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Dumbo, Brooklyn

Coordinates: 40°42′11″N 73°59′24″W / 40.703°N 73.990°W / 40.703; -73.990
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Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass
View of Dumbo from One World Trade Center in 2016, framed by the Brooklyn Bridge (bottom right) and Manhattan Bridge (center left)
View of Dumbo from One World Trade Center in 2016, framed by the Brooklyn Bridge (bottom right) and Manhattan Bridge (center left)
Location in New York City
Dumbo is located in New York City
Dumbo is located in New York
Dumbo (New York)
Dumbo is located in the United States
Dumbo (the United States)
Coordinates: 40°42′11″N 73°59′24″W / 40.703°N 73.990°W / 40.703; -73.990
Country United States
State New York
CityNew York City
 • Total0.050 sq mi (0.13 km2)
 • Total1,139
 • Density23,000/sq mi (8,800/km2)
ZIP Codes
Area code(s)718, 347, 929, and 917
DUMBO Industrial District
Plymouth Street, DUMBO Industrial District, March 2008
Dumbo, Brooklyn is located in New York City
Dumbo, Brooklyn
Dumbo, Brooklyn is located in New York
Dumbo, Brooklyn
Dumbo, Brooklyn is located in the United States
Dumbo, Brooklyn
LocationRoughly bounded by Main and Washington Sts, East River, John St., Bridge and Jay Sts., and Front and York Sts., Brooklyn, New York
Coordinates40°42′11″N 73°59′17″W / 40.70306°N 73.98806°W / 40.70306; -73.98806
Area48 acres (19 ha)
Architectural styleGreek Revival, Italianate, et al.
NRHP reference No.00001151[1]
Added to NRHPSeptember 22, 2000

Dumbo (or DUMBO,[2][3] an acronym for Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass) is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. It encompasses two sections: one situated between the Manhattan and Brooklyn Bridges, which connect Brooklyn to Manhattan across the East River, and another extending eastward from the Manhattan Bridge to the Vinegar Hill area. The neighborhood is bounded by Brooklyn Bridge Park to the north, the Brooklyn Bridge to the west, Brooklyn Heights to the south, and Vinegar Hill to the east. Dumbo is part of Brooklyn Community Board 2.

Dumbo has historically been known by several names, including Gairville,[4] Rapailie, Olympia, and Walentasville.[5] The area was originally a ferry landing, characterized by 19th- and early 20th-century industrial and warehouse buildings, Belgian block streets, and its location on the East River by the imposing anchorage of the Manhattan Bridge. A large number of the buildings in Dumbo were bought by developer David Walentas and his company Two Trees Management in the late 20th century, and remade into an upscale residential and commercial community—first becoming a haven for art galleries, and currently a center for technology startups.

Dumbo earned the nickname "the center of the Brooklyn Tech Triangle"[6] thanks to its thriving community of tech startups. This designation coincided with its rise to become Brooklyn's most affluent neighborhood and the fourth-wealthiest community in New York City; this is owing in part to its large concentration of technology startups, its close proximity to Manhattan, and its large number of former industrial buildings that have been converted into spacious luxury residential lofts.[7] The neighborhood contains the corporate headquarters for e-commerce retailer Etsy and home furnishing stores company West Elm.


A street fair under the Manhattan Bridge overpass in July 2017
The Manhattan Bridge, framing the Empire State Building beneath, as seen from Washington Street

The name is an acronym of "Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass". The area has been known variously as Rapailie, Olympia, and Walentasville;[5] the developer who began its current gentrification is Two Trees Management, led at the time by David Walentas.[4] The "Olympia" name came from Comfort and Joshua Sands, who bought the land in 1787[8] and were planning to develop the land as a summer place for New Yorkers.[9] Through the 18th and 19th centuries, the area now known as Dumbo was considered part of Vinegar Hill.[10]

