List of Etruscan mythological figures
This is a list of deities and legendary figures found in Etruscan mythology.
The names below were taken mainly from Etruscan "picture bilinguals", which are Etruscan call-outs on art depicting mythological scenes or motifs. Several different media provide names. Variants of the names are given, reflecting differences in language in different localities and times.
Many of the names are Etruscan spellings (and pronunciations) of Greek names. The themes may or may not be entirely Greek. Etruscans frequently added their own themes to Greek myths. The same may be said of native Italic names rendered into Etruscan. Some names are entirely Etruscan, which is often a topic of debate in the international forum of scholarship.
|Achlae||Greek river god Achelous.|
|Achvizr, Achuvesr, Achuvizr, Achviztr||Unknown character associated with Turan. It may be one of the Samothracian Great Gods or Cabeiri (Άξίερος, perhaps from *Aχsiver-) according to É. Benveniste.|
|Aita, Eita||The Etruscan equivalent of the Greek god of the underworld and ruler of the dead, Hades.|
|Alpanu, Alpan, Alpnu||Etruscan goddess, whose name is identical to Etruscan "willingly".|
|Aminth||Etruscan winged deity in the form of a child, probably identified with Amor.|
|Ani||Divinity named on the periphery of the Piacenza Liver as dominant in that section. It seems to correspond to Martianus Capella's Templum I, north, ruled by Janus, for which Ani appears to be the Etruscan word.|
|Apulu, Aplu||The god Apollo.|
|Apru||Alternate Etruscan spelling of Aphrodite. See Turan.|
|Aril||Etruscan deity identified with Atlas.|
|Aritimi, Artumes||The goddess Artemis.|
|Athrpa||The goddess Atropos, one of the Graeae.|
|Calu||Etruscan infernal god of wolves, represented by a wolf.|
|Catha, Cavtha, Cath||An Etruscan deity, god and goddess, not well represented in the art. She appears in the expression ati cath, "Mother Cath" and also maru Cathsc, "the maru of Cath". The nature of the maru is not known. She is also called śech, "daughter," which seems to fit Martianus Capella's identification of the ruler of Region VI of the sky as Celeritas solis filia, "Celerity the daughter of the sun." In the Piacenza Liver the corresponding region is ruled by Cath.|
|Cel||Etruscan earth goddess, probably identified with Ge, as she had a giant for a son. Her name occurs in the expression ati Cel, "Mother Cel."|
|Crapsti||Umbrian local deity Grabouie.|
|Culsans||Two-faced god of doors and doorways, corresponding to the two-faced Roman god Janus.|
|Enie||Greek Enyo, one of the Graeae.|
|Eris||The goddess Eris.|
|Erus||The god Eros.|
|Esplace||The legendary healer, Asklepios.|
|Ethausva, Eth||Etruscan goddess, attendant at the birth of Menrva.|
|Euturpa, Euterpe||The Greek goddess Euterpe.|
|Feronia||An obscure rural goddess primarily known from the various Roman cults who worshipped her.|
|Fufluns||Etruscan god of wine, identified with Dionysus. The name is used in the expressions Fufluns Pacha (Bacchus) and Fufluns Pachie. Puplona (Populonia) was named from Fufluns.|
|Horta||Goddess of agriculture (highly conjectural).|
|Ilithiia||The goddess of childbirth, known to the Greeks as Eileithyia. Occurs also in the expression flereś atis ilithiial, "statue of mother Eileithyia."|
|Laran||Etruscan god of war.|
|Lasa||One of a class of deities, plural Lasas, mainly female, but sometimes male, from which the Roman Lares came. Where the latter were the guardians of the dead, the Etruscan originals formed the court of Turan. Lasa often precedes an epithet referring to a particular deity: Lasa Sitmica, Lasa Achununa, Lasa Racuneta, Lasa Thimrae, Lasa Vecuvia.|
|Lasa Vecuvia||Goddess of prophecy, associated with the nymph Vegoia. See under Begoë.|
|Leinth||Etruscan divinity, male and female, possibly related to lein, Etruscan word for "to die", but does not appear in any death scenes.|
