of India and was constituted an independent commissionaire. It was made a state within the union of India in 1950. The state witnessed an earthquake in 1956. On 1 November 1956, Kutch State was merged with Bombay state, which in 1960 was divided into the new linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra, with Kutch becoming part of Gujarat as Kutch district. The district was affected by a tropical cyclone in 1998 and the earthquake in 2001. The state saw rapid industrialization and growth in tourism in subsequent years.


Kutch District, at 45,674 square kilometres (17,635 sq mi), is the largest district in India. The administrative headquarters is the city of Bhuj which is geographically in the center of the district. Gandhidham is the largest city and Financial centre of Kutch. Other main towns are Rapar, Nakhatrana, Anjar, Mandvi, Madhapar, Mundra and Bhachau. Kutch has 969 villages. Kala Dungar (Black Hill) is the highest point in Kutch at 458 metres (1,503 ft).

A state highway through the Rann of Kutch

Kutch is virtually an island, as it is surrounded by the Arabian Sea in the west; the Gulf of Kutch in south and southeast and Rann of Kutch in north and northeast. The border with Pakistan lies along the northern edge of the Rann of Kutch, of the Sir Creek. The Kutch peninsula is an example of active fold and thrust tectonism. In Central Kutch there are four major east-west hill ranges characterized by fault propagation folds with steeply dipping northern limbs and gently dipping southern limbs. From the gradual increasing dimension of the linear chain of hillocks towards the west along the Kutch mainland fault and the epicentre of the earthquake of 2001 lying at the eastern extreme of Kutch mainland fault, it is suggested that the eastern part of the Kutch mainland fault is progressively emerging upward. It can be suggested from the absence of distinct surface rupture both during the 1956 Anjar earthquake and 2001 Bhuj earthquake, that movements have taken place along a blind thrust. Villages situated on the blind thrust in the eastern part of the Kutch mainland hill range (viz. Jawaharnagar, Khirsara, Devisar, Amarsar and Bandhdi) were completely erased during the 2001 earthquake.[8]

Rivers and dams[edit]

There are ninety-seven small rivers in Kutch District, most of which flow into the Arabian Sea, but some of which feed the Rann of Kutch.[9] Twenty major dams,[10] and numerous smaller dams, capture the rainy season runoff.[11] While most of these dams do not affect the Ranns, as they are on rivers that feed directly into the Arabian Sea, storage of rainy season water upstream from Kutch and its use in irrigation has resulted in less fresh water coming into the Ranns of Kutch during the rainy season. This is true of the Great Rann, but particularly true of the Little Rann which is fed by the Luni, Rupen, the Bambhan, the Malwan, the Kankawati, and the Saraswati rivers. However sea water from the Arabian Sea still continues to be driven into the Great Rann by storm tides aided by high winds.[12] Water remains a serious issue in Kutch.[13] Kutch's thirst for water is satisfied by Narmada river flowing from Sardar Sarovar dam.

Rudramata Dam. A rain water reservoir that supplies water to deserted areas around capital city of Bhuj
Rukmavati River, Mandvi
Kalo dunger
Dams in Kutch District
Dam Reservoir River depth in meters
when full
Bhukhi Dam Bhukhi 72.78
Berachiya Dam Nyara 70.40
Chang Dam 18.00
Don Dam Kharod 47.75
Fatehgadh Dam Malan 22.70
Gajansar Dam Gajansar Panjora 31.08
Gajod Dam Nagmati 90.82
Godhatad Dam Mitiariwali 23.00
Goyala Dam Goyala Sugandhi 8.00
Jangadia Dam Janghadia Khari 38.60
Kaila Dam Kaila 79.25
Kalaghogha Dam Phot 37.00
Kankawati Dam Kankawati 131.67
Kaswati Dam Kaswati 51.20
Mathal Dam Dhadodh 82.78
Mitti Dam Mitti Mitti 18.50
Nara Dam Nara 27.43
Nirona Dam Bhurud 43.58
Rudramata Dam Rudramati (Khari) 66.44
Sanandro Dam Kali 59.74
Suvi Dam Suvi 42.67 Lilpar
Tappar (W.S) Dam Sakara 40.85
Vijay sagar Dam 33.00


Kutch is divided into four zones:

  • Wagad (including Rapar, Bhachau taluka and Little Rann)
  • Kanthi (coastal area, derived from Gujarati:કાંઠો), comprising Mundra and half of Mandvi taluka.
  • Banni (with Pascham; includes Bhuj, Nakhatrana and surrounding areas)
  • Makpat (includes part of Nakhatrana and Lakhapat taluka).[14]
Indian wild ass (Equus hemionus khur), or khur or ghodkhur in Gujarati language.

