List of Celtic deities

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Celtic pantheon is known from a variety of sources such as written Celtic mythology, ancient places of worship, statues, engravings, religious objects, and place or personal names. The Celtic pantheon has over 1,200 named deities; a comprehensive list is difficult to assemble.

Celtic deities can belong to two categories: general deities and local deities. "General deities" were known by Celts throughout large regions, and are the gods and goddesses invoked for protection, healing, luck, and honour. The "local deities" that embodied Celtic nature worship were the spirits of a particular feature of the landscape, such as mountains, trees, or rivers, and thus were generally only known by the locals in the surrounding areas.[1]

After Celtic lands became Christianised, there were attempts by Christian writers to euhemerize or even demonize the pre-Christian deities. For example, the Tuatha Dé Danann of Irish mythological sources have commonly been interpreted to be a divine pantheon, despite certain redactors' interjecting that the Tuatha Dé Danann were merely mortals, or else that they were demons.[1]

Gaulish and Brythonic deities[edit]

The Gaulish Celts inhabited the region corresponding to modern-day France, Switzerland, southern and western Germany, Belgium, Frisia, Netherlands, Holland, Luxembourg and northern Italy. The Brythonic Celts, or Britons, inhabited most of the island of Great Britain and later migrated to Brittany.

Male[edit]

Female[edit]

Welsh deities/characters[edit]

The Welsh are the Britons that inhabit modern-day Wales (Welsh: Cymru). After the Anglo-Saxons invaded Britain, many Brythonic territories came under Anglo-Saxon influence; in Wales, however, Brythonic Celtic religion was largely retained. Many Welsh myths were later Christianized so it is sometimes difficult to determine if their characters were originally gods, mortals, or historical figures.

Male[edit]

Female[edit]

Gaelic deities[edit]

Note: Modern spellings are shown in brackets.

Male[edit]

Female[edit]

Celtiberian, Gallaecian and Lusitanian deities[edit]

The Celtiberians were the ancient peoples who inhabited modern-day Portugal and Spain. Some believe the Lusitani and Vettones were culturally Celtic. Nevertheless, they were at least Celtic-influenced.

Male[edit]

Female[edit]

Germanian and Pannonian Celtic deities[edit]

Germania was a geographical region covering north-central Europe. Pannonia was a region in central Europe.

Male[edit]

Female[edit]

Illyrian and Moesian Celtic deities[edit]

Illyria is a region in the western part of the Balkan peninsula.

Male[edit]

Female[edit]

Pictish deities[edit]

The Picts were ancient peoples living in Scotland.

Female[edit]

Galatian deities[edit]

The Galatians were the ancient peoples who inhabited north-central Anatolia (modern-day Turkey).

Male[edit]

Female[edit]

