Demographics of the Ottoman Empire

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Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1520 11,692,480 —    
1566 15,000,000 +28.3%
1683 30,000,000 +100.0%
1831 27,230,660 −9.2%
1856 35,350,000 +29.8%
1881–93 17,388,604 −50.8%
1905 20,884,000 +20.1%
1906 20,975,345 +0.4%
1919 14,629,000 −30.3%

This article is about the demographics of the Ottoman Empire, including population density, ethnicity, education level, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Census[edit]

Demographic data for most of the history of the Ottoman Empire is not quite precise. For most of the five centuries of its existence, the empire did not have easily computable valid data except figures for the number of employed citizens. Until the first official census (1881–1893), data was derived from extending the taxation values to the total population. Because of the use of taxation data to infer population size, detailed data for numerous Ottoman urban centers - towns with more than 5,000 inhabitants - is accurate. This data was collaborated with data on wages and prices. Another source was used for the numbers of landlords of households in the Ottoman Empire- every household was assumed to have 5 residents.[1]

1831 Ottoman census[edit]

Entire villages remained uncounted. Taxable population was enumerated, i.e. healthy men over 15 years old. For some settlements the rest of the male population was the majority.

[2]
Area Muslim E. Orthodox All Gypsies Jews Armenians
Rumeli Eyalet 337001 686991 25126 9955 2099
Çatalca rural 848 2592
Silivri 887
Midya 127
Terkos 794
Çekmeceıkebır 464
Çekmeceısagır 403
Tiirkeşçıttiığı 29
Tekturdağı 3773 7727 57
Inecik 812 836 24
Malkara 1511 4010 64
Gelibolu 4179 6613
Şarköy 962 7752
Bergos 1860 3154 32 51
Çorlu 971 1938 45 73
Marmara Ereğlisi 177 554 24
Babayiatik 542 1253
Havas Mahmutpaşa 684 896
Hayrabolu 2203 1051
Evreşe 666 956 39
Inoz 274 2327 62
Keşan 850 4557 72
Çisriergene 1929 8886
Ipsala 955 1512
Edirne 18487 16789 750 1541 1443
Ada rural 1090 5214
Çdke rural 1990 4803
Üsküdar and Manastır rural 2333 17040
Tırfelli rural 181
Çisri Muştafa Paşa 914 1329
Çirmen 1910 1262
Çirpan 938 4619
Ahlçelebi 6080 4107
Akçakizanllk 7195 8097 748
Zağraiatık 5586 12782
Dimetoka 7525 10852
Ferecık 2385 3473
Meğri 692 833
Gumülcine 30517 5339 1712
Yenıceikerasu 7582 2540 1273
Uzuncaabat Hasköy 9941 10118 633
Sultanyeri 6251 51 89
Drama 8618 3077 1007
Cığlacik and San Şaban 4986 131 54
Tırnova 3051
Hutaliç rural 7543
Torluk rural 5108
Sahra rural 2678
Filibe 10920 44959 2021 344 344
Pazarcik 3269 14083 3653 119
Ihtaman 408 1501 83
Sofya 4161 39692 886
Şehirköy 1341 27643 379
Pravişte 4718 2596 259
Bereketlu 967 170
Kavala 1514 102
Berkofca 1125 13549 382
Cuma Pazari 3733 916
Egri Bucak 1482 1294
Çarşamba 2350 1717
Serfıce 682 2260
Tikveş 4454 6104
Petriç 3893 3869
Radovişte 3504 4907
Nevrekop 8539 8620 739
Melnik 918 4182 260
Timurhisar 3229 6611 494
Zihne 2867 10017 642
Siroz 4459 16596 1761 248
Selanik 12368 21669 511 5667
Yenice Vardar 6811 4766
Vodine 3996 3883
Karaferiye 1680 11052
Ağustos 151 737
Perzinek 215 4436
Iznebol 131 5152 151
Ustrumca 3674 5344 546
Toyran 4631 3076 334
Karadağ 2722 1452 108
Avrathisar 3176 6949 332
Dupniçe 3528 11642
Radomir 789 7211
Ivraca 1463 14282 262
Kratova, Ivraniye, Palangai, Eğridere 4749 21068 627
Vidin, Akçar, Karalom, Belgratçik, Çunarka, Godgoskaca and Esterlik rural 6695 24846 1289
Köprülü 4767 12718 390
Perlepe 3683 14489 450
Samokov 816 11973 11 94
Köstendil 3032 14070 232 145
Behişte 3202 2176 89
Kesriye 3313 16124 335
Persepe 568 2162
Manastir 6723 24550 705 1163
Florina 5596 5253 365
Istrova 1658 1176 57
Hotpeşte 2081 3630 43
Nasliç 2693 5748 275
Iştip 6920 9826
Koçana 3374 6112
Kumanova 2276 10819
Silistre Eyalet 150970 96342 8779 178
Niğbolu Sancak 110304 81489 5804 178
Selvı 7734
Izladi 2580
Etripolu 545
Lofça 12404
Plevne 6031
Rahova 1831
Sipre 235
Niğbolu 3893 8598 1190
Ziştovi 3897 5760 629
Rusçuk 16165 7196 1437
Yanbolu 1942 1507
Nevahii Yanbolu 1444 1237
Zağraicedıt 3292 4745
Yenicei Kızılağaç, Hatunili 499 1502
Niš 1862 18378 575 178
Prizren 9488 2867 366
Yehud 2768 2479 44
Tırguvişte 2404 2323 3
Gude 7574 100
Usküp 9660 11700 900
Kalkandelen 11766 8043 472
Kirçova 2286 5154 88
Silistre Sancak 40666 14853 2975
Varna 3427 1573 167
Isakçi 553 605 39
Minkalye 694 15 37
Balçik and Kuvarna 1766 630 125
Karkkala rural 52
Maçin 991 821 25
Köstence 1417 386 41
Hırsova 1391 986 21
Tulça 472 592 19
Kannabad 5065 1454 358
Babadağ 1171 1661 38
Doskasri 1114 596 273
Aydos 5790 845 449
Yenipazar 3482 948 300
Pravadı 4530 1465 231
Umurfakih 1140 146
Kozluca 1840 1163 146
Pazarcık 3515 761 287
Çardak 2308 300 223
Republic of Bulgaria borders[3] 181455 296769 17474 702 344