In the 1890s, the western portion of the neighborhood was known as Fulton Landing, after the ferry stop that connected it to Manhattan before the Brooklyn Bridge opened. At that time, it was primarily a manufacturing district, with warehouses and factories that made machinery, paper boxes, spices and Brillo soap pads. The cardboard box was invented in the Robert Gair building on Washington Street by Robert Gair, a Scottish emigrant; because of Gair's fame, the area was known as Gairsville for a long time.[5] The Gair building is now home to Etsy.[11]

The Jay Street Connecting Railroad ran through Dumbo's waterfront from circa 1904–1906 through 1957. It ran from rail yards beneath the Manhattan and Brooklyn Bridges to buildings near the waterfront in Dumbo and Vinegar Hill. At the height of operations, it had spurs into several buildings, a car float bridge on Bridge Street, and a yard with capacity of 120 cars.[12][13] The tracks were abandoned in 1959,[14] though the railroad's tracks are still visible on streets in Dumbo.[13] In 1968, there was a proposal to relocate the Fort Greene Meat Market to Dumbo,[15] though the market was ultimately moved to Sunset Park instead.[16]

John Street Park in Dumbo

With the deindustrialization of New York City, Dumbo began to become primarily residential; artists and other young homesteaders seeking relatively large and inexpensive loft apartment spaces for studios and homes began moving there in the late 1970s.[3] The acronym "Dumbo" arose in 1978, when new residents coined it in the belief such an unattractive name would help deter developers.[3]

Near the end of the 20th century, as property became more and more expensive in Manhattan, Dumbo became increasingly gentrified. Even so, the acronym "Dumbo" was largely unknown as late as 1997, and the area itself was very inclusive, serving mainly as an enclave for artists located along the East River and under the Manhattan Bridge. At this stage there were still many air conditioner repair shops, auto shops, and "seedy back alleys and wharves"; and, because the neighborhood was still gentrifying from its industrial past, it lacked even a bookstore, coffee shop, or laundromat.[17] The efforts of Joy Glidden, the Founding Director of the Dumbo Arts Center (DAC) and co-founder of the Dumbo Art Under the Bridge Festival, achieved successful development in Dumbo, which is now a model for similar waterfront developments around the world.[18] Glidden stated of Dumbo's gentrification, "It may be one of the last of what could be considered a true arts community in New York."[17]

The DUMBO Historic District, a historic industrial complex and national historic district in Dumbo, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000.[1] It consists of 95 contributing buildings; the manufacturing concerns located in this district included Benjamin Moore & Co. (paint), Arbuckle Brothers (coffee and sugar), J.W. Masury & Son (paint), Robert Gair (paper boxes), E.W. Bliss (machinery), and Brillo (soap pads). The district includes the earliest large-scale reinforced concrete factory buildings in America.[19] On December 18, 2007, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission voted unanimously to designate Dumbo as the city's 90th historic district. The Dumbo historic district consists of properties bounded by John Street to the north, York Street to the south, Main Street to the west, and Bridge Street to the east.[20]

Land use[edit]

Art, business, and leisure[edit]

The area has emerged as one of New York City's premier arts districts, with a cluster of for-profit art galleries such as the Klompching Gallery, and such not-for-profit institutions as the St. Ann's Warehouse and the A.I.R. Gallery.

Chef Jacques Torres opened a chocolate factory in Dumbo in December 2000.[21] Other culinary businesses in the area include Grimaldi's,[22] Ample Hills Creamery,[23] Almondine Bakery,[24] and the River Café,[25] all clustered in Fulton Landing, also home to Bargemusic, a floating venue for classical music.[26] John Fluevog, a Canadian shoe designer, opened a store on Main Street in November 2017.[27]

The first public space in the neighborhood was Fulton Ferry,[28] followed by Empire-Fulton Ferry State Park.[29][30] The first six acres of Brooklyn Bridge Park, a joint state/city venture under development, were opened in March 2010.[31] The Cliffs at DUMBO is a 7,800 square foot outdoor climbing gym located in the Main Street section of Brooklyn Bridge Park, and is the largest outdoor bouldering gym in North America.[32][33]

The building at 200 Water Street, which the Brillo Manufacturing Co. once occupied, is being renovated as a high-end condo building.[34]

The DUMBO Archway is a popular location for film shoots, art exhibitions, live music, large-scale events, and watch parties for events like the World Cup.[35][36] The trailer for Joker, the 2019 film by Todd Phillips, features actor Joaquin Phoenix as the Joker running through the archway.[37] The Archway also hosts the Brooklyn Flea every Sunday from April to October.[38] The outdoor market features 80 vendors, and the products range from secondhand goods to custom-made jewelry.