  • Diana - A boar riding goddess called a demon by the Romans, not to be confused with the Roman Diana[110]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Nguyen, Trung. History of Gods. EnCognitive.com.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch "CELTIC DEITIES - from Chinaroad Lowchens of Australia". www.lowchensaustralia.com.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv jw jx jy jz ka kb kc kd ke kf kg kh ki kj kk kl km kn ko kp kq kr ks kt ku kv kw kx ky kz la lb lc ld le lf lg lh li lj lk ll lm ln lo lp lq lr ls lt lu lv lw lx ly lz ma mb mc md me mf mg mh mi mj mk ml mm mn mo mp mq mr ms mt Sunniva, Dewaele. "Lexicon of the World of the Celtic Gods" (PDF). sangreal.
  4. ^ a b c d e Aberth, John (2013). An environmental history of the Middle Ages : the crucible of nature. London: Routledge. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-415-77945-6.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp "The Gods and Goddesses of the Celtic Lands". www.scns.com.
  6. ^ a b c d Murley, Joseph Clyde (1922). The Cults of Cisalpine Gaul as Seen in the Inscriptions. The Collegiate Press. p. 90.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az "Celtic Deities and Mythic Figures". www.terrapsych.com.
  8. ^ a b c d e Freeman, Philip. Celtic Mythology: Tales of Gods, Goddesses, and Heroes. Oxford University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-19-046047-1.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg "Celtic Deities of Britain, Wales, Gaul, and Scotland (and surrounding areas)". www.joellessacredgrove.com.
  10. ^ a b c d Editor, Tabbernee, William. Early Christianity in Contexts: An Exploration across Cultures and Continents. Baker Academic. ISBN 978-1-4412-4571-7.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Murley, Joseph Clyde (1922). The Cults of Cisalpine Gaul as Seen in the Inscriptions. The Collegiate Press. p. v.
  12. ^ a b c Anwyl, Edward (1906). Celtic Religion in Pre-Christian Times. Andover-Harvard Theological Library. p. 39.
  13. ^ a b c Griffin, Susan. "Pantheon of Gods and Goddesses".
  14. ^ a b c Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy A. (2004). Handbook to life in ancient Rome (Updated ed.). New York: Facts on file. p. 283. ISBN 0-8160-5026-0.
  15. ^ CIL XIII, 06572, CIL XIII, 04507, CIL XIII, 06455
  16. ^ Monaghan, Patricia (2004). The encyclopedia of Celtic mythology and folklore. New York: Facts On File. p. 130. ISBN 0-8160-4524-0.
  17. ^ Jan Gruter, Inscriptiones totius orbis Romani antiquae, p. 1074.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h Coulter, Charles Russell; Turner, Patricia (2000). Encyclopedia of ancient deities. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 1-57958-270-2.
  19. ^ a b Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy A. (2004). Handbook to life in ancient Rome (Updated ed.). New York: Facts on file. p. 294. ISBN 0-8160-5026-0.
  20. ^ "Lugus – Polytheist.com". Polytheist.com. 13 July 2015.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h MacCulloch, J. A. The Religion of the Ancient Celts. Library of Alexandria.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Goddesses in Celtic Religion: The Matres and Matronae". 11 February 2017.
  23. ^ Whatmough, Joshua. The Foundations of Roman Italy. Haskell House Publishers LTD. p. 159.
  24. ^ a b Carroll, Barbara. Gods, Goddesses, and Saints: A Solitary Practice of Chanting and Meditation. Outskirts Press, Inc. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-4787-4700-0.
  25. ^ Freeman, Philip (2017). Celtic Mythology: Tales of Gods, Goddesses, and Heroes. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-046047-1.
  26. ^ a b c d e f "Celtic Gods". onespiritx.tripod.com.
  27. ^ a b c d e f Carroll, Barbara. Gods, Goddesses, and Saints: A Solitary Practice of Chanting and Meditation. Outskirts Press, Inc. p. 283. ISBN 978-1-4787-4700-0.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Ancestral Mothers and Goddess Collectives in German Iron Age Votive Altars and Inscriptions dedicated to the "Matrones". | Freyia Völundarhúsins". freya.theladyofthelabyrinth.com (in Norwegian Bokmål).