|Letham, Lethns, Letha, Lethms, Leta||An Etruscan infernal goddess.|
|Letun||The goddess known to the Greeks as Leto.|
|Malavisch||Etruscan divinity of the mirrors, probably from malena, "mirror."|
|Mania||Etruscan infernal deity, forming a dyad with Mantus. She went on into Latin literature, ruling beside Mantus and was reported to be the mother of the Lares and Manes. Under the Etruscan kings, she received the sacrifices of slain children during the Laralia festival of May 1.|
|Mantus||Etruscan infernal deity, one of a dyad including Mania. A tradition of Latin literature names the Etruscan city of Manthua, later Mantua, after the deity.|
|Mariś||A class of divinity used with epithets: mariś turans, mariś husurnana, mariś menitla, mariś halna, mariś isminthians. The appearances in art are varied: a man, a youth, a group of babies cared for by Menrva. The Roman god, Mars, is believed to have come from this name. Pallottino refers to the formation of a god by "... fusing groups of beings ... into one." Of Mars he says "... the protecting spirits of war, represented as armed heroes, tend to coalesce into a single deity, the Etrusco-Roman Mars, on the model of the Greek god Ares." But L. Bonfane writes: "Mariś is not Mars, but a local divinity who, according to one interpretation, lived for the considerable period o f 130 years, and had three lives."The roots of the Italic god end in a -t, while no such ending is visible in the Etruscan form, which instead has in -i not seen in the Italic forms.|
|Mean, Meanpe||Etruscan deity, equivalent of Nike or Victoria.|
|Menerva, Menrva||The Etruscan original to the Roman Minerva, made into Greek Athena.|
|Munthukh||Goddess of love and health, and one of the attendants of Turan|
|Nethuns||Italic divinity, probably Umbrian, of springs and water, identified with Greek Poseidon and Roman Neptune, from which the name comes. It occurs in the expression flere Nethuns, "the divinity of Nethuns."|
|Nortia||Goddess of fate and chance. Unattested in Etruscan texts but mentioned by Roman historian Livy. Her attribute was a nail, which was driven into a wall in her temple during the Etruscan new year festival as a fertility rite.|
|Orcus||Etruscan god of the underworld, punisher of broken oaths. He was portrayed in paintings in Etruscan tombs as a hairy, bearded giant.|
|Pacha||Roman Bacchus, an epithet of Fufluns.|
|Pemphetru||Greek Pemphredo, one of the Graeae.|
|Phersipnai, Phersipnei, Persipnei, Proserpnai||Queen of the underworld, equivalent to the Greek Persephone and Roman Proserpina.|
|Phersu||A divinity of the mask, probably from Greek πρόσωπον "face". The god becomes adjectival, *phersuna, from which Latin persona.|
|Prumathe||The Greek mythological figure Prometheus.|
|Rath||Etruscan deity identified with Apollo. Tarquinia was his sanctuary.|
|Satre||Etruscan deity, source of, or derived from, the Roman god Saturn.|
|Selvans||God who appears in the expression Selvansl Tularias, "Selvans of the boundaries", which identifies him as a god of boundaries. The name is either borrowed from the Roman god, Silvanus or the original source of the Roman god's name.|
|Sethlans||Etruscan blacksmith and craftsman god, often wielding an axe. Equivalent to the Greek Hephaistos and Roman Vulcanus.|
|Summanus||Etruscan god of nocturnal thunder, often said to be Zeus's twin or opposite.|
|Svutaf||A winged Etruscan deity whose name, if from the same Latin root as the second segment of persuade, might mean "yearning" and therefore be identifiable with Eros.|
|Tecum||God of the lucomenes, or ruling class.|
|Thalna, Thalana, Talna||Etruscan divine figure of multiple roles shown male, female, and androgynous. They attend the births of Menrva and Fufluns, dance as a Maenad and expound prophecy. In Greek θάλλειν "to bloom". A number of divinities fit the etymology: Greek Thallo and Hebe, and Roman Iuventas, "youth."|
