Steubenville, Ohio

Coordinates: 40°21′55″N 80°38′00″W / 40.36528°N 80.63333°W / 40.36528; -80.63333
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Steubenville, Ohio
Steubenville from the air, looking north
Steubenville from the air, looking north
Official seal of Steubenville, Ohio
"City of Murals"[1]
Where you always have a home
Interactive map of Steubenville
Steubenville is located in Ohio
Steubenville is located in the United States
Coordinates: 40°21′55″N 80°38′00″W / 40.36528°N 80.63333°W / 40.36528; -80.63333[2]
CountryUnited States
Named forFriedrich Wilhelm von Steuben
 • TypeCouncil-Manager[3]
 • MayorJerry Barilla (R)
 • City10.62 sq mi (27.50 km2)
 • Land10.54 sq mi (27.29 km2)
 • Water0.08 sq mi (0.21 km2)
Elevation1,132 ft (345 m)
 • City18,161
 • Density1,723.55/sq mi (665.46/km2)
 • Metro
118,250 (US: 340th)
 • CSA
2,659,937 (US: 23th)
Time zoneUTC-5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EDT)
ZIP codes
43952-43953 [6]
Area code(s)740, 220
FIPS code39-74608
GNIS feature ID1086386[5]

Steubenville is a city in and the county seat of Jefferson County, Ohio, United States.[2] Located along the Ohio River 33 miles (53 km) west of Pittsburgh, it had a population of 18,161 at the 2020 census.[7] The city's name is derived from Fort Steuben, a 1786 fort that sat within the city's current limits and was named for Prussian military officer Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben.[8] It is a principal city of the Weirton–Steubenville metropolitan area, which had a 2020 population of 116,903 residents.

Steubenville's nickname is the "City of Murals", after its more than 25 downtown murals.[1] The campuses of Franciscan University of Steubenville and Eastern Gateway Community College are in Steubenville.[9] Historically, it was known as the birthplace and home town of Edwin Stanton, Secretary of War during the American Civil War. It is known as the city where legendary entertainer Dean Martin of the Rat Pack was born and raised. It has recently attracted attention for the Steubenville Nutcracker Village, an annual Christmastime event.[10]


An 1846 engraving of downtown Steubenville, with the Jefferson County Courthouse visible on the right

In 1786–87, soldiers of the First American Regiment under Major Jean François Hamtramck built Fort Steuben to protect the government surveyors mapping the land west of the Ohio River,[11] and named the fort in honor of Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben. When the surveyors completed their task a few years later, the fort was abandoned. In the meantime, settlers had built homes around the fort; they named their settlement Steubenville. The name Steubenville was derived from Fort Steuben to honor Baron von Steuben (the fort was named for the Baron). The town was sometimes referred to as La Belle City, a franglais interpretation of "The Beautiful City".[12]

On July 29, 1797, Jefferson County was organized by a proclamation of Governor Arthur St. Clair, and Steubenville was selected as the county seat. It was platted in the same year by Bezaliel Wells and James Ross, the city's co-founders. Wells, a government surveyor born in Baltimore, received about 1,000 acres (4 km2) of land west of the Ohio River; Ross, a lawyer from Pittsburgh, owned the land north of Wells.[12]

On March 1, 1803, Ohio was admitted to the Union as the 17th state.[13] During the first half of the nineteenth century, Steubenville was primarily a port town, and the rest of the county was small villages and farms. Steubenville received a city charter in 1851. In 1856, Frazier, Kilgore and Company erected a rolling mill (the forerunner of steel mills) and the Steubenville Coal and Mining Company sank a coal shaft. The city was a stop along the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad, which connected Pittsburgh to Chicago and St. Louis.

The Steubenville Female Seminary, also known as Beatty's Seminary for Young Ladies or Steubenville Seminary, was an early private educational institution for women founded by Presbyterian minister Charles Clinton Beatty in 1829. It was closed in 1898 and the buildings were eventually razed for part of what is now Ohio State Route 7.

Market Street in 1910

In 1946, the College of Steubenville was founded by the Franciscan Friars of the Third Order Regular.[14] In 1980, its name was changed to University of Steubenville, and finally in 1985 to Franciscan University of Steubenville.[15] In 1966, the Jefferson County Technical Institute was founded. In 1977, its name was changed to Jefferson Technical College. In 1995, it became a community college and was renamed Jefferson Community College. In 2009, the college expanded its service district by three Ohio counties, and was renamed again: Eastern Gateway Community College.

