India–Bangladesh enclaves

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A complete map of the exclaves. Top of the map is east, India is orange and Bangladesh is cyan.

The India–Bangladesh enclaves, also known as the chitmahals (Bengali: ছিটমহল chitmôhol) and sometimes called pasha enclaves,[1] were the enclaves along the Bangladesh–India border, in Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam and Meghalaya. Within the main body of Bangladesh were 102 enclaves of Indian territory, which in turn contained 21 Bangladeshi counter-enclaves, one of which contained an Indian counter-counter-enclave – the world's only third-order enclave. Within the Indian mainland were 71 Bangladeshi enclaves, containing 3 Indian counter-enclaves. A joint census in 2010 found 51,549 people residing in these enclaves: 37,334 in Indian enclaves within Bangladesh and 14,215 in Bangladeshi enclaves within India.[2][3]

Some individual enclaves were composed of several administrative units (chhits and/or mauzas). These administrative units must be differentiated from the enclave as a whole. "This is particularly important for the Cooch Behar enclaves, where the several administrative units which together form some of the larger enclaves are commonly, but wrongly, termed enclaves themselves, or where one component unit commonly lends its name to the whole enclave. ... [T]he official Indo–Bangladesh Boundary Commission figure of 111 [Indian] and 51 [Bangladeshi] exchangeable enclaves would appear to count only individual mauzas, even when these consisted of more than one enclave."[2] There is not a one-to-one relationship between enclaves, chhits and mauzas.[2]

The prime ministers of India and Bangladesh signed the Land Boundary Agreement in 1974 to exchange enclaves and simplify their international border. A revised version of the agreement was adopted by the two countries on 7 May 2015, when the Parliament of India passed the 100th Amendment to the Indian Constitution.[4][5] Under this agreement, which was ratified on 6 June 2015, India will get 51 Bangladeshi enclaves (covering 7,110 acres (2,880 ha)) in the Indian mainland, while Bangladesh will get 111 Indian enclaves (covering 17,160 acres (6,940 ha)) in the Bangladeshi mainland.[6] The counter-enclaves, together with Dahagram-Angarpota, will not be exchanged when the Indira-Mujib agreement of 1974 is finally implemented.[2] The enclave residents are to be allowed to either reside at their present location or move to the country of their choice.[7] The physical exchange of enclaves will be implemented in phases between 31 July 2015 and 30 June 2016. The enclaves shall stand exchanged on the midnight of 31 July 2015 and the transfer of enclave residents is expected to be completed by 30 November 2015.[8]

History[edit]

According to a popular legend, the enclaves were used as stakes in card or chess games centuries ago between two regional kings, the Raja of Koch Bihar and the Maharaja of Rangpur.[2] As far as historical records are concerned, the little territories were apparently the result of a confused outcome of a 1713 treaty between the Kingdom of Koch Bihar and the Mughal Empire. Possibly, the Kingdom and the Mughals ended a war without determining a boundary for what territories had been gained or lost.[9]

After the partition of India in 1947, Rangpur was joined to East Pakistan, and Cooch Behar district was merged in 1949 with India. The desire to "de-enclave" most of the enclaves was manifested in a 1958 agreement between Jawaharlal Nehru and Feroz Khan Noon, the respective Prime Ministers, for an exchange between India and Pakistan without considering loss or gain of territory. But the matter then worked into a Supreme Court case in India, and the Supreme Court ruled that a constitutional amendment was required to transfer the land. So the ninth amendment was introduced to facilitate the implementation of the agreement. The amendment could not be passed because of an objection to transfer of southern Berubari enclave.[2][10] Due to India's deteriorated relations with Pakistan, the issue remained unsolved. With that agreement unratified, negotiations had to restart after East Pakistan became independent as Bangladesh in 1971.

Agreement[edit]

The diagramatic sketch of Cooch Behar district of West Bengal marking enclaves

The Land Boundary Agreement was signed on 16 May 1974 between Indira Gandhi and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman which provided for the exchange of enclaves and the surrender of adverse possessions. Under the agreement, India retained the Berubari Union No. 12 enclave while Bangladesh retained the Dahagram and Angorpota enclaves with India providing access to it by giving a 178-by-85-metre (584 ft × 279 ft) corridor, called the Tin Bigha Corridor. Bangladesh quickly ratified the agreement in 1974 but India failed to do so. The issue of the undemarcated land boundary of approximately 6.1 kilometres (3.8 mi) in three sectors — Daikhata-56 in West Bengal, Muhuri River-Belonia in Tripura and Lathitila-Dumabari in Assam — also remained unsolved. The Teen Bigha Corridor was leased to Bangladesh in 1992 amid local opposition.[2]