|Thanr||An Etruscan deity shown present at the births of deities.|
|Thesan||Etruscan goddess of the dawn. She was identified with the Roman Aurora and Greek Eos.|
|Thetlvmth||Unknown deity of the Piacenza Liver, which is not a picture bilingual.|
|Thufltha||Unknown deity of the Piacenza Liver, which is not a picture bilingual.|
|Tinia, Tina, Tin||Chief Etruscan god, the ruler of the skies, husband of Uni, and father of Hercle, identified with the Greek Zeus and Roman Jupiter well within the Etruscan window of ascendance, as the Etruscan kings built the first temple of Jupiter at Rome. Called apa, "father" in inscriptions (parallel to the -piter in Ju-piter), he has most of the attributes of his Indo-European counterpart, with whom some have postulated a more remote linguistic connection. The name means "day" in Etruscan. He is the god of boundaries and justice. He is depicted as a young, bearded male, seated or standing at the center of the scene, grasping a stock of thunderbolts. According to Latin literature, the bolts are of three types: for warning, good or bad interventions, and drastic catastrophes. Unlike Zeus, Tin needs the permission of the Dii Consentes (consultant gods) and Dii Involuti (hidden gods – Graeae?) to wield the last two categories. A further epithet, Calusna (of Calu), hints at a connection to wolves or dogs and the underworld.|
|Tiur, Tivr, Tiv||Etruscan deity identified with Greek Selene and Roman Luna (goddess).|
|Tlusc, Tluscv, Mar Tlusc||Unknown deity of the Piacenza Liver, which is not a picture bilingual. The corresponding region in Martianus Capella is ruled by Sancus, an Italic god and Sabine progenitor, who had a temple on the Quirinal Hill, and appears on an Etruscan boundary stone in the expression Selvans Sanchuneta, in which Sanchuneta seems to refer to the oaths establishing the boundary. Sancus probably comes from Latin sancīre, "to ratify an oath."|
|Turan||Etruscan goddess identified with Greek Aphrodite and Roman Venus. She appears in the expression, Turan ati, "Mother Turan", equivalent to Venus Genetrix. Her name is a noun meaning "the act of giving" in Etruscan, based on the verb stem Tur- 'to give.'|
|Turms, Turmś||Etruscan god identified with Greek Hermes and Roman Mercurius. In his capacity as guide to the ghost of Tiresias, who has been summoned by Odysseus, he is Turms Aitas, "Turms Hades."|
|Turnu||An Etruscan deity, a type of Eros, child of Turan.|
|TV[?]th||Unknown deity of the Piacenza Liver, which is not a picture bilingual.|
|Uni||Supreme goddess of the Etruscan pantheon, wife of Tinia, mother of Hercle, and patroness of Perugia. With Tinia and Menrva, she was a member of the ruling triad of Etruscan deities. Uni was the equivalent of the Greek Hera and the Roman Juno, from whose name the name Uni may be derived.|
|Usil||Etruscan deity identified with Greek Helios, Roman Sol.|
|Vea||Etruscan divinity, possibly taking its name from the city of Veii or vice versa.|
|Veltha, Velthume, Vethune, Veltune||Etruscan deity, possible state god of the Etruscan league of Etruria, the Voltumna in the Latin expression Fanum Voltumnae, "shrine of Voltumna", which was their meeting place, believed located at Orvieto. The identification is based on reconstruction of a root *velthumna from Latin Voltumna, Vertumnus, and Voltumnus of literary sources, probably from Etruscan veltha, "earth" or "field". Representations of a bearded male with a long spear suggest Velthune may be an epithet of Tinia.|
|Veiove, Veive, Vetis||Etruscan infernal deity whose temple stood at Rome near the Capitoline Hill. The identification is made from the deity's Latin names related by a number of ancient authors over the centuries: Vēi, Vēdi, Vēdii, Veiovis, Vediovis, Vediiovis, Vedius.|
|Vesuna||Italic goddess mentioned also in the Iguvine Tables.|
|Zerene||Macedonian goddess Zeirene Eleusia, Latin Ceres.|