1844 Ottoman Census[edit]

District Muslims[4]
Rumelia 29%

1881-1893 Ottoman Census[edit]

The first official census (1881–1893) took 10 years to finish. In 1893 the results were compiled and presented. This census is the first modern, general and standardized census accomplished not for taxation nor for military purposes, but to acquire demographic data. The population was divided into ethno-religious and gender characteristics. Numbers of both male and female subjects are given in ethno-religious categories including Muslims, Greeks (including Greek Macedonians, Asia Minor Greeks, Pontic Greeks, and Caucasus Greeks, all Orthodox Christians under the Greek Patriarchate from extremely distinct ethnic origin), Armenians, Bulgarians, Catholics, Jews, Protestants, Latins, Syriacs and Gypsies.[5][6]

In 1867 the Council of States took charge of drawing population tables, increasing the precision of population records. They introduced new measures of recording population counts in 1874. This led to the establishment of a General Population Administration, attached to the Ministry of Interior in 1881-1882. Somehow, these changes politicized the population counts.

Ottoman Census Values
Administrative Unit Total Pop Armenian Pop Armenian %
Van Vilayet 132,007 55,051 41.70%
Bitlis Vilayet 338,642 108,050 31.91%
Izmit 228,443 44,953 19.68%
Erzurum Vilayet 637,015 120,147 18.86%
Dersaadet 903,482 166,185 18.39%
Vilayet of Mamuret-ul-Aziz 466,579 83,394 17.87%
Diyarbekir Vilayet 414,657 60,175 14.51%
Sivas Vilayet 980,876 129,085 13.16%
Adana Vilayet 398,764 36,695 9.20%
Halep Vilayet 819,238 70,663 8.63%
Ankara Vilayet 1,018,744 81,437 7.99%
Hüdavendigar Vilayet 1,454,294 70,262 4.83%
Trabzon Vilayet 1,164,595 49,782 4.27%
Sehremanati Mülhakati 88,306 3,074 3.48%
Edirne 985,962 18,458 1.87%
Çatalca 61,001 979 1.60%
Biga 143,904 1,842 1.28%
Konya 1,022,834 10,972 1.07%
Aydin 1,478,424 15,229 1.03%
Zor 51,270 474 0.92%
Kastamonu 968,884 6,652 0.69%
Kudüs 258,860 1,610 0.62%
Beyrut 620,763 2,921 0.47%
Suriye 551,135 1,478 0.27%
Selanik 1,038,953 51 0.00%
Cezayir-i Bahri Sefid 286,736 10 0.00%
Manastir 711,466 22 0.00%
1,139,651

1905-1906 Ottoman census[edit]

After 1893 the Ottoman Empire established a statistics authority (Istatistik-i Umumi Idaresi) under which results of another official census was published in 1899.