The list of enclaves was prepared in 1997 by the two countries. Two Joint Boundary Working Groups were formed to work out the details of enclaves in 2001. A joint census was carried out in May 2007. In September 2011, India signed the Additional Protocol for the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement with Bangladesh.[11] Both nations announced an intention to swap 162 enclaves, giving residents a choice of nationality.[12][13][14] Under the agreement, India will receive 51 of the 71 Bangladeshi enclaves (from 51 to 54 of the 74 chhits) that are inside India proper (7,110.2 acres, 2,877.4 ha), while Bangladesh will get from 95 to 101 of the 103 Indian enclaves (111 out of 119 chhits) that are inside Bangladesh proper (17,160.63 acres, 6,944.66 ha). India will also acquire 2,777.038 acres (1,123.827 ha) adverse possession areas and transfer 2,267.682 acres (917.698 ha) adverse possession areas to Bangladesh. According to July 2010 joint census, there were 14,215 people residing in Bangladeshi enclaves in India and 37,269 people residing in Indian enclaves in Bangladesh.[15] Apparently Bangladesh would retain the 4,617 acres (1,868 ha) of its Dahagram-Angarpota exclave.

The Constitution (119th Amendment) Bill, 2013 was introduced in the Rajya Sabha, the Upper House of Parliament of India, on 18 December 2013.[7][16][17][18][19][20] The parliament panel, Standing Committee on External Affairs, approved the bill in November 2014.[3][21] The Rajya Sabha approved the constitutional amendment on 6 May 2015, and the Lok Sabha approved it the following day.[4] President of India Pranab Mukherjee gave his assent to the Act on 28 May 2015.[5]

On 6 June 2015, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi ratified the agreement during his visit to the Bangladeshi capital Dhaka. In the presence of Modi and Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina, the foreign secretaries of the two countries signed the instruments of the land exchange.[22] Under this agreement, India will get 51 Bangladeshi enclaves (i.e., 51 or more chhits, covering 7,110 acres (2,880 ha)) in the Indian mainland, while Bangladesh will get 111 Indian chhits (i.e., 95 or more enclaves, covering 17,160 acres (6,940 ha)) in the Bangladeshi mainland.[6][2] According to the agreement, the people living in these enclaves without a nationality will be allowed to choose their nationality.[23] The two countries signed a total of 22 agreements including the ones on maritime safety co-operation and curbing human trafficking and fake Indian currency. Modi also announced a line of credit of $2 billion to Bangladesh.[24]

The physical exchange of enclaves and land parcels in adverse possession, and the boundary demarcation, will be implemented in phases between 31 July 2015 and 30 June 2016. The enclaves shall stand exchanged on the midnight of 31 July 2015 and the boundary demarcation will be completed by 30 June 2016 by Survey Departments of the respective countries. The transfer of enclave residents is expected to be completed within 30 November 2015.[8]

Notable enclaves[edit]

Enclave #51, Dahala Khagrabari, is the world's only third-order enclave. It is a piece of India within Bangladesh, within India, within Bangladesh. It is less than 7,000 square metres (0.70 ha; 1.7 acres), in area and was the site of a jute field. 28 smaller enclaves exist within the overall complex. (Maps)

Bangladesh[edit]

Dahagram–Angarpota: The largest Bangladeshi composite enclave (combining the first- and third-largest Bangladeshi chhits by area), administered as part of Patgram Upazila in Lalmonirhat zila, lies within the Indian province of West Bengal. It is separated from the contiguous area of Bangladesh at its closest point by 178 metres (584 ft). The enclave has an area of 25.95 km2 (10.02 sq mi) with a resident population of 20,000 people. The enclave lacks basic facilities. The lone health complex remains virtually useless due to lack of power supply, as India refused to allow Bangladesh to run power lines to the enclave.[2]

The Tin Bigha Corridor, a strip of Indian territory 85 metres (279 ft) wide running from the Dahagram–Angarpota composite enclave to the Bangladeshi mainland at their nearest approach, was leased to Bangladesh for 999 years for access to the enclave. It is available for use by the residents of Dahagram–Angarpota during specified hours of the day.[2]

India[edit]

Dasiar Chhara, the fourth largest Indian chhit by area, is the largest stand-alone Indian enclave (i.e., not a composite of adjoining chhits). It lies 3 km (1.9 mi) from the main part of India and has an area of 6.65 km2 (2.57 sq mi).