Gleason's Gym, located on Water Street, is the oldest boxing gym in New York. Many champions have trained there, including Muhammad Ali and Mike Tyson.[39][40] The gym has been located in DUMBO since the 1980s. It moved from 77 Front Street to its current location at 130 Water Street in 2016.[41] The legendary boxing coach Hector Roca still teaches at the Water Street location. In addition to boxing champions, Roca has trained many actors, including Wesley Snipes, Hilary Swank, Jennifer Lopez, and John Leguizamo.[42]

The renovation of Empire Stores on Water Street was completed in 2017. Previously, it had been a Civil War era coffee warehouse.[43] It was converted to mixed-use retail and office space, and it includes West Elm's global flagship store.[44] Other retailers in Empire Stores include Detroit-based watchmaker Shinola and the café and accessories store, FEED Projects. In May 2017, the Brooklyn Historical Society (BHS) opened a new branch in Empire Stores (its main location is in Brooklyn Heights). BHS features exhibits and artifacts relating to DUMBO's industrial past.[45] In May 2019, Time Out Market opened in Empire Stores. The food hall features 21 local vendors, including the Breads Bakery[46] and DUMBO's renowned pizzeria, Juliana's.[47][48]

Tech hub[edit]

Dumbo has New York City's highest concentration of technology firms by neighborhood.[11] Dumbo is home to 25 percent of New York City-based tech firms. Within a 10-block radius are 500 tech and creative firms that employ over 10,000 people.[11] It also contains the corporate headquarters for e-commerce retailer Etsy[49] and home furnishing stores company West Elm.[50]

Pearl Street pocket park in Dumbo (2019).

The City of New York, in conjunction with New York University, installed an incubator in Dumbo to support development of tech start-ups.[11] Dumbo's average office rent of US$25 per square foot ($269/m2) made it (as of 2013) more attractive to start-ups than Manhattan, where rents averaged $40 per square foot ($431/m2) in 2013.[11] The area has been compared to the Silicon Roundabout area in Shoreditch, East London, as well as to Manhattan's Silicon Alley.[citation needed]


The neighborhood contains the Farragut Houses, a group of ten towers managed by the New York City Housing Authority.[51]


New York City Subway stations are located at York Street (F and <F>​ trains) on the IND Sixth Avenue Line, and High Street (A and ​C trains) on the IND Eighth Avenue Line.[52] New York City Bus service is provided by the B25, B67, B69.[53]

Ramps and staircases connect the Brooklyn Bridge and Manhattan Bridge walkways to Dumbo.

In June 2011, NY Waterway started service to points along the East River.[54] On May 1, 2017, that route became part of the NYC Ferry's East River route, which runs between Pier 11/Wall Street in Manhattan's Financial District and the East 34th Street Ferry Landing in Murray Hill, Manhattan, with five intermediate stops in Brooklyn and Queens.[55][56] One of the East River Ferry's stops is at Fulton Ferry in Dumbo.[57]


Public library[edit]

Adams Street library branch

The Brooklyn Public Library (BPL)'s Adams Street branch is located at 9 Adams Street, between John and Plymouth Streets.[58] The 6,000-square-foot (560 m2) Adams Street branch, designed by WORKac, occupies a former factory.[59] The branch started construction in 2020 and cost $7 million to build.[60] It opened in October 2021 and was the first BPL branch to open in Brooklyn since 1983.[59][60]

In popular culture[edit]