|Calanice||A Greek title for Hercle, Kallinikos.|
|Castur||Castor, one of the mythological twins.|
|Catmite||The Trojan youth, Ganymede, from an alternative Greek spelling, Gadymedes. From the Etruscan is Latin Catamitus.|
|Hercle, Hercele, Herecele, Herkle, Hrcle||Etruscan form of the Greek hero Hēraklēs, Roman Hercules. With Perseus, the main Etruscan hero, the adopted son of Uni/Juno, who suckled the adult Hercle. His image appears more often than any other on Etruscan carved hardstones. His name appears on the bronze Piacenza Liver, used for divination (hepatoscopy), a major element of Etruscan religious practice.|
|Pultuce, Pulutuce, Pulutuke, Pultuke||Pollux, one of the mythological twins, Greek Polydeuces.|
|Rathmtr||Rhadamanthys, the Greek mythological character, judge of the dead.|
|Tinas cliniar||Etruscan expression, "sons of Tina", designating the Dioscuri, proving that Tin was identified with Zeus.|
Spirits, demons, and other creatures
|Aulunthe||Etruscan, the name of a satyr.|
|Begoë, Vegoia||Etruscan nymph believed to have power over lightning. She was also said to have composed a tract known as Ars Fulguritarum ("Art of the Thunderstruck"), which was included in the Roman pagan canon, along with the Sibylline Books.|
|Calaina||The Greek Nereid, Galene.|
|Celsclan||Etruscan Gigas, "son of Cel", identifying her as "Earth", as the giants in Greek mythology were the offspring of the earth.|
|Chaluchasu||Translation of Greek panchalkos, "wholly of bronze", perhaps the robot of Crete, Talos.|
|Charun, Charu||The mythological figure, Charon.|
|Chelphun||An Etruscan satyr.|
|Culsu||Also Cul. A female underworld demon who was associated with gateways. Her attributes included a torch and scissors. She was often represented next to Culsans.|
|Evan||An attendant on Turan, sometimes male, sometimes female.|
|Iynx||An Etruscan mythological creature, a bird of love.|
|Man, Mani||Etruscan class of spirits representing "the dead" and yet not the same as a hinthial, "ghost." From the Mani came the Latin Manes, which are both "the good" and the deified spirits of the dead.|
|Metus||The Gorgon Medusa. The head appears on the Aegis of Menrva as a Gorgoneion.|
|Pecse, Pakste||The name of the legendary winged horse, Pegasus, assigned by the Etruscans to the Trojan Horse.|
|Puanea||Etruscan name of a satyr.|
|Sime||An Etruscan satyr who has a Greek name.|
|Tuchulcha||An Etruscan daemon.|
|Tusna||Perhaps from *Turansna, "of Turan." The swan of Turan.|
|Vanth||Etruscan winged demon of the underworld often depicted in the company of Charun. She could be present at the moment of death, and frequently acted as a guide of the deceased to the underworld.|
|Vecu, Vecui, Vecuvia, Vegoia||The prophetic nymph Vegoia. See under Lasa Vecuvia, Begoë.|
|Achrum, Acharum||Legendary Greek river of the underworld, the Acheron.|
|Hipece||The magic spring, Hippocrene, represented in Etruscan art as a water spout in the form of a lion's head.|
|Truia, Truials||Troy, Trojan, the city of the Iliad.|
|Achle, Achile||Legendary hero of the Trojan War, from the Greek Achilles.|
|Achmemrun||Legendary king of Mycenaean Greece, from the Greek Agamemnon.|
|Aivas Tlamunus, Aivas Vilates||Also Eivas or Evas. Etruscan equivalents of the Greek heroes Ajax, son of Telamon and Ajax, son of Oileus.|
|Alchumena||The Greek legendary character, Alcmena.|
|Alcstei, Alcsti||The Greek legendary character, Alcestis.|
|Alichsantre, Alechsantre, Alcsentre, Elchsntre, Elachśantre, Elachśntre, Elcste||The Trojan legendary character, Alexandrus, otherwise known as Paris.|
|Althaia||The Greek figure Althaea, mother of Meleager.|
|Amuce, Amuche, Amuke||The Greek legendary figure Amycus of the Argonauts myth.|
|Areatha||The mythological figure Ariadne.|
|Ataiun||The mythological figure Actaeon.|
|Atlenta, Atlnta||The mythological person Atalanta.|
|Atmite||The legendary character Admetus.|
|Atunis||The mythological figure Adonis.|