Dahala Khagrabari is the world's only third-order enclave, being Indian territory inside a Bangladeshi territory which is itself inside an exclave of India in Bangladesh.

List of enclaves and exclaves[edit]

All of the information shown in the following two tables has been assembled from Whyte.[2]

Bangladesh[edit]

In order to distinguish chhits having the same names, serial numbers established by Banerjee (1966)[25] are shown in parentheses, as (#). The Bangladesh series is separate from the India series.

With 4 exceptions (Chhat Tilai, Baikunthapur Teldhar (#3, #4, #5)), the first-order enclaves, including the 3 composite enclaves, lie entirely within the Cooch Behar District of West Bengal state, India. All 21 counter-enclaves lie within the Rangpur Division of Bangladesh.

Bangladeshi Chhits Within Indian Territory[2][5] Area (km2) Area (mi2) Notes
Bangladesh Dahagram-Angarpota 18.684 7.214 Largest composite exclave of Bangladesh within India, comprises the contiguous Dahagram and Angarpota chhits.
Bangladesh Dahagram❋ 15.690 6.058 Largest chhit of Bangladesh, part of the Dahagram-Angarpota composite exclave within India.
Bangladesh Nalgram 7.705 2.975 Composite exclave of Bangladesh within India, comprises the contiguous Falnapur and Nalgram (#52) chhits.
Bangladesh Nalgram (#52)❋ 5.655 2.183 Part of the Nalgram composite exclave within India (area includes 2 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Nalgram (#53, #54)). Surrounds the Indian counter-enclave, Nalgram Chhit (#111).
Bangladesh Nalgram (#53) see #52 see #52 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Nalgram (#52).
Bangladesh Nalgram (#54) see #52 see #52 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Nalgram (#52).
Bangladesh Angarpota❋ 2.994 1.156 Part of the Dahagram-Angarpota composite exclave within India.
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga <2.797 <1.080 Composite exclave of Bangladesh within India, comprises the contiguous Kachua and Dakshin Masaldanga (#74) chhits.
Bangladesh Poaturkuthi 2.387 0.922 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Batrigach (#59) 2.337 0.902 First-order enclave within India (area includes the smaller Batrigach (#60), itself an exclave and true enclave). Surrounds the Indian counter-enclave, Madnakura Chhit in Bhoti Nath Batrigach.
Bangladesh Batrigach (#60) see #59 see #59 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Batrigach (#59).
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga (#74)❋ 2.312 0.893 Part of the Dakshin Masaldanga composite exclave (along with Kachua chhit) within India; area includes 6 other smaller chhits, each also named Dakshin Masaldanga (#73, 75, 76, 77, 78 & 90), each itself an exclave and true enclave.
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga (#73) see #74 see #74 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga (#75) see #74 see #74 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga (#76) see #74 see #74 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga (#77) see #74 see #74 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga (#78) see #74 see #74 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Bangladesh Dakshin Masaldanga (#90) see #74 see #74 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Dakshin Masaldanga (#74).
Bangladesh Falnapur❋ 2.050 0.792 Part of the Nalgram composite exclave within India.
Bangladesh Sibprasad Mustafi (#67) 1.510 0.583 First-order enclave within India (area includes the smaller Sibprasad Mustafi (#68), itself an exclave and true enclave).
Bangladesh Sibprasad Mustafi (#68) see #67 see #67 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Sibprasad Mustafi (#67).
Bangladesh Chhit Kuchlibari 1.500 0.579 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Bala Pukhari 1.342 0.518 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Karala (#63) 1.092 0.422 First-order enclave within India (area includes 2 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Karala (#64, #65)).
Bangladesh Karala (#64) see #63 see #63 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Karala (#63).
Bangladesh Karala (#65) see #63 see #63 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Karala (#63).
Bangladesh Kismat Batrigach 0.850 0.328 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Dhabalsati Mirgipur 0.704 0.272 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 111 0.685 0.264 Counter-exclave surrounded by and sharing borders with two contiguous Indian chhits, Balapara Khagrabari (#42) and Kothajni (#43) (both within the composite exclave named "Balapara Khagrabari" in the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh).