Istatistik-i Umumi Idaresi conducted a new census survey for which field work lasted two years (1905–06). 2-3 million people in Iraq and Syria remained unregistered and uncounted.[7] As a factual note this survey's complete (total) documentation was not published. Results of regional studies on this data were published later, which were sorted by their publication date. Included in the publication and subsequent ones was the Ottoman Empire's population as of 1911, 1912, and 1914. The substantial archival documentation on the census has been used in many modern studies and international publications. After 1906 the Ottoman Empire began to disband and a chain of violent wars such as the Italo-Turkish War, Balkan Wars and World War I drastically changed the region, its borders, and its demographics.

Population distribution of the Millets in the Ottoman Empire in 1906, according to the official census[8]-[9]
Millet Inhabitants  % of total
Muslimsa 15,498,747 - 15,518,478 76.09% - 74.23%
Greeksb 2,823,065 - 2,833,370 13.86% - 13.56%
Armeniansc 1,031,708 - 1,140,563 5.07% - 5.46%
Bulgarians 761,530 - 762,754 3.74% - 3.65%
Jews 253,435 - 256,003 1.24% - 1.23%
Protestantsd 53,880 0.26%
Othersd 332,569 1.59%
Total 20,368,485 - 20,897,617 100.00%
Notes: a The Muslim Millet includes all Muslims. The largest of them being Turks, Arabs and Kurds.
b The Greek Millet includes all Christians part of the Greek Orthodox Church. This includes Slavs and Albanians.
c This includes the various Assyrian Churches.
d The first source doesn't include Protestants and "others".

1914 Ottoman census[edit]

1914 Official Census Values (Male-Female Aggregated)[10]
Province Muslim Armenian Greek
Adana 341.903 (74.8%) 52.650 (13%) 8.974 (2.2%)
Ankara 877.285 (92.5%) 51.556 (5.4%) 20.240 (2.1%)
Antalya 235.762 (95.01%) 630 (.02%) 12.385 (4.97%)
Aydın (İzmir) 1.249.067 20.287 299.097
Bitlis 309.999 (72.5%) 117.492 (27.5%) 0
Bolu 399.281 2.970 5.115
Canik 265.950 27.319 98.739
Çatalca 20.048 842 36.791 (63.78%)
Diyarbekir 492.101 65.850 1.935
Edirne 360.411 19.773 224.680
Erzurum 673.297 134.377 4.864
Eskişehir 140.678 8.592 2.613
Halep 576.320 40.843 21.954
Harput 446.379 79.821 971
Hüdavendigâr 474.114 60.119 74.927
İçil 102.034 341 2.507
İzmit 226.859 55.852 40.048
Kale-i Sultaniye 149.903 2.474 8.550
Kastamonu 737.302 8.959 20.958
Karahisar-ı Sahib 277.659 7.439 632
Karesi 359.804 8.653 97.497
Kayseri 184.292 50.174 26.590
Konya 750.712 12.971 25.150
Kostantiniyye 560.434 82.880 205.752
Menteşe 188.916 12 19.923
Kütahya 303.348 4.548 8.755
Maraş 152.645 32.322 34
Niğde 227.100 4.936 58.312
Sivas 939.735 147.099 75.324
Trabzon 921.128 38.899 161.574
Urfa 149.384 16.718 2
Van 179.380 67.792 1
Zor 65.770 232 45
Total 13.390.000 1.173.422 1.564.939

1866 Danube census[edit]

In 1865, 658600 (40,51%) Muslims and 967058 (59,49%) non-Muslims, including females, were living in the province excluding Niş sanjak and 569.868 (34,68%) Muslims, apart from the immigrants and 1.073.496 (65,32%) non-Muslims in 1859-1860.[11] Half the Muslims were refugees from a population exchange of Christians and Muslims with Russia. Before the establishment of the Danube Vilayet, some 250000-300000 Muslim immigrants from Crimea and Caucasus had been settled in this region from 1855 to 1864. Another 200-300,000 male and female Circassian and Crimean Tatar refugees settled in 1862-1878 were to a degree excluded from the 1866 census count.[4]