Kortunefookie at Art Under The Bridge in Dumbo
  • Jerry Seinfeld referred to Dumbo during an appearance on Late Show with David Letterman, joking that it stands for "Down Under Manhattan Bridge", but that New Yorkers added the "O" at the end because they did not want to live in a neighborhood called "Dumb".[61]
  • The neighborhood is parodied in Grand Theft Auto IV as BOABO ("Beneath the Off-ramp of the Algonquin Bridge Overpass").[62]
  • It is featured as a filming location in the films Killer's Kiss (1955), The French Connection (1971), and Vanilla Sky (2001). It is also featured in Big Bang's music video Blue (2012), the music video for "Cruel Summer" by Bananarama (1983) and the opening credits of Rescue Me (2004).[citation needed]
  • It is the residence of the Humphrey family in the television series Gossip Girl. The view from Washington Street appears very often to inform the viewer of the scenario change from Manhattan to Brooklyn.[citation needed]
  • Dumbo is featured prominently in the Sergio Leone drama film Once Upon a Time in America as the location for one of its scenes.[63]
  • Dumbo appears in several episodes of Gotham Season 2.[64]
  • Dumbo appears in the show Orange Is the New Black in the episode "Toast Can't Never Be Bread Again", the fourth season's finale, as part of a flashback sequence of Poussey Washington's past, in which she is separated from her friends and meets some drag artists who take her to a party in a club in Dumbo.[citation needed]
  • Dumbo is referenced on the Jay-Z track The Story of O.J. on the album 4:44, as Shawn Carter raps about a missed opportunity when he was younger to purchase a now valuable building in the neighborhood.[65][66]
  • The block surrounded by Adams Street, Washington Street, Water Street and Plymouth Street underneath the Manhattan Bridge is a playable map in the video game XDefiant, under the name "Dumbo".
  • Dumbo is one of the most Instagrammed neighborhoods in America [citation needed]. The view of the Manhattan Bridge at the corner of Washington St. and Water St. is the most Instagrammed location in the neighborhood.