Bangladesh Purba Masaldanga (#87) 0.623 0.241 First-order enclave within India (area includes the smaller Purba Masaldanga (#86), itself an exclave and true enclave). A map from the 1930s and a 1940 source[26] imply that Purba Masaldanga (#86) and (#87) form a single enclave. However, topographic mapping and other sources suggest two enclaves, as listed here, but if joined, they are connected across the narrowest gap separating them, along a beel (marshy former river course).[2]
Bangladesh Purba Masaldanga (#86) see #87 see #87 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Purba Masaldanga (#87).
Bangladesh Paschim Bakalir Chhara 0.615 0.237 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Madhya Masaldanga 0.553 0.214 First-order enclave within India. Surrounds the Indian counter-enclave, Chhit Seoruguri.
Bangladesh Mahishmari 0.497 0.192 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Kachua❋ 0.485 0.187 Part of the Dakshin Masaldanga composite exclave (along with Dakshin Masaldanga #74) within India.
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 110 0.449 0.173 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Dahala Khagrabari (#47), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. It surrounds the only counter-counter-enclave in the world, Dahala Khagrabari (#51).
Bangladesh Chhit Panbari 0.439 0.169 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Jote Nijjama 0.354 0.137 First-order enclave within India; although not definite, it possibly forms an international quadripoint (one point in common with four different areas) of Bangladesh and India: two parts of Patgram thana (main part and the Jote Nijjama enclave itself) in Lalmonirhat District and two parts of Mekhliganj thana in Mekhliganj subdivision, Cooch Behar District, India.
Bangladesh Chhat Tilai 0.330 0.127 First-order enclave within India, straddling the border of Cooch Behar District (West Bengal) and Dhubri District (Assam).
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 22 0.292 0.113 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Dahala Khagrabari (#47), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Jagatber No. 3 0.283 0.109 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Dhabalsati 0.269 0.104 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Dhabalsati (#32) 0.245 0.095 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Baikunthapur Teldhar (#4) 0.210 0.081 First-order enclave within Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India (area includes 2 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Baikunthapur Teldhar (#3, #5)).
Bangladesh Baikunthapur Teldhar (#3) see #4 see #4 First-order enclave within Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India (area combined with that shown for the larger Baikunthapur Teldhar (#4)).
Bangladesh Baikunthapur Teldhar (#5) see #4 see #4 First-order enclave within Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India (area combined with that shown for the larger Baikunthapur Teldhar (#4)).
Bangladesh Chhit Nalgram (#55) 0.200 0.077 First-order enclave within India (area includes Chhit Nalgram (#56), itself an exclave and true enclave).
Bangladesh Chhit Nalgram (#56) see #55 see #55 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for Chhit Nalgram (#55).
Bangladesh Uttar Bansjani 0.191 0.074 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Bhandardaha 0.162 0.063 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 113 0.148 0.057 Counter-exclave surrounded by and sharing a border with two contiguous Indian exclaves, Balapara Khagrabari (#42) and Kothajni (#43) (both within the composite exclave named "Balapara Khagrabari" in the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh).
Bangladesh Purba Chhit Masaldanga (#84) 0.142 0.055 First-order enclave within India (area includes the smaller Purba Chhit Masaldanga (#83), itself an exclave and true enclave).
Bangladesh Purba Chhit Masaldanga (#83) see #84 see #84 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Purba Chhit Masaldanga (#84).
Bangladesh Bara Saradubi 0.141 0.054 First-order enclave within India; forms an international quadripoint (one point in common with four different areas) of Bangladesh and India: two parts of Hatibandha thana (main part and the Bara Saradubi enclave itself) in Lalmonirhat District and two parts of Sitalkuchi thana in Mathabhanga subdivision, Cooch Behar District, India.
Bangladesh Chandrakhan 0.140 0.054 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Dasiar Chhara (#117), located within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Madhya Bakalir Chhara 0.132 0.051 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Jagatber No. 1 0.124 0.048 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Kokoabari 0.1193 0.0461 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Paschim Masaldanga (#79) 0.1193 0.0461 First-order enclave within India (area includes Paschim Masaldanga (#80), itself an exclave and true enclave).
Bangladesh Paschim Masaldanga (#80) see #79 see #79 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for Paschim Masaldanga (#79).