The city gained international attention in late 2012 from the events surrounding the Steubenville High School rape case, which occurred in August 2012. The case was first covered by The New York Times that December, followed by the computer hacker group Anonymous later that month, and the subsequent coverage of the trials in late 2013. The case was significant in the extensive use of social media as evidence and in opening a national discussion on the concept of rape culture.[16][17]


Veterans Memorial Bridge connects Steubenville to Weirton, West Virginia, across the Ohio River, and is the border crossing between West Virginia and Ohio on U.S. Route 22

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.63 square miles (27.53 km2), of which 10.55 square miles (27.32 km2) is land and 0.08 square miles (0.21 km2) is water.[18] The city lies along the Ohio River, with the city spreading west from the floodplains to the hills that surround the city. It lies within the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau.[19]


The climate in this area is characterized by hot summers and relatively cold winters and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. As detailed in a March 2022 guide from the Climate Receiver Places Project at the PLACE initiative, Steubenville is a climate resilient geography based on its relatively low climate change risk exposure.[20] According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Steubenville has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfa" on climate maps.[21]

Climate data for Steubenville, Ohio (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1941–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 75
Mean maximum °F (°C) 61.7
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 36.5
Daily mean °F (°C) 27.9
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 19.2
Mean minimum °F (°C) 2.0
Record low °F (°C) −22
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.46
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 16.7 12.3 13.3 14.4 13.9 12.3 11.4 9.8 9.6 11.1 12.3 14.4 151.5
Source: NOAA[22][23]


Historical population

The city's population peaked in 1940 at 37,651. After large declines for many decades, the population decline stabilized some, with the 2010 and 2020 censuses showing the smallest declines in any decade since the peak. This trend is reflected in the US Census Bureau's estimate of the 2020 population from its American Community Survey of 17,882[27] being lower than the actual count in the 2020 census of 18,161, an increase compared to the estimate of 279. This is similar to the situation in 2010 when the estimated population of the American Community Survey was 18,578,[28] but the actual count in the 2010 census was 18,659, an increase of 81.

Steubenville is a principal city of the Weirton–Steubenville metropolitan area and is part of the larger Pittsburgh–New Castle–Weirton combined statistical area.[29] From 1980 to 2000, census figures show that the Weirton–Steubenville metro population decreased faster than that of any other urban area in the United States.[30]

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[31] of 2010, there were 18,659 people, 7,548 households, and 4,220 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,768.6 inhabitants per square mile (682.9/km2). There were 8,857 housing units at an average density of 839.5 per square mile (324.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 79.0% White, 15.9% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.6% from other races, and 3.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.4% of the population.

There were 7,548 households, of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.8% were married couples living together, 16.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, and 44.1% were non-families. 37.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.91.

The median age in the city was 38.8 years. 20.3% of residents were under the age of 18; 16.1% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 20.3% were from 25 to 44; 25.9% were from 45 to 64; and 17.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 46.1% male and 53.9% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[26] of 2000, there were 19,015 people, 8,342 households, and 4,880 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,842.2 inhabitants per square mile (711.3/km2). There were 9,449 housing units at an average density of 915.4 per square mile (353.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 79.55% White, 17.25% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.53% from other races, and 1.70% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.97% of the population.

There were 8,342 households, out of which 23.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder, and 41.5% were non-families. 36.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 18.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.86.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 21.2% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, and 22.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $26,516, and the median income for a family was $36,597. Males had a median income of $36,416 versus $21,819 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,830. About 15.3% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.2% of those under the age of 18 and 11.0% of those aged 65 and older.


Like most cities of comparable age and size, Steubenville has well-established Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Protestant and, until 2013,[32] Jewish communities. Steubenville is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Steubenville. Holy Name Church was selected as the diocesan cathedral in 1944 when the southeastern part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Columbus was made into the Diocese of Steubenville. Recent financial difficulties resulted in a proposal to re-merge the diocese with the Columbus diocese, but the proposal proved very contentious and has been tabled for further study.[33]


A 1910 engraving of the Ohio Valley Clay Company

Steubenville and the communities that surround it, especially Weirton, West Virginia, have experienced sluggish economies since the steel industry waned during the 1980s. Corporations such as Weirton Steel have had to reduce their workforce in order to become more efficient and competitive against other steel producers and lower steel prices worldwide.[citation needed]

Starting in 2014, the Harmonium Project and numerous others partners began a series of street festivals called First Fridays on Fourth to build community and generate interest and economic activity downtown.[34] More recently there have been several new businesses opened Downtown on 4th Street, including Drosselmeyer’s Nutcracker Shoppe, Leonardo’s Coffeehouse and the Steubenville Popcorn Co.[35]

The new Findlay Connector has been built in western Pennsylvania as a toll-access highway between Pittsburgh International Airport at Interstate 376 and U.S. Route 22 in northwestern Washington County. Travel time between the Pittsburgh International Airport and the city of Steubenville is now approximately 25 minutes.