Male population of the taxable population of the Danube Vilayet:

1866 census[4]
sancak Muslim Non-Muslim
Rusçuk 138692 95834
Varna 58689 20769
Vidin 25338 124567
Sofya 24410 147095
Tirnova 71645 104273
Tulça 39133 17929
Niş 54510 100425
Total 412417 610892

Percentage of communities in towns from the male population in 1866 according to Ottoman teskere:[12]

Town Bulgarians Muslims Gypsies Armenians Jews
Vidin 34 52 6 8
Sofya 38 39 4 20
Lom 58 35 3 5
Dupnice 38 46 5 11
Plevne 47 45 5 2
Rusçuk 38 52 2 4 5
Şumnu 40 51 1 5 2
Varna 49 40 1 8 2
Silistre 30 62 2 4 1

In 1873, 17,96% of the population of the province were living in the urban areas.

1874 Danube census[edit]

According to the 1874 census,there were 963596 (42,22%) Muslims and 1318506 (57,78%) non-Muslims in the Danube Province excluding Nış sanjak. Together with the sanjak of Nish the population consisted of 1055650 (40,68%) Muslims and 1539278 (59,32%) non-Muslims in 1874. Muslims were the majority in the sanjaks of Rusçuk, Varna and Tulça, while the non-Muslims were in majority in the rest of the sanjaks.[13]

Eastern Rumelia census[edit]

Census in Eastern Rumelia of 1878:[14]

Community (1878 census) Population Percentage
Bulgarians 571231 70.3%
Muslims 174759 21.4%
Greeks 42516 5.2%
Roma (Gypsies) 19524
Jews 4177
Armenians 1306

Census of Eastern Rumelia in 1880:[15]

Ethnicity (1880 census) Population Percentage
Bulgarians 590000 72.3%
Turks 158000 19.4%
Roma (Gypsies) 19500 2.4%
others 48000 5.9%

The ethnic composition of the population of Eastern Rumelia, according to the provincial census taken in 1884, was the following:[16]

Ethnicity (1884 census) Population Percentage
Bulgarians 681,734 70.0%
Turks 200,489 20.6%
Greeks 53,028 5.4%
Roma (Gypsies) 27,190 2.8%
Jews 6,982 0.7%
Armenians 1,865 0.2%

Population of Eastern Rumelia according to the 1880 census:[17]

kaza Bulgarians Turks Greeks Roma Jews Armenians
Plovdiv 127.619 36.848 14.265 4736 1185 806
Haskovo 74.656 55.334 1138 2116 246
Stara Zagora 124.666 27.115 35 2811 431
Sliven 96.425 12.463 14.184 3685 845 276
Pazardzhik 94.873 14.898 676 3487 1112 152
Burgas 36.997 28.091 11.798 2686 358 71

1903-1904 census of Salonika[edit]

Population of the Salonika vilayet: [12]

sanjak Muslims Greeks Bulgarians Vlachs Jews
Saloniki 220.000 190.000 85.000 15.000 48.000
Serres 145.000 78.000 130.000 4000 2000
Drama 119.000 22.000 4000 1000

Ethnoreligious estimates and registered population[edit]

Ethnoreligious makeup of the vilayets in 1877

Until the census of 1881/82, although there were occasional allusions to ethnic groups in the 1831 census, Ottoman officials classified the inhabitants only according to religious affiliation, excluding some ethnic categories included in some of the provinces after 1868. Nationality was defined by religion rather than language. Sofia and Niş sancaks were separated from the Danube Vilayet and the detached Sofia Province was founded in 1876, which were annexed to Adrianople and Kosovo Vilayets respectively in 1877. Niş sanjak was part of Prizren Vilayet in 1869-1874.