Bangladesh Uttar Masaldanga 0.1104 0.0426 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Jagatber No. 2 0.1096 0.0423 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Dhabalguri No. 2 0.1086 0.0419 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Bansua Khamar Gitaldaha 0.0993 0.0383 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Uttar Dhaldanga (#93) 0.0966 0.0373 First-order enclave within India (area includes 2 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Uttar Dhaldanga (#92, #94)).
Bangladesh Uttar Dhaldanga (#92) see #93 see #93 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Uttar Dhaldanga (#93).
Bangladesh Uttar Dhaldanga (#94) see #93 see #93 First-order enclave within India, area combined with that shown for the larger Uttar Dhaldanga (#93).
Bangladesh Chhit Dhabalguri 0.0903 0.0349 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Durgapur 0.0848 0.0327 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Nazirganj (#10) 0.0799 0.0308 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Bewladanga (#39), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Teldhar (#1) 0.0586 0.0226 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Garati (#1), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh (area includes the smaller Teldhar (#2), itself an exclave and true enclave).
Bangladesh Teldhar (#2) see #1 see #1 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Garati (#1), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Teldhar (#1).
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 112 0.0571 0.0220 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Kothajni (#43), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Dhabalguri No. 1 0.0565 0.0218 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Dhabalguri 0.0506 0.0195 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Purba Bakalir Chhara 0.0495 0.0191 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Madhya Chhit Masaldanga 0.0480 0.0185 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Jongra 0.0334 0.0129 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Banskata (#93), located within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Paschim Chhit Masaldanga 0.0308 0.0119 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Debi Doba 0.0302 0.0117 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Dahala Khagrabari (#47), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Nazirganj −29 0.0265 0.0102 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Nazirganj (#27), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Debottar Saldanga 0.0247 0.0095 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Bewladanga (#39), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Dhabalguri No. 4 0.0184 0.0071 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Dhabalguri No. 5 0.0167 0.0064 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Bamandal 0.0089 0.0034 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Kuchlibari 0.0074 0.0029 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 99 0.0071 0.0027 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Kothajni (#43), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Dhabalsati (#33) 0.0065 0.0025 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Bara Khangir (#66), located within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Nazirganj (#8) 0.0062 0.0024 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Shalbari (#35), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 13 0.0054 0.0021 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Kothajni (#43), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Dhabalguri No. 3 0.0054 0.0021 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Amjhol 0.0051 0.0020 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Chhit Land of Panbari No. 2 0.0046 0.0018 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Nazirganj −30 0.0046 0.0018 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian true enclave/exclave, Nazirganj (#19), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Srirampur 0.0042 0.0016 First-order enclave within India.
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 15 0.0041 0.0016 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Dahala Khagrabari (#47), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Nazirganj (#9) 0.00291 0.00112 Counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Shalbari (#35), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh Upan Chowki Bhajni, 24 0.00287 0.00111 Smallest known chhit of Bangladesh, a counter-enclave surrounded by an Indian exclave, Kothajni (#43), located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
❋ This chhit is part of a composite enclave and by itself is neither an enclave nor an exclave.
Stated size may not be exact.[2]