  1. ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. March 13, 2009.
  2. ^ Dolkart, Andrew S.; et al. (December 18, 2007). DUMBO Historic District Designation Report (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  3. ^ a b c Barnard, Anne (December 25, 2007). "Dumbo Journal: District Trying to Forge a New Identity". The New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  4. ^ a b Dunlap, David W. (October 25, 1998). "SoHo, TriBeCa And Now Dumbo?". The New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  5. ^ a b c "About Dumbo". Dumbo NYC, Brooklyn. DumboNYC.com. Archived from the original on December 13, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
  6. ^ "Brooklyn Tech Triangle Map". map.brooklyntechtriangle.com. Retrieved May 10, 2024.
  7. ^ Nonko, Emily (January 27, 2015). "The 8 Most Expensive Neighborhoods in New York City". New York.com. Archived from the original on October 29, 2015. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
  8. ^ The Olympia Settlement in Early Brooklyn. New York. 1929.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  9. ^ Johnson, Allen (1964). Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 341–342.
  10. ^ "Historical Districts". Real Property, Probate and Trust Journal. 1 (3): 204–211. 1966. JSTOR 20780654.
  11. ^ a b c d e Graham, Jefferson (May 7, 2013). "It's Hip to Be Tech in Brooklyn's Dumbo". USA Today: 5B.
  12. ^ "Jay Street Terminal / Jay Street Connecting Railroad". TrainWeb.org. November 30, 2017. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
  13. ^ a b Bryk, William (April 22, 2003). "The Jay Street Connecting Railroad". NY Press.
  14. ^ "RAIL LINE TO END ITS BROOKLYN RUN; Jay Street Connecting Road Allowed to Discontinue Operations in Harbor". The New York Times. April 16, 1959. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
  15. ^ Bennett, Charles G. (October 24, 1968). "Ft. Greene Market to Be Moved To the Waterfront in Brooklyn". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 22, 2024.
  16. ^ "City Picks Site in Sunset Park For Fort Greene Meat Market; Brooklyn Area's Residents Protest as Decision Is Revealed at Hearing". The New York Times. August 19, 1969. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 22, 2024.
  17. ^ a b Marks, Peter (October 10, 1997). "As It Turns Artistic, A Noirish Enclave Steps Into the Light". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 3, 2024.
  18. ^ "Dumbo". Soul of Brooklyn. Archived from the original on February 14, 2014. Retrieved June 12, 2014. The DUMBO Arts Center was founded by Joy Glidden and under her direction from 1997–2006 has helped to establish a successful model for waterfront development that has been referred to and used internationally
  19. ^ Howe, Kathy (June 2000). "National Register of Historic Places Registration:DUMBO Industrial District". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2011. See also: "Accompanying 20 photos". Archived from the original on October 19, 2012.
  20. ^ "Landmarks Preservation Commission Designates Dumbo as New York City's 90th Historic District" (PDF) (Press release). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. December 18, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 20, 2012. Retrieved July 3, 2010.
  21. ^ Moore, Peter (February 18, 2004). "'Mr Chocolate' Blazed a Sweet Trail for Retailers – Jacques Torres Chocolates". Real Estate Weekly. Retrieved July 3, 2010.
  22. ^ Shaw, Joanna (November 29, 2011). "Pizza Madness: Grimaldi Taking Over Grimaldi's When Grimaldi Moves Next Door". Nona Brooklyn. Archived from the original on December 9, 2011. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
  23. ^ "Ample Hills Creamery to Replace the Brooklyn Ice Cream Factory in Brooklyn Bridge Park". Brooklyn Eagle. December 5, 2018. Archived from the original on July 11, 2019. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
  24. ^ Marks, Aaron (March 6, 2013). "Almondine Bakery In DUMBO Reopens For First Time Since Hurricane Sandy". Gothamist. Archived from the original on February 23, 2022. Retrieved September 3, 2020.
  25. ^ "The River Café Restaurant – Brooklyn, New York – Established 1977". The River Café. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  26. ^ Kozinn, Allan (August 20, 1991). "Music in Review". The New York Times. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  27. ^ Dyett, Linda (July 5, 2018). "John Fluevog is Cool Again. Maybe He Always Was". The New York Times.
  28. ^ "New York Water Taxi Begins Service From Fulton Ferry". NY1. Archived from the original on June 30, 2013. Retrieved November 27, 2006.
  29. ^ "Empire Fulton Ferry". Archived from the original on October 14, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2013.
  30. ^ Calder, Rich (December 17, 2009). "Brooklyn Bridge Park Finally Set to Open". New York Post. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
  31. ^ "Governor Paterson and Mayor Bloomberg Open First Section of Brooklyn Bridge Park" (Press release). New York State. March 22, 2010. Archived from the original on December 14, 2012. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
  32. ^ "Cliffs at DUMBO". dumbo.is. April 14, 2016. Archived from the original on July 4, 2019.