Under the Kutch princely state, Kutch was divided into Bani, Abdasa, Anjar, Banni, Bhuvad Chovisi, Garado, Halar Chovisi, Kand, Kantho, Khadir, Modaso, Pranthal, Prawar, and Vagad.

Kutch District is further divided into six subdistricts, each comprising one or two taluka:

Wildlife sanctuaries and reserves[edit]

From the city Bhuj various ecologically rich and wildlife conservation areas of the Kutch district can be visited such as Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary, Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary, Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary, Kutch Bustard Sanctuary, Banni Grasslands Reserve and Chari-Dhand Wetland Conservation Reserve.


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.

According to the 2011 census Kutch District has a population of 2,092,371,[17] roughly equal to the nation of North Macedonia[18] or the US state of New Mexico.[19] This gives it a ranking of 217th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 46 inhabitants per square kilometre (120/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 32.16%. Kutch has a sex ratio of 908 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 71.58%. 34.81% of the population lived in urban areas. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 12.37% and 1.05% of the population respectively.[17]


Religions in Kutch district (2011)[20]
Religion Percent
Other or not stated

Kutch district has a Hindu majority and Muslim minority with around 1% of Jains. Most Muslims are rural and Kutchi-speaking, and are concentrated in areas closest to the Pakistan border such as Banni. Lakhpat (41.20%) and Abdasa (38.01%) taluks have significant concentration of Muslims, while rural areas of Bhuj taluk have nearly 40% Muslims. Elsewhere, Gujarati Hindus and Muslims are in proportions consistent with the rest of Gujarat.[20]


Languages of Kutch district (2011)[21]

  Gujarati (54.91%)
  Kachchhi (33.50%)
  Hindi (5.92%)
  Sindhi (1.42%)
  Bhojpuri (0.56%)
  Marwari (0.52%)
  others (3.17%)
Language Total[21] Percentage
Gujarati 1,148,926 54.91
Kachchhi 700,880 33.50
Hindi 123,914 5.92
Sindhi 29,810 1.42
Bhojpuri 11,692 0.56
Marwari 10,920 0.52
Others 66,229 4.24

According to the 2011 Census, Kachchhi speakers are a majority in 5 out of the 10 tehsils: Abdasa (76.06%), Lakhpat (69.71%), Mandvi (62.48%), Nakhatrana (54.54%) and Mundra (50.66%). In addition, they are 43.39% in Bhuj, 18.06% in Anjar and 14.13% in Gandhidham. However in Rapar and Bhachau, they are only 0.14% and 1.05% respectively.[21]

Kutchi is classified as a dialect of Sindhi. A common misconception is that it is a dialect of Gujarati. The script of the Kutchi language has become extinct. It is now mainly written in the Gujarati script. Samples of Kutch script are available in the Kutch Museum. The increased use of Gujarati language is mainly because of its being a medium of instruction in schools.


District No. Constituency Name Party Remarks
Kutch 1 Abdasa Pradhyumansinh Jadeja Bharatiya Janata Party
2 Mandvi (Kachchh) Aniruddha Dave Bharatiya Janata Party
3 Bhuj Keshubhai Patel Bharatiya Janata Party
4 Anjar Trikam Chhanga Bharatiya Janata Party
5 Gandhidham (SC) Malti Maheshwari Bharatiya Janata Party
6 Rapar Virendrasinh Jadeja Bharatiya Janata Party

Notable religious sites[edit]

  • Narayan Sarovar Temple and Koteshwar Temple
  • Ashapura Mata temple at Mata no Madh. The village is located about 100 km from Bhuj. Ashapura Mata is the household deity (Kuldevti) of former Jadeja rulers of Cutch State.
  • The Swaminarayan Sampraday has a huge following in this Kutch region. Their main temple in this district is Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Bhuj.
  • The Muslims have a following in the Kutch region. Their main dargah-shrine in this district is Shah Zakariya Ali Akbar, Hajipir.
  • Anjar city also has a Swaminarayan Mandir
  • Lakhpat has religious significance for three of India's most populous religions.[22]
  • The temple of Gudthar Vara Shri Matiya Dev, a deity of the Maheshwari sect, is located in Kutch. Shri Matiya Dev is considered very revered in the Maheshwari sect.
  • Siyot Caves
  • Mundra[23]
  • Khetabapa, Vithon