India[edit]

The 102 first-order enclaves (including the 6 composite enclaves) and the 1 counter-counter enclave lie within the Rangpur Division of Bangladesh. The 3 counter-enclaves lie within the Cooch Behar District of West Bengal state, India. In order to distinguish chhits having the same names, serial numbers established by Banerjee (1966)[25] are shown in parentheses, as (#). The India series is separate from the Bangladesh series.

Indian Chhits Within Bangladeshi Territory[2][5] Area (km2) Area (mi2) Notes
India Balapara Khagrabari 25.952 10.020 Composite exclave of India, bordering the Panchagarh and Nilphamari Districts, Bangladesh, comprises the contiguous Dahala Khagrabari (#47), Kothajni (#43) and Balapara Khagrabari (#42) chhits (area includes 6 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave: 3 also named Dahala Khagrabari (#48, #49, #50) and 3 also named Kothajni (#44, #45, #46)).
India Shalbari 14.091 5.441 Composite exclave of India within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, comprises the contiguous Shalbari (#35), Bewladanga (#39), Kajal Dighi, Daikhata Chhat, Nataoka (#37) and Nataoka (#38) chhits.
India Dahala Khagrabari (#47)❋ 10.717 4.138 Largest chhit of India, part of Balapara Khagrabari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh (area includes 3 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Dahala Khagrabari (#48, #49, #50)).
India Dahala Khagrabari (#48) see #47 see #47 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Dahala Khagrabari (#47).
India Dahala Khagrabari (#49) see 47 see #47 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Dahala Khagrabari (#47).
India Dahala Khagrabari (#50) see #47 see #47 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Dahala Khagrabari (#47).
India Kothajni (#43)❋ 8.143 3.144 Part of Balapara Khagrabari composite exclave, bordering the Panchagarh and Nilphamari Districts, Bangladesh (area includes 3 other smaller chhits, each itself an exclave and true enclave, each also named Kothajni (#44, #45, #46)).
India Kothajni (#44) see #43 see #43 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Kothajni (#43).
India Kothajni (#45) see #43 see #43 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Kothajni (#43).
India Kothajni (#46) see #43 see #43 First-order exclave bordering the Panchagarh and Nilphamari Districts, Bangladesh, area combined with that shown for the larger Kothajni (#43).
India Balapara Khagrabari (#42)❋ 7.092 2.738 Part of Balapara Khagrabari composite exclave, bordering the Panchagarh District and Nilphamari Districts, Bangladesh.
India Dasiar Chhara 6.651 2.568 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Shalbari (#35)❋ 4.811 1.858 Part of Shalbari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Garati (#1) 3.920 1.514 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Bewladanga (#39)❋ 3.479 1.343 Part of Shalbari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Kajal Dighi❋ 3.122 1.205 Part of Shalbari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Daikhata Chhat❋ 2.020 0.780 Part of Shalbari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#33) 1.758 0.679 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#93) 1.675 0.647 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Kamat Changrabandha 1.626 0.628 Composite exclave of India within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh, comprises the contiguous Bhotbari (#74), Panisala (#77) and Kamat Changrabandha (#75, #76) chhits.
India Banskata (#97) 1.275 0.492 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Lotamari (#83) 1.147 0.443 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Kharkharia 0.904 0.349 Composite exclave of India within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh, comprises the contiguous Lotamari (#73), Kharkharia (#71) and Kharkharia (#72) chhits.
India Bans Pachai 0.879 0.339 First-order exclave bordering the Lalmonirhat and Kurigram Districts, Bangladesh.
India Bhotbari (#74)❋ 0.831 0.321 Part of Kamat Changrabandha composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Natatoka (#37)❋ 0.657 0.254 Part of Shalbari composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Panisala (#77)❋ 0.557 0.215 Part of Kamat Changrabandha composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bara Khangir 0.523 0.202 Composite exclave of India within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh, comprises the contiguous Bara Khangir (#66) and Chhat Bagdokra chhits.
India Gotamuri Chhit (#112) 0.512 0.198 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Putimari 0.497 0.192 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Lotamari (#73)❋ 0.449 0.173 Part of Kharkharia composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Lotamari (#84) 0.400 0.154 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bara Khangir (#66)❋ 0.354 0.137 Part of Bara Khangir composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bans Pachai Bhitarkuthi 0.331 0.128 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja 0.309 0.119 Composite exclave of India within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh, comprises the contiguous Najirgonja (#28, #29, #30, #31) chhits.
India Garati (#3) 0.298 0.115 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#27) 0.297 0.115 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Panisala (#81) 0.262 0.101 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Kharkharia (#71)❋ 0.246 0.095 Part of Kharkharia composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Ratanpur 0.238 0.092 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#32) 0.236 0.091 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Garati (#6) 0.236 0.091 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#96) 0.234 0.090 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Chhat Bhothat 0.227 0.088 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Balapukhari 0.226 0.087 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#19) 0.219 0.085 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#31)❋ 0.216 0.083 Part of Najirgonja composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Kharkharia (#72)❋ 0.209 0.081 Part of Kharkharia composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Panisala (#82) 0.208 0.080 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bara Khangir (#65) 0.204 0.079 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#25) 0.198 0.076 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. Najirgonja (#25) and (#26) are shown joined as one in pre-1947 maps, but as separate in 1991 Indian census maps.[2][27]
