Special Region of Yogyakarta

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Special Region of Yogyakarta
Javanese language transcription(s)
 • Javanese scriptꦣꦌꦫꦃꦆꦱ꧀ꦠꦶꦩꦺꦮꦪꦺꦴꦒꦾꦏꦂꦠ
 • Javanese alphabetDhaérah Istiméwa Yogyakarta
Parangtritis Beach 2011 4.JPG
Malioboro Street, Yogyakarta.JPG
Prambanan Temple (6995053621).jpg
Kraton Ratu Boko (Ratu Boko Temple) in Yogyakarta, Indonesia 12.jpg
Abdi Budaya di Usia Senja.jpg
Merapi Volcano during sunrise 2019.jpg
Kalibiru Lake.jpg
Flag of Special Region of Yogyakarta
Coat of arms of Special Region of Yogyakarta
Coat of arms
Location of the Special Region of Yogyakarta in Indonesia
Location of the Special Region of Yogyakarta in Indonesia
Coordinates: 7°47′S 110°22′E / 7.783°S 110.367°E / -7.783; 110.367Coordinates: 7°47′S 110°22′E / 7.783°S 110.367°E / -7.783; 110.367
Established4 March 1950
Named forAyodhya
and largest city
 • Governor (Sultan)Hamengkubuwana X
 • Vice Governor (Paku Alam)Paku Alam X
 • Total3,133.15 km2 (1,209.72 sq mi)
Area rank33rd in Indonesia
Highest elevation
2,930 m (9,610 ft)
 (2014 estimation)[1]
 • Total3,594,290
 • Rank18th in Indonesia
 • Density1,100/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
 • Ethnic groups96% Javanese
0.6% Sundanese
3.4% other[2]
 • Religion91.4% Islam
8.3% Christianity
0.3% other[3]
 • LanguagesIndonesian, Javanese (both official)
Time zoneUTC+7 (WIB)
HDIIncrease 0.799 (High)
HDI rank2nd (2019)
GDP PPP (2011)Increase$6.20 billion[4]
Interactive map of SR Yogyakarta

The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Istimewa (D.I.) Yogyakarta, pronounced /ˌjɒɡjəˈkɑːrtə/) is a provincial-level autonomous region of Indonesia in the southern Java.[5] It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south, as well as sharing all the land borders to the province of Central Java. Ruled by the Yogyakarta Sultanate, the region is the only officially recognised monarchy within the government of Indonesia. The city of Yogyakarta is a popular tourist destination and cultural centre of the region.

The Yogyakarta Sultanate has been established since 1755 and provided an unwavering support for Indonesia's independence during the Indonesian National Revolution (1945–1949). As a first-level division in Indonesia, Yogyakarta is governed by Sultan Hamengkubuwono as the governor and Prince Paku Alam as the vice governor. With a land area of 3,185.8 km², it is the second-smallest province of Indonesia after Jakarta.[6]


Praja Cihna (Javanese: ꦥꦿꦗꦕꦶꦃꦤ), coat of arms or crest of the Yogyakarta Sultanate that is upheld by Mataram society. The crest contains the Javanese script ꦲꦨ꧀ꦮ, a royal monogram of Hamengkubuwono.

In Javanese it is pronounced [joɡjaˈkartɔ], and named after the city of Ayodhya in Javanese-Hindu mythology.[7] The Dutch name of the Special Region is Djokjakarta.

The Sultanate has existed in various forms through prehistory, and survived through the rule of the Dutch and the 1942 invasion of the Dutch East Indies by the Japanese Empire. In August 1945 Indonesia's first president, Sukarno proclaimed the independence of the Indonesian Republic, and by September of that year, Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and duke Sri Paku Alam VIII had sent letters to Sukarno expressing their support for the newly-born nation of Indonesia, in which they acknowledged the Yogyakarta Sultanate as part of the Indonesian Republic. The Sunanate of Surakarta did the same, and both of the Javanese kingdoms were awarded special status as special regions within Indonesian Republic. However, due to a leftist anti-royalist uprising in Surakarta, the Sunanate of Surakarta lost its special administrative status in 1946 and was absorbed into the province of Central Java.