Important Jain places of Pilgrimage are -


Krantiguru Shyamji Krishna Varma Kachchh University, Bhuj

Higher education in Kutch has been regulated by Kachchh University since 2003.[26] About 43 colleges in total are affiliated to the university, offering courses in humanities, science, commerce, medicine, nursing, education and computer science.[27] Professional courses in engineering, pharmacy and management are regulated through the Gujarat Technological University.[28]



Kutch district is inhabited by various groups and communities. One can find various nomadic, semi nomadic and artisan groups living in Kutch. Rabari constitute a comparatively large group in Kutch And there lives a brave and noble community like Ahir.[29]

Food and drink[edit]

Kutchi Dabeli
Kutchi thali

Because most of the population of the Kutch district is Hindu or Jain, the food of the region is largely vegetarian. Jains also refrain from eating root vegetables (kandmool in Hindi) such as potatoes, garlic, onions, and yams.[30] The district also features a sizeable population of Muslims, who eat vegetables, chicken, mutton and occasionally camel meat.

In the villages of the district, staple foods include kadi-khichdi, milk, and bajra (pearl millet). The latter of these was introduced to the region by a king named Lakho Fulani, who was himself introduced to the grain during his period of exile.[30] Bajara na rotla with curd and buttermilk is also a staple among the Gujarati people.

In the region, milk is considered to be a sacred food; an offering of milk is considered a gesture of friendship and welcoming, and dispute settlements invariably involve the parties offering milk to each other. Similarly, in Kutchi engagement ceremonies, the bride's family offers milk to the groom's family as a symbol of accepting their relationship. They also extensively drink buttermilk during lunch.[30]

Tea is the most popular drink in this region.


Historically Kutch was always considered a backward region due to its location and submerged geography. The situation seemed to have worsened after the disastrous Kutch earthquake in 2001. But in the next decade, the economy took an almost miraculous jump start due to the intense efforts of the Gujarat government. Kutch today is a growing economic and industrial hub in one of India's fastest growing states – Gujarat. Its location on the far western edge of India has resulted in the commissioning of two major ports: Kandla and Mundra. These ports are closest to the Gulf of Arabia (and thus to Europe by sea). The hinterland of north-western India hosts more than 50% of India's population.

Quality of roads is good in Kutch. The large part of the growth of Kutch came after intense development by the state government as part of 2001 earthquake relief.

Due to the existence of two major ports i.e. Kandla and Mundra transportation as a business has thrived. Since historical times the people of Kutch have formed the backbone of trade between Gujarat mainland and Sindh. After the formation of Pakistan this trade stopped for good, but due to the inception of the Kandla port, trade boomed again. Kandla port is also in Kutch. It is considered Gateway to India's North. It is managed by the Kandla Port trust.



Kutch is a mineral rich region with a very large reserve of Lignite,[31] Bauxite, Gypsum and other minerals. Kutch received tax break for industries for 15 years after the major earthquake on 26 January 2001. Lignite is mined only by Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation (GMDC) at its two mines in Panandhro and Mata no Madh. The Panandaro mines has now been reserved for GEB and GMDC power plants and GMDC has stopped supplying other industries from there.[32]

Cement and power[edit]

Kutch also houses cement plants Gujarat Anjan Cement Limited promoted by infrastructure conglomerate Anjan Group[33] and Sanghi Industries Ltd's promoted by Sanghi Group. The companies are now planning to increase the capacity at Abdasa location from 3–9 million tons per annum.[34] By 2015, the company plans to produce 20 million tons.[34]


Kutch district has a scanty forest cover. Hence there is negligible risk of illegal cutting of forests. This coupled with the adequate facilities available at Kandla port has helped establish the timber market. In 1987, "Kandla Timber Association" was formed in order to resolve the specific problems of timber importers and timber allied industries coming up during the period. The timber industry is growing at a faster pace with 300 saw mills working in Gandhidham-Kandla Complex.


Salt worker in Rann of Kutch

The Little Rann of Kutch is known for its traditional salt production and various references mention this to be a 600-year-old activity. During the British period, this activity increased manifold. It was used to fund a substantial part of the military expenses of the British government.