|Aturmica||The mythological figure Andromache, the Amazon.|
|Capne, Kapne||The legendary hero Capaneus.|
|Caśntra||Cassandra, prophetess of the Trojan War.|
|Cerca||Enchantress of the Odyssey Circe.|
|Cilens||Also written Celens.|
|Cluthumustha, Clutmsta||The female legendary character, Clytemnestra.|
|Crisitha||The heroine of the Trojan War, the Greek name Chryseis.|
|Easun, Heasun, Heiasun||Etruscan version of the mythological hero Jason.|
|Ecapa||The tragic heroine of the Trojan War, Hecuba.|
|Ectur||Hector, a hero of the Trojan War.|
|Elinei, Elinai, Elina||The character Helen of Trojan War fame.|
|Epiur, Epeur||Greek epiouros, "guardian", a boy presented to Tinia by Hercle, possibly Tages.|
|Ermania||legendary character Hermione, daughter of Menelaus and Helen.|
|Etule||Greek Aitolos, confused with his brother, Epeios, who built the Trojan horse.|
|Evtucle, [Ev]thucle||The hero Eteocles.|
|Hamphiare, Amphare||Legendary seer Amphiaraus.|
|Latva||Greek Leda, mother of Helen and the Dioscuri.|
|Lunc, Lnche||The legendary figure Lynceus.|
|Meleacr||The legendary figure known to the Greeks as Meleager.|
|Memnum, Memrum||Memnon, a Trojan saved from Achle by his mother, Thesan.|
|Menle||The hero Menelaus of Trojan War fame.|
|Metaia, Metua, Metvia||The mythological character Medea.|
|Mlacuch||A young Etruscan woman kidnapped by Hercle.|
|Nestur||The legendary hero Nestor.|
|Palmithe, Talmithe||The hero Palamedes.|
|Pantasila, Pentasila||The Greek name, Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons.|
|Patrucle||Patroclus of Trojan War fame.|
|Pava Tarchies||Etruscan Tarchies in an expression: "boy Tarchies." See under Tarchies.|
|Pele||The hero Peleus.|
|Perse, Pherse||The mythological hero Perseus.|
|Phaun, Faun, Phamu||The mythological character Phaon.|
|Phuinis||The Greek Phoinix, friend of Peleus.|
|Phulsphna||The legendary figure Polyxena.|
|Prisis||The Greek Briseis mentioned in the Iliad.|
|Priumne||Priam king of Troy.|
|Semla||The Greek mortal Semele.|
|Sispe, Sisphe||The legendary king Sisyphus.|
|Taitle||The Etruscan form of the mythological figure Daedalus.|
|Tarchies||Occurs in Pava Tarchies, label of a central figure in depictions of divination, who, along with Epiur, a divinatory child, is believed to be the same as Tages, founder of the Etruscan religion, mentioned by Roman authors.|
|Tarchon||An Etruscan culture hero who, with his brother, Tyrrhenus, founded the Etruscan Federation of twelve cities.|
|Techrs||From the Greek Trojan War hero Teucer.|
|Telmun, Tlamun, Talmun, Tlamu||Telamon, a legendary Argonaut.|
|Teriasals, Teriasa||Legendary blind prophet Tiresias.|
|These||A hero who is the equivalent of Theseus.|
|Thethis||The Greek nymph Thetis, mother of Achilles.|
|Tuntle||The legendary figure, known to the Greeks as Tyndareus.|
|Tute||The Greek hero Tydeus.|
|Tyrrhenus||An Etruscan culture hero and twin brother of Tarchon.|
|Urphe||The mythological figure Orpheus.|
|Urusthe||The homeric legendary character Orestes.|
|Uthste||The legendary hero Odysseus|
|Velparun||The Greek hero Elpenor.|
|Vikare||Son of Taitle, the mythological figure of Icarus. The name is found inscribed once, on a golden bulla dating to the 5th century BCE now housed at the Walters Art Museum.|
|Vile, Vilae||Greek Iolaos, nephew of Hercle.|
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 192.
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 193.
- É. Benveniste "Nom et origine de la déesse étrusque Acaviser" in Studi Etruschi 31929 pp. 249–258.
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 194.
- Rykwert page 140. The liver and a list of names is depicted in Hooper & Schwartz page 223.
- de Grummond, N.T. & Simon, E. (eds). (2006). The Religion of the Etruscans. Austin, TX. University of Texas Press.
- De Grummond page 55.
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 196
- De Grummond page 105.