  33. ^ Picht, Jennifer (May 7, 2018). "The largest outdoor climbing gym in the country is returning to Brooklyn Bridge Park". Time Out New York.
  34. ^ Barbanel, Josh (December 9, 2015). "In Dumbo, A Study in Industrial Chic". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
  35. ^ Cohen, Michelle (June 18, 2019). "Dumbo Celebration Marks the 10th Anniversary of the Iconic Archway's Public Life". 6sqft.
  36. ^ "Women's World Cup Brings Hundreds of Fans Together at Brooklyn Watch Party". CBS New York. June 28, 2019.
  37. ^ Yakas, Ben (September 25, 2018). "Photos: DUMBO Transformed into Gritty Gotham City for Joaquin Phoenix Joker Movie". Gothamist. Archived from the original on March 8, 2019. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  38. ^ Wong, Pamela (April 3, 2018). "Brooklyn Flea Celebrates 10th Anniversary with New Year-Round Outpost in Industry City". Bklyner.
  39. ^ "Historic New York boxing gym opens its doors to Veterans". VA News. April 24, 2018.
  40. ^ Earl, Jennifer (June 4, 2016). "Gleason's Gym Recalls Muhammad Ali Training More Than 50 Years Ago". CBS News.
  41. ^ Vadukul, Alex (November 18, 2016). "At Gleason's Gym, Years of Sweat and Grime". The New York Times.
  42. ^ Yuan, Jada (January 31, 2005). "Q&A with Boxing Coach Hector Roca". New York Magazine.
  43. ^ Heins, Scott (December 2, 2016). "Inside Empire Stores, The Newly-Renovated Civil War-Era Warehouse in Brooklyn". Gothamist. Archived from the original on April 14, 2019. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  44. ^ Rosenberg, Zoe (August 19, 2016). "Empire Stores redevelopment passes a major milestone". Curbed NY.
  45. ^ Plitt, Amy (May 19, 2017). "Brooklyn Historical Society embraces Dumbo's maritime past at Empire Stores". Curbed NY.
  46. ^ "Breads Bakery | New York Magazine | The Thousand Best". New York Magazine. February 20, 2019. Retrieved November 5, 2019.
  47. ^ Wong, Pamela (May 31, 2019). "Time Out Market New York Now Open in DUMBO". Bklyner.
  48. ^ Lynch, Scott (May 30, 2019). "Enormous Time Out Market Opens in DUMBO with a Stellar Line up of Restaurants". Gothamist. Archived from the original on June 4, 2019. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  49. ^ Goodman, Wendy (August 14, 2014). "See Inside Etsy's Seriously Fun Brooklyn Office". New York. Retrieved September 27, 2016. The other day, I took a tour of Etsy's Dumbo offices and was pleased to find them as original, wacky, and one-of-a-kind as a workplace can get.
  50. ^ Gurfein, Laura (January 13, 2015). "Here's the First Look at West Elm's New Dumbo Home". Racked.com. Retrieved September 27, 2016.
  51. ^ The Editors (April 17, 2013). "Welcome to the Gilded City of New York". The Nation. Retrieved April 18, 2013. {{cite news}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  52. ^ "Subway Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. September 2021. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  53. ^ "Brooklyn Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 2020. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
  54. ^ Grynbaum, Michael M.; Quinlan, Adriane (June 13, 2011). "East River Ferry Service Begins". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  55. ^ "NYC Launches Ferry Service with Queens, East River Routes". NY Daily News. Associated Press. May 1, 2017. Archived from the original on May 1, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  56. ^ Levine, Alexandra S.; Wolfe, Jonathan (May 1, 2017). "New York Today: Our City's New Ferry". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  57. ^ "Routes and Schedules: East River". NYC Ferry.
  58. ^ "Adams Street Library". Brooklyn Public Library. January 25, 2019. Retrieved July 7, 2023.
  59. ^ a b Hickman, Matt (October 13, 2021). "WORKac's Adams Street Library Makes Its DUMBO Debut". The Architect's Newspaper. Retrieved July 7, 2023.
  60. ^ a b Clark, Roger (October 12, 2021). "Brooklyn Public Library Opens Doors to New Branch in DUMBO". Spectrum News NY1. Retrieved July 7, 2023.
  61. ^ Jerry Seinfeld episode from 2001. The reference to Dumbo can be heard at the 0:26 mark in the video.
  62. ^ "Boabo". WikiGTA – The Complete Grand Theft Auto Walkthrough. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
  63. ^ "Filming Locations for Sergio Leone's epic Once Upon a Time in America (1983), in New York, New Jersey, Florida, Quebec, Paris and Venice". The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations. Retrieved July 14, 2018.
  64. ^ "Exploring the Shadows of Gotham | Keith Adams, LMGI". Location Managers Guild International. October 8, 2018. Retrieved April 21, 2022.
  65. ^ Caramanica, Jon (July 2, 2017). "Jay-Z Revels in the Catharsis of Confession on '4:44'". The New York Times. When he laments not investing in the now-redeveloped Brooklyn neighborhood Dumbo on "The Story of O. J.," it's not clever, just a gripe. And one delivered without much flair.
  66. ^ Connley, Courtney (June 30, 2017). "3 Money Lessons from Jay-Z's '4:44'". CNBC. On this track, the rapper bemoans rising real estate values in his home city
  67. ^ "Live at the Archway". July 8, 2019.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]