Male Population of the Danube Vilayet excluding Niş sancak in 1868 according to Kemal Karpat:[4]

Group Population
Christian Bulgarians 490.467
Muslims 359.907

Male Population of the parts of the Danube, Adrianople and Salonika vilayets corresponding to the modern Republic of Bulgaria in 1875 according to Totev:[3]

Place Muslims Non-Muslims
Total 687.998 1.053.387
Danube Vilayet 451.680 712.842

Male Population of the Danube Vilayet (51% of the total population) in 1866-1873 according to the editor of Dunav newspaper Ismail Kemal:[3]

Community Population
MUSLIMS 481.798
- Established Muslims 392.369
- Muslim settlers 64.398
- Muslim Gypsies 25.031
CHRISTIANS 646.215
- Bulgarians 592.573
- Greeks 7655
- Armenians 2128
- Catholics 3556
- others 40.303
JEWS 5375
Non-Muslim Gypsies 7663

Male Population of the Danube Vilayet(likely including Sofia) in 1876 according to the Ottoman officer Stanislas Saint Clair:[3]

Community Population
Turks 457.018
Other Muslims 104.639
Armenian Christians 2128
Vlach and Greek Christians 56.647
Gypsies 8220
Jews 5847
Bulgarian Christians 639.813
Distribution of the population of towns in the Danube Vilayet in 1876 according to Aubaret(excl. Niş sancak)

Population of the Danube Vilayet(excluding Niş) in 1876 estimated by the French counsel Aubaret from the register:[18][19]

Community Population
Muslims 1.120.000
incl. Turks 774.000
incl. Circassians 200.000
incl. Tatars 110.000
incl. Gypsies 35.000
Non-Muslims 1.233.500
incl. Bulgarians 1.130.000
incl. Gypsies 12.000
incl. Greeks 12.000
incl. Jews 12.000
incl. Armenians 2500
incl. Vlachs and others 65.000

Population of the two mainly Turkish sanjaks of the Danube Vilayet in 1876 according to the French counsel Aubaret:[20]

Community Varna Sanjak Rusçuk Sanjak
Turks 92,800 388,000
Bulgarians 32,200 229,500
Circassians 33,000
Gypsies 23,500
Greeks 6842
Jews 2200
Armenians 2000
Vlachs 1000


Population of the Filibe Sancak in 1876 according to the British R. J. Moore: [12]

kaza Turks Muslim Gypsies Christian Gypsies Bulgarians Greeks Armenians Jews
Filibe 35.400 5474 495 80.107 3700 380 691
Tatar Pazardzhik 10.805 2120 579 33.395 300 94 344
Hasköy 33.323 1548 145 25.503 3 65
Zagora 6677 989 70 24.857 740
Kazanlak 14.365 1384 24 14.906 219
Chirpan 5157 420 88 15.959
Sultan-Jeri 13.336 159 262
Akcselebi 8197 377 5346
’’’ TOTAL’’’ 127.260 12.471 1401 200.335 4000 477 2059

Population in 1877 according to Russian diplomat Teplov:[4][21]

Sanjak Bulgarians Non-Bulgarians Muslims Non-Muslims
Vidin 263.000 131.600 39.723 333.317
Tırnova 188.500 112.000 68.199 328.390
Niş 283.000 148.100 72.188 36.0559
Sofia 297.500 189.000 57.789 428.949
Rusçuk 201.025 354.324 268824 290626
Varna 36.000 74.100 64.621 45.875
Tulça 40.570 188.930 103.328 116.203
Total (Danube) 1.310.695 1.198.054 674.672 1.903.919
Islimiye 100.500 186.400 64.459 213.066
Philippopolis 382.500 564.600 318.052 628.770
Total 1.793.695 1.949.054 1.057.183 2.745.755

Population of Adrianople Vilayet in 1872 according to the Turkish author Kemal Karpat:[4]

Group POPULATION
Christians 810.294
incl. Bulgarians 526.691
Muslims 503.058

Population of the sanjaks according to a Greek author: [12]

Sanjak Greeks Bulgarians Muslims Others
Tekirdağ 117.600 19.000 32.000
Gelibolu 98.900 35.000 10.000
Adrianople 171.000 78.320 125.000 35.000
Islimiye 37.100 54.200 54.300 30.000
Filibe 32.000 180.000 120.000 38.000
Drama 42.000 1000 35.000 30.000
Salonika 210.500 59.500 140.000 70.000
Siroz 175.000 20.000 84.000 15.000
Bitola 278.000 60.000 90.000 20.000

Population of the later Eastern Rumelia before and after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 (Drummons-Wolff, 1878):[4]