Communities involved in salt production are mainly Chunvaliya Koli, Ahir and Miyana (Muslim), residing in 107 villages in the periphery of Lesser Rann of Kutch. These communities are traditionally known to have the skills of salt production and are known as 'Agariyas'. Water quality in 107 villages of Lesser Rann of Kutch is saline, thus agriculture is not an option. Hence salt production is the only livelihood option for Agariyas. As per the Salt Commission's report there are 45000 Agariyas working in the salt pans of Kutch. Out of the estimated total annual production of India of about 18 million tonnes, Gujarat contributes 75% – mainly from Kutch and other parts of Saurashtra.

Textile art[edit]

An example of Kutch Embroidery – Antique Dowry Bag

Kutch is one of the most prolific regions in India in the area of textile art. Kutch Embroidery is dense with motifs, and a variation with mirrors sewn into the embroidery is one of the signature arts of this region.[citation needed]

Within the category of Kutch embroidery there are several sub-categories as each tribe and sub-tribe produces a unique signature form of art.

Kutchi embroidery is an evolving expression of the craft and textile traditions of the Rabaris, a nomadic tribe in Gujarat. Kutch embroidery is unique in the sense that a net is woven on a cloth using thread. The net is then filled in using the same thread by intricate interlocking stitches. The patterns are usually built around geometric shapes. This embroidery follows its own traditional design logic and juxtaposition of colours and motifs. The Rohanas tribals of Kutch specialise in skirt work. The Sodhas use a geometric style for their embroidery. The Garacia Jats are experts in tiny embroidery on the yoke, which intermingles with red, orange, blue and green threads. The Dhanetah Jats love embroidering broad pear-shaped mirrors using orange, black, yellow and red in chain stitch.

In culture[edit]

White Rann of Kutch

J. P. Dutta's Bollywood film Refugee is shot on location in the Great Rann of Kutch and other locations in the Kutch district of Gujarat, India. This film is attributed to have been inspired by the famous story by Keki N. Daruwalla based around the Great Rann of Kutch titled Love Across the Salt Desert[35] which is also included as one of the short stories in the School Standard XII syllabus English text book of NCERT in India.[36] The film crew having traveled from Mumbai was based at the city of Bhuj and majority of the film shooting took place in various locations around in the Kutch District of the Indian state of Gujarat including the Great Rann of Kutch (also on BSF controlled "snow white" Rann within), Villages and Border Security Force (BSF) Posts in Banni grasslands and the Rann, Tera fort village, Lakhpat fort village, Khera fort village, a village in southern Kutch, some ancient temples of Kutch and with parts and a song filmed on set in Mumbai's Kamalistan Studio.

Just after the film shooting of Refugee finished, the film crew of another Bollywood film Lagaan descended on Bhuj in Kutch and shot the entire film in the region, employing local people and villagers from miles around. A set of a full period Village was constructed for the film with typical Kutch style mud houses or huts with thatched straw roofs called boongas.[37]