Steubenville is located near two large shale formations: the Marcellus and Utica formations.

Arts and culture[edit]

Historic sites[edit]

An archaeological dig on the grounds of the reconstructed Fort Steuben

Fort Steuben, located downtown on South Third Street, is a reconstructed 18th century fort on its original location overlooking the Ohio River. Built in 1787 to protect the government surveyors of the Seven Ranges of the Northwest Territory, Fort Steuben housed 150 men of the 1st American Regiment. The non-profit organization that worked to rebuild the fort also developed the surrounding block into Fort Steuben Park that includes the Veterans Memorial Fountain and the Berkman Amphitheater. The Fort Steuben Visitors center is home to the Museum Shop and the Steubenville Convention & Visitors Bureau and is an official site on the Ohio River Scenic Byway.[citation needed]

Adjacent to the fort is the First Federal Land Office with its original logs from 1801. After the Ohio country was surveyed, it could be sold or given away as land grants; the settlers brought their deeds to be registered at the Land Office to David Hoge, the Registrar of Lands and Titles for the Northwest Territory.[citation needed]

"Ohio Valley Steelworker" Statue was created by artist Dimitri Akis as a tribute to the Ohio Valley Steelworkers. The life-size figure carries a long-handled dipping ladle and is wearing the hooded fire-proof suit worn in the steel mills. The statue was located at the junction of Hwy 22 (University Blvd) and Hwy 7 (Dean Martin Blvd). In the fall of 2014, the statue was moved to its new home, displayed on South Fourth Street at the site of the Public Library of Steubenville and Jefferson County.[36]

There is a statue downtown commemorating Edwin Stanton, President Abraham Lincoln's secretary of war. Stanton was born and raised in Steubenville.[37]

Actor, singer and comedian Dean Martin was born and raised in Steubenville, and the town features an annual Dean Martin Festival and a Dean Martin Room at the Jefferson County Historical Museum and Library.[38][39]


Steubenville has two public lending libraries, the Carnegie Library of Steubenville and Schiappa Branch Library.[40]


A mural of entertainer Dean Martin, who was born and raised in Steubenville

Steubenville's nickname is the "City of Murals", because there are more than 25 downtown murals.[1] There are numerous murals, markers and a walking tour in Steubenville, many paying homage to Dean Martin.[38][39] There is also a mural Washington Street dedicated to two Tuskegee Airmen who were brothers, John Ellis Edwards and Jerome Edwards.[41]

Steubenville Nutcracker Village[edit]

In 2015, two local businessmen started a Christmas-themed festival, the Steubenville Nutcracker Village and Advent Market. The event is centered around a large collection life-size nutcracker sculptures spread throughout Fort Steuben Park in downtown Steubenville.[42][43] The Nutcracker Village is free and open to the public 24 hours a day and generally runs from the Tuesday before Thanksgiving to Epiphany Sunday in early January.[44]

The event began in 2015 with 37 locally produced, hand-painted nutcrackers.[45] They are made of fiberglass and foam at a local business.[45] Design and production takes about 40 hours each.[45] In the second year, there were a total of 75 nutcrackers; by 2023, there were 209 around town.[45] Each of the nutcrackers, which range in height from 5 to 9 feet (1.5 to 2.7 m) tall is unique, and the designs include fictional characters from books, movies, comic strips, and songs, holiday characters like Mrs. Claus, and professions, such as a steel welder.[45]

Live entertainment and a German-style Advent Market featuring local artisans and craftsmen, as well as hot food and drink vendors, runs each weekend through the month of December in Fort Steuben Park to coincide with the Nutcracker Village event. The popularity of the Nutcracker Village since its inception has inspired other nutcracker-themed ventures in the City of Steubenville, including Drosselmeyer's Nutcracker Shoppe, a year-round Christmas shop in downtown Steubenville,[46] and Wooden Hearts Follies, a locally-written and performed musical centered around characters from the event.[47][48] The Nutcracker Village attracted over 40,000 visitors in 2017 and is credited with bringing new life to Steubenville's downtown area.[10][45]


Between 1887 and 1913, a team known as the Steubenville Stubs sparsely played minor league baseball at various times in the Ohio State League, Interstate League, Ohio–Pennsylvania League and Pennsylvania–Ohio–Maryland League. The Steubenville Stampede was a member of the Continental Indoor Football League from 2006 to 2007.