- Thulin pages 50 and 65.
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 215.
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 203.
- The Bonfantes (2002) page 198.
- Titus Livius. Ab urbe condita. book 1, chapter 30, section 5.
- Leland, Chapter IV, Faflon.
- Pallottino page 248.
- The Bonfantes (2002) page 199.
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 200.
- De Grummond page 21.
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 201.
- Pallottino, page 162.
- For a summary of her classical life, see Seyffert's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities under "Mania", online at  Archived 2007-09-06 at the Wayback Machine ancientlibrary.com.
- Summers, page 24, quotes Macrobius, Saturnalia I vii on this topic.
- Virgil Aeneid Book X lines 199–200 says that it was named after the prophetess Manto, but Servius' gloss on Line 199 says that the city was named after Mantus and that he was Dispater, which corresponds to Aulus Caecina's view that Tarchon dedicated all the Etruscan cities of the Po valley to Dispater. De Grummond, pages 141, 205.
- Page 159.
- Bonfante, Larissa. Etruscan: Reading the Past. UCalP. 1990. p. 32
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 202.
- De Grummond page 59.
- Bonnefoy page 30.
- Livy vii. 3. 7
- The face theory is presented, among other reputable sources, by Eric Partridge, Origins, ISBN 0-517-41425-2.
- The Bonfantes (2002) page 204.
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 205.
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 206.
- De Grummond pages 152–153.
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 174.
- Bornhard, Allan R.; Kerns, John C. (1994). The Nostratic Macrofamily: A study in distant linguistic relationships. Walter de Gruyter. p. 304. ISBN 3-11-013900-6. – previewed on Google Books.
- De Grummond, Chapter IV.
- Swaddling & Bonfante page 78.
- Thulin page 59.
- De Grummond, page 50, features a diagram comparing Capella and the liver, while page 149 presents the boundary stone.
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 208.
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 210.
- A good development of the concept can be found in Harmon.
- Lewis & Short, Latin Lexicon, available online at www.perseus.com.
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 195.
- J.N. Adams page 163.
- Bonfante 2000 page 60.
- Schmitz, Leonhard (1870). "Manes". In Smith, William (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. ancientlibrary.com. Archived from the original on 2008-06-06.
- de Grummond, pages 220–225.
- The Bonfantes (2002), page 178.
- Swaddling & Bonfante page 42.
- The Walters Art Museum
- Adams, J. N. (2003). Bilingualism and the Latin Language. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81771-4.
- Bonfante, Giuliano; Bonfante, Larissa (2002). The Etruscan Language: an Introduction. Manchester: University of Manchester Press. ISBN 0-7190-5540-7.
- Bonnefoy, Yves (1992). Roman and European Mythologies. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-06455-7. Translated by Wendy Doniger, Gerald Honigsblum.
- De Grummond; Nancy Thomson (2006). Etruscan Mythology, Sacred History and Legend: An Introduction. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology. ISBN 1-931707-86-3.
- Dennis, George (2009) . Thayer, William P (ed.). The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria. London, Chicago: John Murray, University of Chicago.
- Harmon, Daniel P. (1986). "Religion in the Latin Elegists". In Haase, Wolfgang (ed.). Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischenwelt. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1961–1965. ISBN 3-11-008289-6.
- Hooper, Finley & Schwartz, Matthew (1991). Roman Letters: History from a Personal Point of View. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1594-1.
- Leland, Charles Godfrey (2002) . Etruscan Roman Remains in Popular Tradition. London, Santa Cruz: T. Fisher Unwin, sacred-texts.com.
- Summers, Montague (2001). The Vampire in Lore and Legend. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-41942-8.
- Pallottino, M. (1975). The Etruscans. London: Penguin Books.
- Richardson, Emeline Hill (1976) . The Etruscans: Their Art and Civilization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-71234-6.
- Rykwert, Joseph (1988). The Idea of a Town: the Anthropology of Urban Form in Rome, Italy and the Ancient World. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-68056-4.
- Swaddling, Judith & Bonfante, Larissa (2006). Etruscan Myths. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70606-5.
- Thulin, Carl (1906). Die Götter des Martianus Capella und der Bronzeleber von Piacenza (in German). Alfred Töpelmann. Downloadable Google Books.