Population 1875 1878 1879
Muslim Turks 220.000 90.000 +100.000
Muslim Pomaks 25.000 25.000
Muslim Tatars 10.000 8000
Muslim Circassians 10.000 0
Muslim Gyspies 25.000 16.000
Jews 9000 8000
Bulgarian Catholics 9000 9000
Bulgarian Exarchists 400.000 380.000
Grecophile Bulgrians 35.000 30.000
Greeks 35.000 30.000
Greek Vlachs 2000 2000
Greek Albanians 2000 2000
Armenians 2000 2000

Male population of the later Eastern Rumelia in 1875 according to British R.J. Moore: [3]

Community Population
Filibe Sancak
MUSLIMS 117.662
- Turks 105.727
- Gypsies 11.935
CHRISTIANS 200.625
- Bulgarians 194.727
JEWS 2059
Islamiye Sancak
Muslims 44.747
Non-Muslims 60.854
Total
Muslims 162.409
NON-MUSLIMS 263.538
incl. Bulgarians 254.727

Population of Istanbul in 1885 according to Stanford Shaw(Male:female):[4]

Group Born in Born outside
Muslim 143.586(M:F 1:2) 241.324(M:F 2:1)
Greek Orthodox 68.764 83.977
Armenian Orthodox 78.679 70.991
Bulgarian 46 4331
Catholic 3722 2720
Jewish 42.363 1998
Protestant 225 594
Latin 609 473

Population of European part in 1872 according to A Ritter zur Helle von Samo

[4]
Vilayet Muslims Non-Muslims
Istanbul (Europe) 285.100 400.100
Adrianople 503.058 801.294
Scutari 100.000 128.000
Prizren 728.286 470.868
Danube 817.200 1.199.230
Janina 249.699 460.802
Salonica 429.410 807.928
Bosnia 630.456 612.000
Crete 90.000 120.000
Istanbul (Asia) 455.500 340.500
Serbia 4965 1.314.424
United Principalities 3000 4.497.000
Montenegro 0 100.000

Male/female population according to vice-consul Stanislas Recchioli in 1878:

Sanjak Muslims[4] incl. Turks Christians
Drama 270.998 249.165 43.549

Sanjak of Gümülcine In the 19th century:

Sanjak Muslims[22] Christian Bulgarians Christian Greeks
Gümülcine 206.914 20.671 15.241

Male population in 1880 according to Earl Granville:[12]

Sanjak Muslims Greeks Patriarchist Bulgarians Exarchist Bulgarians Vlachs Jews
Siroz 54.436 31.820 28.053 25.335 2859 988
Salonika 95.669 61.434 43.099-50.000 15.975 4462 25.473

Male population in 1878 according to Bulgarian Kusev and Gruev:[12]

Sanjak Muslims Bulgarians Greeks Vlachs Gypsies Pomaks
Siroz 29.344 90.895 17.226 1812 1170 13873
Salonika 39.441 126.000 13.279 1751 2862-8697

Male population in 1881 according to Italian Hondros:[12]

Sanjak Turks Greeks Bulgarians Jews Vlachs
Siroz 91.700 66.500 114.580 1520 4150

Estimates in some eighteen sources show that the Muslims constituted about 35% of the total Balkan population during most of the first half of the 19th century, while in the second half of the century the proportion grew to 43%. [4] According to thirty three sources the figures given for the proportion of Turks in the European provinces range from 11 to 24% making up two thirds of the Muslims in the Danube Vilayet and most of them in the Adrianople Vilayet and Salonika Vilayet; for Bulgarians the figures are 24-39% with about 65 percent of the Christians in the Adrianople Vilayet and over 90 in the Danube Vilayet; for Greeks, from 9 to 16%; the rest were mainly Albanians.[4] In Anatolia the absolute majority constituted the Turks. In the western European vilayets the Muslims were usually Slavs and Albanians. In the Ioannina Vilayet the Orthodox Christians were dominant, a majority of whom were ethnically Albanian according to Ottoman officials and were also three fourths of the Muslims.[23] The Circassians are estimated at 1 million, of whom 400,000 in Asia Minor and 600,000 in Europe.[4]

Special Reports[edit]

Arnold J. Toynbee[edit]

During the World War I; The treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire was a book by Viscount Bryce and Arnold J. Toynbee which compiled statements from eyewitnesses from other countries including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland, who similarly attested to Armenians in the Ottoman Empire during 1915-1916. The publication presents Arnold J. Toynbee's analysis on Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire. A summary table of his analysis included in the page 199. In the "vilayet of Van", there were two portions, portions in modern use corresponds to county. As explained by Arnold J. Toynbee in the footprint at page 199, he developed his analysis by excluding certain portions of the province where he said "Armenians were a minor". Arnold Toynbee in finding the ratio of Armenians in vilayet of Van; he removed the values originating from portions of Van (listed in the foot print) where Armenians were in minority. The presented table in page 1999 shows the re-calculated values by Arnold J. Toynbee of these selected provinces using values of the parts (counties, sanjacks) which Armenians were not in minority. The presented map shows the re-calculated values of the stated provinces using values where Armenians are not in minority.