India Dwarikamari (#86) 0.185 0.071 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Seotikursa 0.185 0.071 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Uponchowki Kuhlibari (#62) 0.178 0.069 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Kamat Changrabandha (#75)❋ 0.173 0.067 Part of Kamat Changrabandha composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Chhat Bagdokra❋ 0.169 0.065 Part of Bara Khangir composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bara Gaochulka 0.162 0.063 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Dwarikamari (#85) 0.160 0.062 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bhotbari (#63) 0.149 0.058 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bara Khanki Kharija Gitaldaha (#54) 0.149 0.058 First-order enclave within the Nilphamari District of Bangladesh.
India Dwarikamarikhasbash 0.148 0.057 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Chhoto Guraljhara I 0.145 0.056 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Madnakura Chhit in Bhoti Nath Batrigach 0.144 0.056 Counter-enclave surrounded by a Bangladeshi true enclave/exclave, Batrigach (#59), located within Cooch Behar District of West Bengal state, India.
India Nagarjikabari 0.135 0.052 First-order enclave within the Nilphamari District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#100) 0.134 0.052 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Shahebganj 0.128 0.049 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#104) 0.125 0.048 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#94) 0.1244 0.0480 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Barakhangir 0.1236 0.0477 First-order enclave within the Nilphamari District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#99) 0.1182 0.0456 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bagdokra 0.1032 0.0398 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#109) 0.0986 0.0381 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#88) 0.0904 0.0349 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Kalamati 0.0858 0.0331 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#90) 0.0853 0.0329 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Gotamuri Chhit (#113) 0.0810 0.0313 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Panisala (#80) 0.0729 0.0281 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Garati (#4) 0.0728 0.0281 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. Garati (#4) and (#5) are shown joined as one enclave in pre-1947 topographic maps, in which the smaller (#5) adjoins the northern boundary of the larger (#4). Later sources (1991 Indian census maps[27] and Banerjee, 1966[25]) depict them as separate.[2]
India Najirgonja (#29)❋ 0.0726 0.0280 Part of Najirgonja composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Chhoto Guraljhara II 0.0722 0.0279 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#108) 0.0686 0.0265 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Kamat Changrabandha (#76)❋ 0.0648 0.0250 Part of Kamat Changrabandha composite exclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Dakurhat Dakinir Kuthi 0.0577 0.0223 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#16) 0.0575 0.0222 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#101) 0.0515 0.0199 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Dighaltari I 0.0498 0.0192 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#26) 0.0493 0.0190 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. Najirgonja (#25) and (#26) are shown joined as one in pre-1947 maps, but as separate in 1991 Indian census maps.[2][27]
India Banskata (#95) 0.0492 0.0190 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#89) 0.0484 0.0187 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Gaochulka I 0.0361 0.0139 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Dighaltari II 0.0357 0.0138 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#17) 0.0335 0.0129 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Chenakata 0.0316 0.0122 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bara Khanki Kharija Gitaldaha (#53) 0.0312 0.0120 First-order enclave within the Nilphamari District of Bangladesh.
India Shingimari Part I 0.0246 ± 0.0013 0.00950 ± 0.00050 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Kuchlibari (#57) 0.0234 0.0090 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Jamaldaha Balapukhari 0.0212 0.082 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#24) 0.0204 0.0079 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Nalgram Chhit 0.0191 0.0074 Counter-enclave surrounded by a Bangladeshi exclave, Nalgram (#52), located within Cooch Behar District of West Bengal state, India.
India Bara Kuchlibari 0.0176 0.0068 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#28)❋ 0.01574 0.00608 Part of Najirgonja composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#20) 0.01566 0.00605 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Bewladanga (#40) 0.01097 0.00424 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#103) 0.01032 0.00398 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Chhit Seoruguri 0.01016 0.00392 Smallest Indian counter-enclave, surrounded by a Bangladeshi true enclave/exclave, Madhya Masaldanga, located within Cooch Behar District of West Bengal state, India.
India Banskata (#102) 0.00943 0.00364 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Kuchlibari (#58) 0.00826 0.00319 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Garati (#2) 0.00704 0.00272 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Dahala Khagrabari (#51) 0.00688 0.00266 Dahala Khagrabari (#51) is the only counter-counter enclave in the world. It is surrounded by Upanchowki Bhajni 110, a Bangladeshi counter-enclave within the Indian composite exclave named Balapara Khagrabari, which is surrounded by the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. Dahala Khagrabari (#51) is not part of the Balapara Khagrabari composite exclave, as it is not contiguous to it and borders only Bangladesh.