  29. ^ a b c d Carroll, Barbara. Gods, Goddesses, and Saints: A Solitary Practice of Chanting and Meditation. Outskirts Press, Inc. p. 290. ISBN 978-1-4787-4700-0.
  30. ^ Anwyl, Edward (1906). Celtic Religion in Pre-Christian Times. Andover-Harvard Theological Library. p. 38.
  31. ^ Séguin, Xavier (28 April 2015). "The Gaulish Gods - Eden Saga - english". Eden Saga - english.
  32. ^ Nicholson, Edward Williams Byron (1904). Keltic researches. Oxford University Press. p. 132.
  33. ^ Sheard, K. M. (2011). Llewellyn's complete book of names for pagans, wiccans, witches, druids, heathens, mages, shamans & independent thinkers of all sorts who are curious about names from every place and every time (1st ed.). Woodbury, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-7387-2368-6.
  34. ^ a b Carroll, Barbara. Gods, Goddesses, and Saints: A Solitary Practice of Chanting and Meditation. Outskirts Press, Inc. p. 280. ISBN 978-1-4787-4700-0.
  35. ^ a b c Murley, Joseph Clyde (1922). The Cults of Cisalpine Gaul as Seen in the Inscriptions. The Collegiate Press. p. 87.
  36. ^ a b Anwyl, Edward (1906). Celtic Religion in Pre-Christian Times. Andover-Harvard Theological Library. p. 41.
  37. ^ Monaghan, Patricia (2004). The encyclopedia of Celtic mythology and folklore. New York: Facts On File. p. 122. ISBN 0-8160-4524-0.
  38. ^ Nicholson, Edward Williams Byron (1904). Keltic researches. Oxford University Press. p. 137.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Took, Thalia. "Obscure Gaulish Goddesses". www.thaliatook.com.
  40. ^ Nicholson, Edward Williams Byron (1904). Keltic researches. Oxford University Press. p. 198.
  41. ^ Nicholson, Edward Williams Byron (1904). Keltic researches. Oxford University Press. p. xvi.
  42. ^ a b c d Chalquist, Craig. "Celtic Deities ~ Chalquist.com". Chalquist.com.
  43. ^ Carroll, Barbara. Gods, Goddesses, and Saints: A Solitary Practice of Chanting and Meditation. Outskirts Press, Inc. p. 327. ISBN 978-1-4787-4700-0.
  44. ^ MacCulloch, J.A. (2009). The religion of the ancient Celts. [Auckland, N.Z.]: Floating Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-775414-01-8.
  45. ^ a b Pedreño, Juan Carlos Olivares (November 11, 2005). "Celtic Gods of the Iberian Peninsula". Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 6: 635.
  46. ^ Nicholson, Edward Williams Byron (1904). Keltic researches. Oxford University Press. p. 160.
  47. ^ Carroll, Barbara. Gods, Goddesses, and Saints: A Solitary Practice of Chanting and Meditation. Outskirts Press, Inc. p. 358. ISBN 978-1-4787-4700-0.
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j MacLeod, Sharon Paice (2012). Celtic myth and religion : a study of traditional belief, with newly translated prayers, poems and songs. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-7864-6476-0.
  49. ^ a b c d "CELTIC GODS AND GODDESSES". www.angelfire.com.
  50. ^ "Brythonic Deities/Celtic Earth Spirit/A Resource For All Who Follow The Old Ways". Celtic Earth Spirit. 20 July 2017.
  51. ^ Sheard, K. M. (2011). Llewellyn's complete book of names for pagans, wiccans, witches, druids, heathens, mages, shamans & independent thinkers of all sorts who are curious about names from every place and every time (1st ed.). Woodbury, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-7387-2368-6.
  52. ^ a b c Carroll, Barbara. Gods, Goddesses, and Saints: A Solitary Practice of Chanting and Meditation. Outskirts Press, Inc. p. 314. ISBN 978-1-4787-4700-0.
  53. ^ a b Carroll, Barbara. Gods, Goddesses, and Saints: A Solitary Practice of Chanting and Meditation. Outskirts Press, Inc. p. 315. ISBN 978-1-4787-4700-0.
  54. ^ a b c d e f Monaghan, Patricia (2004). The encyclopedia of Celtic mythology and folklore. New York: Facts On File. ISBN 0-8160-4524-0.
  55. ^ Sheard, K. M. (2011). Llewellyn's complete book of names for pagans, wiccans, witches, druids, heathens, mages, shamans & independent thinkers of all sorts who are curious about names from every place and every time (1st ed.). Woodbury, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-7387-2368-6.
  56. ^ Massey, Gerald. A Book of the Beginnings. Cosimo, Inc. p. 317. ISBN 978-1-60206-829-2.