Towns and villages[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Kutch" (PDF). Vibrantgujarat.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  2. ^ Sen, Kavita (January 2001). "Economic consequences of the Gujarat earthquake". Academia. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  3. ^ a b "About Kutch | About Us | Collectorate - District Kutch". Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
  4. ^ "Census GIS India". Censusindiamaps.net. Archived from the original on 11 January 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  5. ^ K̲h̲ān̲, Rānā Muḥammad Sarvar (2005). The Rajputs: History, Clans, Culture, and Nobility. Rana Muhammad Sarwar Khan. In the seventh century Kachchh formed part of the province of Sindh . Hieun Tsang refers to it as Kiecha . Invasions of Charans , Kathis and Chavadas Rajputs followed . In the ninth century the Arabs settled on the coast .
  6. ^ Williams, Laurence Frederic Rushbrook (1958). The Black Hills: Kutch in History and Legend: a Study in Indian Local Loyalties. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. From the eastern quarter, on the mainland, came Charans and Ahirs. These immigrants seem to have divided Kutch between them; their chiefs became territorial barons, with their own strongholds. Soon afterwards, the entire coast of western India was thrown into confusion by the Arab invasion of Sind.
  7. ^ Shuichi Takezawa (August 2002). "Stepwells – Cosmology of Subterranean Architecture as seen in Adalaj" (PDF). Journal of Architecture and Building Science. 117 (1492): 24. Retrieved 18 November 2009.
  8. ^ Karanth, R. V.; Gadhavi, M. S. (10 November 2007). "Structural intricacies: Emergent thrusts and blind thrusts of central kachchh, western india" (PDF). Current Science. 93 (9): 1271–1280.
  9. ^ "Rivers of Kachchh Region". Archived from the original on 8 June 2013.
  10. ^ "Gujarat: Disaster Management Plan: Operation of gates and rule curve levels for Irrigation Projects" (PDF). Narmada, Water Resources, Water Supply and Kalpsar Department. p. 28.
  11. ^ "2001 Kutch Earthquake Gujarat State, India: Investigation into Damage to Civil Engineering Structures: Dams" (PDF). The Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE).
  12. ^ Gupta, Vishal Jaishankar (2011). "Chapter 2. Environmental Outlines of the little Rann of Kutch". Geomorphodynamics and morphoecological management in the little Rann of Kutch (PDF). Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda., full document
  13. ^ Bhagat, Pamela (6 June 2004). "A desert weeps". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 27 June 2004.
  14. ^ Gujarat. Popular Prakashan. 2003. ISBN 9788179911044.
  15. ^ "Kachchh District Panchayat: Taluka Panchayat". Kutch District. Archived from the original on 15 September 2012.
  16. ^ "Census of India Website : Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India". www.censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  17. ^ a b "District Census Hand Book – Kutch" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  18. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2011. Macedonia 2,077,328 July 2011 est.
  19. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2011. New Mexico – 2,059,179
  20. ^ a b "Population by Religion - Gujarat". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  21. ^ a b c "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Gujarat". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  22. ^ "Lakhpat, Islam, Sikhism, Kutch, Tourism Hubs, Gujarat, India". www.gujarattourism.com. Archived from the original on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  23. ^ "Mundra, Port Town, Kutch, Tourism Hubs, Gujarat, India". www.gujarattourism.com. Archived from the original on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  24. ^ "Bhadreshwar, Jainism, Mandvi, Kutch, Tourism Hubs, Gujarat, India". www.gujarattourism.com. Archived from the original on 19 August 2019. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  25. ^ "Koday, Jain Temple, Mandvi - Kutch, Jainism, Tourism Hubs, Gujarat, India". Archived from the original on 31 August 2014.
  26. ^ "Kutch Uni. Index_comb_.doc" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2022. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  27. ^ "List of Affiliated Colleges Up to 2013-14" (PDF). KRANTIGURU SHYAMJI KRISHNA VERMA KACHCHH UNIVERSITY.
  28. ^ "Gujarat Technological University". Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  29. ^ Hawabai Mustafa Shah. "Aboriginal Tribes of India And Pakistan: The Bhils & Kolhis" (PDF). Academy of the Punjab in North America.
  30. ^ a b c "Food & Drink". District Kachchh, Government of Gujarat. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  31. ^ Chakravarti, V.K. (15–28 March 2003). "The brown gold of Kutch – By tapping the huge mineral deposits of the Kutch region, Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Ltd. plans to turn the backward area into a prosperous one". Frontline Magazine. Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  32. ^ http://steelguru.com/news/index/2008/08/10/NTgyNzg%3D/GMDC_to_soon_start_lignite_mining_at_4_locations_in_Gujarat.html[permanent dead link]
  33. ^ "ANJAN GROUP - INFRASTRUCTURE FOR LIFE". 1 August 2015. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015.
  34. ^ a b "SIL to set up cement plant in Kutch". The Times of India. Ahmedabad. 30 June 2007. Archived from the original (cms) on 3 January 2013.
  35. ^ Love Across the Salt Desert Archived 2 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine; by Keki N. Daruwalla. Pdf of full story posted at Boston University at [1] Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Bollywood connection – J. P. Dutta's "Refugee" is said to be inspired by this story Archived 2 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine; learnhub, University of Dundee
  36. ^ (iii) Supplementary Reader; Selected Pieces of General English for Class XII; English General – Class XII Archived 29 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine; Curriculum and Syllabus for Classes XI & XII; NCERT. Also posted at [2] / [3], "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  37. ^ Google Books Preview: "The spirit of Lagaan – The extraordinary story of the creators of a classic"; by Satyajit Bhatkal; Published by Popular Prakshan Pvt. Ltd.; ISBN 81-7991-003-2 (3749)
  38. ^ "Dhavda Nana". geoiq.io.

External links[edit]