India Bhogramguri 0.00583 0.00225 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#106) 0.00563 0.00217 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#107) 0.00554 0.00214 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja Chhit (#30)❋ 0.00433 0.00167 Part of Najirgonja composite exclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#22) 0.00421 0.00163 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#21) 0.00413 0.00159 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Gaochulka II 0.00364 0.00141 First-order enclave within the Kurigram District of Bangladesh.
India Fulker Dabri 0.00356 0.00137 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Bewladanga Chhat (#41) 0.00336 0.00130 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Garati (#5) 0.00320 0.00124 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh. Garati (#4) and (#5) are shown joined as one enclave in pre-1947 topographic maps, in which the smaller (#5) adjoins the northern boundary of the larger (#4). Later sources (1991 Indian census maps[27] and Banerjee, 1966[25]) depict them as separate.[2]
India Najirgonja (#23) 0.00312 0.00120 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#98) 0.00312 0.00120 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#105) 0.00259 0.00100 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Najirgonja (#15) 0.00210 0.00081 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Dahala Khagrabari (#52) 0.00178 0.00069 First-order enclave within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh.
India Uponchowki Kuchlibari (#61) 0.00129 0.00050 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Banskata (#110) 0.00113 0.00044 First-order enclave within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Panisala (#79) 0.00109 0.00042 The smallest Indian true enclave; located within the Lalmonirhat District of Bangladesh.
India Natatoka (#38)❋ 0.00105 0.00041 Smallest known chhit of India, part of Shalbari composite exclave; located within the Panchagarh District of Bangladesh; borders Bangladesh and Shalbari (#35).
❋ This chhit is part of a composite enclave and by itself is neither an enclave nor an exclave.
Stated size may not be exact.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "India and Bangladesh discuss 'pasha' enclaves: Recognition of landlocked areas won in card games to be raised during India PM's visit". 6 September 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Whyte, Brendan R. (2002). "Waiting for the esquimo: An historical and documentary study of the Cooch Behar enclaves of India and Bangladesh" (PDF). The School of Anthropology, Geography and Environmental Studies, The University of Melbourne. Retrieved 11 September 2011.  (registration required)
  3. ^ a b India (2 December 2014). "Everything you need to know: Land swap in offing with Bangladesh to end disputes". The Indian Express. Retrieved 29 May 2015. 
  4. ^ a b "The Constitution (119th Amendment) Bill, 2013" PRS India. Accessed 10 May 2015.[1]
  5. ^ a b c d "Prez assents: Constitution (One Hundredth Amendment) Act, 2015". 1, Law Street. 30 May 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2015. 
  6. ^ a b "I’ve got a nation. It comes at the end of my life, still it comes: resident of a Bangladeshi enclave". The indian Express. Retrieved 7 June 2015. 
  7. ^ a b Sougata Mukhopadhyay (7 September 2011). "India-Bangladesh sign pact on border demarcation". CNN-IBN. Retrieved 20 September 2011. 
  8. ^ a b "Land pact rollout in next 11 months". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  9. ^ Evgeny Vinokurov, "Theory of Enclaves" (2005) – Chapter 6: Enclave stories and case studies, page 117: Cooch Behar
  10. ^ "Berubari Union and Exchange of Enclaves". 1, Law Street. Supreme Court of India. 14 March 1960. Retrieved 30 May 2015. 
  11. ^ "India & Bangladesh Land Boundary Agreement" (PDF). Ministry of External Affairs Government of India. Retrieved 1 March 2015. 
  12. ^ "The land that maps forgot". The Economist. 15 February 2011. 
  13. ^ "Bangladesh, India to swap 162 land parcels". AFP. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  14. ^ "Hope for Indo-Bangladesh enclaves". NDTV. 12 September 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2011. 
  15. ^ "Proposed enclave exchange with Bangladesh will be national loss: BJP". Daily News. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  16. ^ Bagchi, Indrani (15 August 2013). "India-Bangladesh border pact constitutional amendment bill to be tabled in Parliament next week". Times of India. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  17. ^ Chakrabarty, Rakhi (15 August 2013). "Mahanta canvassing support to stall exchange of enclaves bill in Parliament". Times of India. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  18. ^ "Bangladesh land swap bill tabled in Rajya Sabha". Times of India. 19 December 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2013. 
  19. ^ "AGP plea to Modi on land-swap deal". The Telegraph. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 19 June 2014. 
  20. ^ "Why Narendra Modi made a U turn on Land Boundary Agreement?". dna. 2 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014. 
  21. ^ "Par panel approves bill on Indo-Bangla agreement". Business Standard. 26 November 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014. 
  22. ^ "India, Bangladesh ratify historic land deal, Narendra Modi announces new $2 billion line of credit to Dhaka". Times of India. 6 June 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2015. 
  23. ^ "Thousands Celebrate Historic India-Bangladesh Border Pact". NDTV. 7 June 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2015. 
  24. ^ "Modi announces $2-bn credit to Bangladesh". The Hindu. Retrieved 7 June 2015. 
  25. ^ a b c d Banerjee, R. (1966). "An Account of Exclaves – Origin and Development". Census 1961, West Bengal, District Census Handbook, Cooch Behar (West Bengal Government, India). 
  26. ^ Hartley, A. C. (1940). Final Report of the Rangpur Survey and Settlement Operations, 1931–1938. Bengal Govt. 
  27. ^ a b c d "Census of India District Census Handbooks, for Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri, for 1991 census". West Bengal Government, India. 

External links[edit]