Steubenville is the birthplace of Ohio Valley-style pizza, a distinctive style of pizza that features cold toppings on a baked crust.[49][50]


The Jefferson County Courthouse in downtown Steubenville

City officials[edit]

Steubenville Elected Officials:[51]
Mayor: Jerry Barilla
City Council: Kimberly Hahn (at-large)
Asantewa Anyabwile (1st Ward)
Tracy McManamon (2nd Ward)
Eric Timmons (3rd Ward)
Royal Mayo (4th Ward)
Ted Gorman (5th Ward)
Michael Hernon (6th Ward)
Municipal Judge: John J. Mascio, Jr.
Officials Appointed by Steubenville City Council
City Manager: Jim Mavromatis
Fire Chief: Carlo Capaldi
Police Chief: Ken Anderson
Law Director: Costa Mastros


1787 drawing of Fort Steuben

The City of Steubenville is part of the 6th congressional district of Ohio and was represented by Bill Johnson until January 2024. The 6th district is the longest US House district in Ohio and runs along the southeast state borders of Ohio.

Policing, civil rights lawsuits, and reform[edit]

In 1997, the U.S. Department of Justice alleged that the city and police force had subjected numerous individuals to "excessive force, false arrests, charges, and reports" and had engaged in practices regarding "improper stops, searches, and seizures". The report from the Department also stated that excessive force was levied against individuals who witnessed incidents of police misconduct, and against those who were known critics of the city and its police force. Those individuals were also falsely detained if the city and the police agreed that they were "likely to complain of abuse". It further stated that the officers involved falsified reports and tampered with official police recorders so that "misconduct would not be recorded".[52]

As a result, the city's police force became the second city in the United States to sign a consent decree with the federal government due to an excessive number of civil rights lawsuits. The decree was signed on September 4, 1997, under the "pattern or practice" provision. Under this agreement, the city agreed to improve the training of its police officers, implement new guidelines and procedures, establish an internal affairs unit, and establish an "early warning system".[53]

Based on reformed use of force policies and improved police training requirements implemented by the city and its police department, the consent decree with the U.S. Department of Justice ended on March 4, 2005. These reforms and improvements were reviewed by the city council in 2020, and the city manager outlined use of force policies, data, and training that showed continuing improvements.[54]

Speed camera lawsuit[edit]

The speed camera program began in 2005 and earned the city $600,000 in revenues, as nearly 7,000 tickets (at $85 each) were issued during that time period. In March 2006, the Jefferson County Court of Common Pleas ruled that the city ordinance of supporting the speed camera program was illegal and unconstitutional. The city refused to remove the cameras, however, because it stated it was "bound by contract to continue the services" of Traffipax, Inc., the US subsidiary of ROBOT Visual Systems, a German corporation. Despite attempts to remove the cameras, the city continued to defy the judge's order and reinstated an identical ordinance to continue issuing citations. Councilman at Large Michael Hernon cast the sole dissenting vote against reinstating the traffic cameras.[55]

In mid-2006, an attorney filed a class-action lawsuit against the city of Steubenville for illegally collecting fines and generating unnecessary revenue from motorists. He won the case in December 2007 and the city was forced to refund thousands of tickets totaling $258,000.[56] Stern also gathered enough signatures from the residents of the city to put forth a referendum that posed the question of whether the city's ordinance authorizing the speed camera program should continue. On November 8, 2006, city residents voted to end the city's speed camera program with a 76.2 percent majority.[57]


Carnegie Library of Steubenville


Steubenville is home to two institutions of higher education. The Franciscan University of Steubenville is a private, four-year university affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church founded in 1946. Eastern Gateway Community College is a public, two-year college that opened its doors in 1968; it operates an additional campus in Youngstown as well as online.[58]

On July 24, 2012, after being threatened with a lawsuit from the atheist Freedom from Religion Foundation, the Steubenville city council decided to remove the image of Franciscan University from its town logo rather than pay for a lawsuit.[59] The city later proposed a logo that included a chapel and cross.[60]

Primary and secondary[edit]

Public schools in Steubenville are operated by the Steubenville City School District. There are a total of five schools in the district: Wells Academy, West Pugliese, Garfield, Harding Middle, and Steubenville High School. A portion of far western Steubenville is served by the Indian Creek Local School District. Several private schools are located in Steubenville. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Steubenville operates Bishop John King Mussio Central Elementary School, Bishop John King Mussio Central Junior High School and Steubenville Catholic Central High School.


Steubenville shares a media market with nearby Wheeling, West Virginia. The city is home to the market's NBC and FOX affiliate, WTOV-TV. In print, it is home to the daily Herald-Star newspaper, which traces its history to 1806.

The radio station WIXZ 950 AM has broadcast Oldies music from the city since 1974.[61] Previously, Steubenville also has radio stations WSSS-LP and WSTV (AM).[62]

Notable people[edit]


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External links[edit]