  57. ^ Monaghan, Patricia (2004). The encyclopedia of Celtic mythology and folklore. New York: Facts On File. p. 338. ISBN 0-8160-4524-0.
  58. ^ Keating, Geoffrey (1857). The History of Ireland from the Earliest Period to the English Invasion. P.M. Haverty. p. 145.
  59. ^ Coulter, Charles Russell; Turner, Patricia (2000). Encyclopedia of ancient deities. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 60. ISBN 1-57958-270-2.
  60. ^ a b c d e O'Conner, Dermod. Keating's General History of Ireland. Koninklijke Bibliotheek. p. 91.
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "the story of the Tuatha de Danann". www.shee-eire.com.
  62. ^ Coulter, Charles Russell; Turner, Patricia (2000). Encyclopedia of ancient deities. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 91. ISBN 1-57958-270-2.
  63. ^ Green, Miranda Jane (1993). Celtic myths (1st Univ. of Texas Press ed.). Austin: Univ. of Texas Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-292-72754-2.
  64. ^ Monaghan, Patricia (2004). The encyclopedia of Celtic mythology and folklore. New York: Facts On File. p. 141. ISBN 0-8160-4524-0.
  65. ^ Coulter, Charles Russell; Turner, Patricia (2000). Encyclopedia of ancient deities. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 155. ISBN 1-57958-270-2.
  66. ^ Coulter, Charles Russell; Turner, Patricia (2000). Encyclopedia of ancient deities. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 165. ISBN 1-57958-270-2.
  67. ^ a b O'Conner, Dermod. Keating's General History of Ireland. Koninklijke Bibliotheek. p. 92.
  68. ^ Coulter, Charles Russell; Turner, Patricia (2000). Encyclopedia of ancient deities. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 340. ISBN 1-57958-270-2.
  69. ^ Coulter, Charles Russell; Turner, Patricia (2000). Encyclopedia of ancient deities. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 151. ISBN 1-57958-270-2.
  70. ^ Lurker, Manfred (2004). The Routledge dictionary of gods, goddesses, devils and demons (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 0-415-34018-7.
  71. ^ Sheard, K. M. (2011). Llewellyn's complete book of names for pagans, wiccans, witches, druids, heathens, mages, shamans & independent thinkers of all sorts who are curious about names from every place and every time (1st ed.). Woodbury, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-7387-2368-6.
  72. ^ MacLeod, Sharon Paice (2012). Celtic myth and religion : a study of traditional belief, with newly translated prayers, poems and songs. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-7864-6476-0.
  73. ^ MacCulloch, J.A. (2009). The religion of the ancient Celts. [Auckland, N.Z.]: Floating Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-1-775414-01-8.
  74. ^ Mathews, P.J. "Literature and 1916 | Century Ireland". www.rte.ie.
  75. ^ Coulter, Charles Russell; Turner, Patricia (2000). Encyclopedia of ancient deities. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 130. ISBN 1-57958-270-2.
  76. ^ Monaghan, Patricia (2004). The encyclopedia of Celtic mythology and folklore. New York: Facts On File. p. 137. ISBN 0-8160-4524-0.
  77. ^ a b Keating, Geoffrey (1857). The History of Ireland from the Earliest Period to the English Invasion. P.M. Haverty. p. 141.
  78. ^ a b Keating, Geoffrey (1857). The History of Ireland from the Earliest Period to the English Invasion. P.M. Haverty. p. 142.
  79. ^ a b Carroll, Barbara. Gods, Goddesses, and Saints: A Solitary Practice of Chanting and Meditation. Outskirts Press, Inc. p. 322. ISBN 978-1-4787-4700-0.
  80. ^ a b "Muirenn Muncháem". Oxford Reference.
  81. ^ Carroll, Barbara. Gods, Goddesses, and Saints: A Solitary Practice of Chanting and Meditation. Outskirts Press, Inc. p. 341. ISBN 978-1-4787-4700-0.
  82. ^ a b "Cernunnos". draeconin.com.
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h i Pedreño, Juan Carlos Olivares (November 11, 2005). "Celtic Gods of the Iberian Peninsula". Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 6: 610.
  84. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Arenas-Esteban, ed., J. Alberto (2010). Celtic religion across space and time : fontes epigraphici religionvm celticarvm antiqvarvm : IX Workshop F.E.R.C. AN. Toledo: Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha. p. 110. ISBN 978-84-7788-589-4.