See also[edit]

Articles discussing the demographics of the Ottoman Empire:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Behar, Cem, ed. 1996. Osmanlı Đmparatorluğu'nun ve Türkiye'nin nüfusu, 1500-1927. Ankara: T.C. Basbakanlık Devlet Đstatistik Enstitüsü = State Institute of Statistics Prime Ministry Republic of Turkey.
  2. ^ Karpat, K.H. (1985). Ottoman population, 1830-1914: demographic and social characteristics. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Pres. 
  3. ^ a b c d e [Димитър Аркадиев. ИЗМЕНЕНИЯ В БРОЯ НА НАСЕЛЕНИЕТО ПО БЪЛГАРСКИТЕ ЗЕМИ В СЪСТАВА НА ОСМАНСКАТА ИМПЕРИЯ http://spisaniestatistika.nsi.bg/page/bg/details.php?article_id=84&tab=en] National Statistical Institute
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Karpat, K.H. (1985). Ottoman population, 1830-1914: demographic and social characteristics. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Pres. 
  5. ^ (Karpat & 1978 pp.237-274)
  6. ^ (Shaw & 1978 p.323-338)
  7. ^ Karpat 1985
  8. ^ Studies on Ottoman social and political history, Kemal H. Karpat, p.766, 2002
  9. ^ History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Stanford Jay Shaw, p.241, 1977
  10. ^ "1914 Ottoman Census table from" (PDF). 
  11. ^ "Makale Takip Sistemi Mobile". 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Demeter, Gabor. "Ethnic maps as political advertisements and instruments of symbolic nation-building and their role in influencing decision-making from Berlin (1877-1881), to Bucharest (1913).". 
  13. ^ "Makale Takip Sistemi Mobile". 
  14. ^ Bŭlgarii︠a︡ 1300-institut︠s︡ii i dŭrzhavna tradit︠s︡ii︠a︡: dokladi na tretii︠a︡ Kongres na Bŭlgarskoto istorichesko druzhestvo, 3-5 oktomvri 1981, p. 326
  15. ^ "Eтнически състав на населението в България. Методологически постановки при установяване на етническия състав" (in Bulgarian). MIRIS - Minority Rights Information System. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  16. ^ "6.1 European population committee (CDPO)". Council of Europe. p. II. The Demographic Situation of Ethnic/minority Groups 1. Population Size and Growth. 
  17. ^ "Full text of "Bulgarien und Ostrumelien: Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Zeitraumes von 1878-1886, nebst ..."". 
  18. ^ Suleiman, Yasir. Language and Identity in the Middle East and North Africa. Routledge. p. 102. ISBN 9781136787843. 
  19. ^ ENGİN DENİZ TANIR. THE MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY OTTOMAN BULGARIA FROM THE VIEWPOINTS OF THE FRENCH TRAVELERS A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY BY. p. 52. 
  20. ^ ENGİN DENİZ TANIR. THE MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY OTTOMAN BULGARIA FROM THE VIEWPOINTS OF THE FRENCH TRAVELERS A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY BY. 
  21. ^ 1877-1878 Osmanlı-Rus Harbi Öncesinde Şarkî Rumeli Nüfusu
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ Gawrych, George. The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman Rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874-1913, p.24

Bibliography[edit]

  • Shaw, Stanford Jay; Shaw, Ezel Kural (1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Shaw, Stanford. 1978. The Ottoman Census System and Population, 1831-1914. International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies (9):323-338.
  • Karpat, Kemal. 1978. Ottoman Population Records and the Census of 1881/82-1893. International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies (9):237-274.
  • L. Kinross, The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire, 1979
  • M. Kabadayı, Inventory for the Ottoman Empire / Turkish Republic 1500–2000 [2]