Yogyakarta's overwhelming support and the Sultan's patriotism were essential in the Indonesian struggle for independence during the Indonesian National Revolution (1945–1949). The city of Yogyakarta became the capital of the Indonesian Republic from January 1946 to December 1948 after the fall of Jakarta to the Dutch. Later, the Dutch also invaded Yogyakarta causing the Indonesian Republic's capital to be transferred again to Bukittinggi in West Sumatra on 19 December 1948. In return for Yogyakarta's support, the declaration of Special Authority over Yogyakarta was granted in full in 1950 and Yogyakarta was given the status as a Special Administrative Region, making Yogyakarta the only region headed by a monarchy in Indonesia.

The Special Region was struck by a 6.3-magnitude earthquake on 27 May 2006, killing 5,782 people, injuring approximately 36,000 and leaving 600,000 people homeless.[8] The region of Bantul suffered the most damage and deaths.


The Special Region is located near the southern coast of Java, surrounded on three sides by the province of Central Java, and with the Indian Ocean on the south side. The population at the 2010 Census was 3,452,390 people, but according to the latest official estimate (January 2014) has risen to 3,594,290. It has an area of 3,133.15 km2, making it the second-smallest area of the provinces in Indonesia, after the Jakarta Capital Region. Along with surrounding areas in Central Java, it has some of the highest population densities of Java.

Mount Merapi is located to the immediate north of the city of Yogyakarta and Sleman Regency. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. It last erupted in October–November 2010, killing and injuring many people and temporarily displacing approximately 100,000 residents.[9][10]

Geo-heritage sites[edit]

Indonesia has numbers of geo-heritage sites in Yogyakarta Special Region. It has been declared by Geological Agency of the Energy and Natural Resources Ministry. The sites consists of 9 sites: Eosen limestone in Gamping (Sleman regency), pillow lava in Berbah (Sleman), pre-historic volcanic sediment in Candi Ijo, Prambanan (Sleman), sand dunes in Parangtritis Beach (Bantul regency), Kiskendo cave and former manganese mining site in Kleripan (Kulonprogo regency), the prehistoric volcano in Nglanggeran (Gunungkidul regency), Wediombo-Siung beaches (Gunungkidul) and Bioturbasi site in Kalingalang (Gunungkidul). The most unusual one is pillow lava in Berbah (Sleman) which is a big, rough black rock lays on the bank of narrow Dengkeng River. The prehistoric volcano in Nglanggeran (Gunungkidul regency) has already been developed as a tourist destination.

Administrative divisions[edit]

The Special Region of Yogyakarta (provincial level) is subdivided into four regencies (kabupaten) and one city (kota):

Name Capital Area (km²) Population
2000 Census
2005 estimate
2010 Census
2014 estimate
2018 Estimates
Yogyakarta City Yogyakarta City 32.50 396,700 433,539 388,627 404,003 0.861 (Very High)
Bantul Regency Bantul 508.13 781,000 859,968 911,503 947,568 0.794 (High)
Gunung Kidul Regency Wonosari 1,431.42 670,400 681,554 675,382 702,104 0.692 (Medium)
Kulon Progo Regency Wates 586.28 371,000 373,757 388,869 404,155 0.737 (High)
Sleman Regency Sleman 574.82 901,400 988,277 1,093,110 1,136,360 0.834 (Very High)
Totals 3,133.15 3,121,045 3,337,095 3,457,491 3,594,290 0.795 (High)

Located within the Special Region of Yogyakarta, the city of Yogyakarta is known as a centre of classical Javanese fine art and culture such as batik, ballet, drama, music, poetry and puppet shows. It is also one of Indonesia's most renowned centres of higher education. At the city's centre is the Sultan's palace called the kraton. While the city sprawls in all directions from the kraton, the core of the modern city is to the north.


Historical population
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS), 2010


Religion in Yogyakarta (2010 census)[12]
religion percent
Roman Catholicism
Not Stated
Not Asked


Yogyakarta is served by Adisutjipto International Airport and Yogyakarta International Airport, the latter being opened for minimum operations at the late April 2019 and fully operational starting late March 2020. There are two main railway stations: Lempuyangan Station and Yogyakarta railway station.

Yogyakarta is considered one of the major hubs that links the west-east main railway route in Java island. Yogyakarta railway station is the main train station located in the centre, and Lempuyangan train station is the second train station in the city. The two stations have their own schedule to and from other cities in Java island. The Prambanan Express commuter rail service operates across parts of Sleman Regency, Kulonprogo Regency and Yogyakarta City as well as regencies in Central Java, which would be replaced with an electric commuter rail system on 2021. To the south, in the Bantul region, is the Giwangan bus station, the largest bus station in Indonesia. The centre of metropolitan Yogyakarta is surrounded by a ring road.