  85. ^ Pedreño, Juan Carlos Olivares (November 11, 2005). "Celtic Gods of the Iberian Peninsula". Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 6: 638.
  86. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Frank, Deryk. "Celtiberian Mythological Characters Flashcards | Quizlet". Quizlet.
  87. ^ a b c Pedreño, Juan Carlos Olivares (November 11, 2005). "Celtic Gods of the Iberian Peninsula". Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 6: 609.
  88. ^ Pedreño, Juan Carlos Olivares (November 11, 2005). "Celtic Gods of the Iberian Peninsula". Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 6: 612.
  89. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Arenas-Esteban, ed., J. Alberto (2010). Celtic religion across space and time : fontes epigraphici religionvm celticarvm antiqvarvm : IX Workshop F.E.R.C. AN. Toledo: Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha. p. 111. ISBN 978-84-7788-589-4.
  90. ^ Dorcey, Peter F. (1992). The cult of Silvanus : a study in Roman folk religion. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 59. ISBN 90-04-09601-9.
  91. ^ Pedreño, Juan Carlos Olivares (November 11, 2005). "Celtic Gods of the Iberian Peninsula". Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 6: 636.
  92. ^ Pedreño, Juan Carlos Olivares (November 11, 2005). "Celtic Gods of the Iberian Peninsula". Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 6: 626.
  93. ^ Pedreño, Juan Carlos Olivares (November 11, 2005). "Celtic Gods of the Iberian Peninsula". Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 6: 627.
  94. ^ Pedreño, Juan Carlos Olivares (November 11, 2005). "Celtic Gods of the Iberian Peninsula". Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 6: 607.
  95. ^ Pedreño, Juan Carlos Olivares (November 11, 2005). "Celtic Gods of the Iberian Peninsula". Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 6: 632.
  96. ^ a b Arenas-Esteban, ed., J. Alberto (2010). Celtic religion across space and time : fontes epigraphici religionvm celticarvm antiqvarvm : IX Workshop F.E.R.C. AN. Toledo: Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha. p. 112. ISBN 978-84-7788-589-4.
  97. ^ Pedreño, Juan Carlos Olivares (November 11, 2005). "Celtic Gods of the Iberian Peninsula". Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 6: 631.
  98. ^ NicMhacha, Sharynne MacLeod (2005). Queen of the Night : rediscovering the Celtic moon goddess. Boston, MA: Weiser Books. p. 110. ISBN 1-57863-284-6.
  99. ^ Pedreño, Juan Carlos Olivares (November 11, 2005). "Celtic Gods of the Iberian Peninsula". Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 6: 614.
  100. ^ Pedreño, Juan Carlos Olivares (November 11, 2005). "Celtic Gods of the Iberian Peninsula". Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 6: 611.
  101. ^ Rankin, David (1998). Celts and the classical world (Reprint ed.). london: Routledge. p. 263. ISBN 0-415-15090-6.
  102. ^ "e-Keltoi: Volume 6, Religion and Religious Practices of the Ancient Celts of the Iberian Peninsula, by Francisco Marco Simón". www4.uwm.edu.
  103. ^ MacLeod, Sharon Paice (2014). The divine feminine in ancient Europe : goddesses, sacred women, and the origins of western culture. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-7864-7138-6.
  104. ^ August Dimitz, History of Carniola, vol. I, p.15
  105. ^ JURKIĆ, Vesna GIRARDI. "Paths of Ancient Gods in Roman Istria".
  106. ^ a b c d e f g "Gods in Scotland | Tairis". www.tairis.co.uk.
  107. ^ a b editor, John T. Koch, (2006). Celtic culture a historical encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 849. ISBN 1-85109-440-7.
  108. ^ Mcllmoyle, Diane (29 January 2013). "The genius cucullatus, or the Original Hoodie". Esmeralda's Cumbrian History & Folklore.
  109. ^ Roymans, editors, Ton Derks & Nico (2009). Ethnic constructs in antiquity : the role of power and tradition. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-90-8964-078-9.
  110. ^ MacCulloch, J.A. (2009). The religion of the ancient Celts. [Auckland, N.Z.]: Floating Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-775414-01-8.

Works cited[edit]