Since 2008, the government of Special Region of Yogyakarta launched a bus rapid transit system, the Trans Jogja, which connects places in and around Yogyakarta City, including the airport and the Prambanan temple. Today,[when?] Trans Jogja has reached other points in the south-side of the city.[13]


Yogyakarta is home to more than 100 institutions[14] of higher education in Indonesia, the highest number of higher education institutions of any province in Indonesia. Hence, Yogyakarta earned its nickname "Kota Pelajar" (The City of Students).

Yogyakarta is the home of the first established state university in Indonesia, the Gadjah Mada University.

The Special Region is also the home of the first-established private university in Indonesia, the Islamic University of Indonesia, which was founded in 1945. The Indonesia Institute of Arts, the first-established university in fine arts, is also in the region. Other large universities include Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University, University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa in Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta State University, Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta and University of Atma Jaya Yogyakarta.

Sister relationships[edit]

Yogyakarta Special Region have signed sister province relationship or friendly ties agreement with region/state:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "BPS Provinsi D.I. Yogyakarta". yogyakarta.bps.go.id.
  2. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003.
  3. ^ Kementerian Agama Republik Indonesia Wilayah DIY (2010-03-15). "Kementerian Agama RI | Kantor Wilayah DI Yogyakarta". Yogyakarta.kemenag.go.id. Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
  4. ^ "Statistik Indonesia". Archived from the original on 2016-11-13.
  5. ^ "Nomenklatur Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta dan Penggunaannya" (PDF).
  6. ^ "Luas wilayah". jogjaprov.go.id. 1 June 2010.
  7. ^ "Raffles and the British Invasion of Java," Tim Hannigan, Monsoon Books, 2012, ISBN 9789814358866, .. Its full formal name was Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat. Like the Thai town of Ayutthaya, Yogyakarta was named for Ayodhya, mythical birthplace of the Hindu god Rama ..
  8. ^ "Indonesia lowers quake death toll". CNN. 2006-06-06. Archived from the original on 2006-06-15. Retrieved 2006-06-06.
  9. ^ "Update: Indonesia Volcano Death Toll Soars Past 100; 'Many Children Dead, by Gandang Sajarw". Jakarta Globe. 2010-11-05. Archived from the original on 2012-09-17. Retrieved 2010-11-05.
  10. ^ "Pictures: Indonesia's Mount Merapi Volcano Erupts". News.nationalgeographic.com. 2010-10-26. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
  11. ^ "Pembangunan Manusia | Provinsi D I Yogyakarta". ipm.bps.go.id.
  12. ^ "Population by Region and Religion in Indonesia". BPS. 2010.
  13. ^ "Trans Jogja Busway: Yogyakarta, Central Java". Indonesialogue.com. 2008-02-26. Archived from the original on 2012-03-10. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
  14. ^ "List of private higher education institutions in the Province of Yogyakarta". Kopertis4.or.id. Archived from the original on 2004-08-26. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
  15. ^ "Kyoto prefecture List of Friendly and Sister City". pref.kyoto.jp. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
  16. ^ "California's Sister-State Relationship with Special Province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia". senate.ca.gov. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  17. ^ "Gyeongsangbuk-do Province Website".
  18. ^ Biro Kerjasama (2006). Bunga Rampai Kerjasama Luar Negeri Propinsi DIY. Yogyakarta: Pemerintah Propinsi DIY.
  19. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-16. Retrieved 2016-06-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)


  • Regional Office of the Department of Tourism, Post and Telecommunication for the Special Region of Yogyakarta. (1997) Guide To Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Department of Tourism, Post and Telecommunication.
  • Ricklefs, M.C. (2001) A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200 (3rd ed.). Stanford: Stanford University Press. pp. 126–139, 269-271. ISBN 0-8047-4480-7
  • Ricklefs, M.C. (1974) Jogjakarta under Sultan Mangkubumi, 1749–1792: A history of the division of Java. London Oriental Series, vol. 30. London : Oxford University Press, (Revised Indonesian edition 2002)
  • Soemanto, Bakdi (1992) Cerita Rakyat dari Yogyakarta Jakarta: Grasindo (In Indonesian)
  • Soemardjan, S. (1962) Social Changes in Yogyakarta, Ithaca, N.Y. Cornell University Press.

External links[edit]