Effective altruism

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Effective altruism (EA) is a philosophical and social movement that advocates "using evidence and reason to figure out how to benefit others as much as possible, and taking action on that basis".[1][2] People who pursue the goals of effective altruism, called effective altruists,[3] often choose careers based on the amount of good that the career achieves while donating to charities based on maximising impact. The movement developed during the 2000s, and the name effective altruism was coined in 2011.[4] Prominent philosophers influential to the movement include Peter Singer, Toby Ord, and William MacAskill. Several books and many articles about the movement have since been published, and the Effective Altruism Global conference has been held since 2013. As of 2022, several billion dollars have been committed to EA causes.[5][6]

Popular cause priorities within EA include global health and development, social inequality, animal welfare, and risks to the survival of humanity over the long-term future. EA emphasizes impartiality and the global equal consideration of interests when choosing beneficiaries. This has broad applications to the prioritization of scientific projects, entrepreneurial ventures, and policy initiatives estimated to save the most lives or reduce the most suffering.[7]: 179–195 

History[edit]

Peter Singer and William MacAskill are among several philosophers who have helped popularize effective altruism.

Beginning in the late 2000s, several communities centered around rationalist, futurological and altruist concerns started to converge, such as:[4][8]

In 2011, Giving What We Can and 80,000 Hours decided to incorporate into an umbrella organization and held a vote for their new name; the "Centre for Effective Altruism" was selected.[4][18]: 18 [19] The "Effective Altruists" Facebook group was set-up in November 2012.[4] The Effective Altruism Global conference has been held since 2013. As the movement formed, it attracted individuals who were not part of a specific community, but who had been following the Australian moral philosopher Peter Singer's work on applied ethics, particularly "Famine, Affluence, and Morality" (1972), Animal Liberation (1975), and The Life You Can Save (2009).[20] Singer himself used the term in 2013, in a TED talk titled "The Why and How of Effective Altruism".[4]

Singer published The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism Is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically in 2015.[21] In the same year, the Scottish philosopher and ethicist William MacAskill published Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Make a Difference.[22][23][24] In 2018, American news website Vox launched its Future Perfect section, led by journalist Dylan Matthews, which publishes articles and podcasts on "Finding the best ways to do good",[25][26][27] including topics such as effective philanthropy,[28] high-impact career choice,[29] poverty reduction through women's empowerment,[30] improving children's learning efficiently through improving environmental health,[31] animal welfare improvements,[32] and ways to reduce global catastrophic risks.[33] In the same year, 80,000 Hours identified economist Yew-Kwang Ng as anticipating many of the ideas of EA in his research on welfare economics and moral philosophy.[34]

In 2019, Oxford University Press published the volume Effective Altruism: Philosophical Issues, edited by Hilary Greaves and Theron Pummer.[35] In 2020, the Australian moral philosopher Toby Ord published The Precipice: Existential Risk and the Future of Humanity,[36] while MacAskill published What We Owe the Future in 2022.[37]

Controversies[edit]

In 2019 investor and entrepreneur Sam Bankman-Fried, founder of the cryptocurrency exchange FTX, became associated with the EA movement, announcing that his goal was to "donate as much as [he] can".[38] After the company's collapse in late 2022, Bankman-Fried's relationship with EA has been called into question as a public relations strategy,[39][40] while the movement's embrace of him proved damaging to its reputation.[41][42][43][44]

Philosophy[edit]

Effective altruists focus on the many philosophical questions related to the most effective ways to benefit others.[45][46] Such philosophical questions shift the starting point of reasoning from "what to do" to "why" and "how".[47] There is little consensus on the answers, and there are differences between effective altruists who believe that they should do the most good they possibly can with all of their resources[48] and those who only try do the most good they can within a defined budget.[46]: 15 

The latter view of EA, as a project of doing the most good one can within a defined budget, can be compatible with a wide variety of views on morality and meta-ethics,[1][45] such as the ethical theories of consequentialism, egalitarianism, prioritarianism, utilitarianism, contractualism, deontological ethics, virtue ethics, as well as traditional religious teachings on altruism such as in Christianity.[1][45][49] EA can also be in tension with religion insofar as religion emphasizes spending resources on worship and evangelism instead of causes that do the most good, if one believes that is the case.[1]: 4 

Other than Peter Singer and William MacAskill, philosophers associated with EA include Nick Bostrom,[50] Toby Ord,[51] Hilary Greaves,[52] and Derek Parfit.[53]

Impartiality[edit]

EA emphasizes impartial reasoning in that everyone's well-being counts equally.[18]: 85–95 [45][46]: 17–19  Singer, in his 1972 essay "Famine, Affluence, and Morality",[20] wrote:

It makes no moral difference whether the person I can help is a neighbor's child ten yards away from me or a Bengali whose name I shall never know, ten thousand miles away ... The moral point of view requires us to look beyond the interests of our own society.[54]: 231–232 

An important consideration for moral impartiality is the question of which beings are moral patients, or beings deserving of moral consideration. Some effective altruists consider the well-being of non-human animals in addition to humans, and thus advocate for animal welfare issues such as ending factory farming.[55][56][57] Those who subscribe to longtermism include future generations as possible beneficiaries and try to improve the moral value of the long-term future by, for example, reducing existential risks.[18]: 165–178 [58][59]

William Schambra has criticized the impartial logic of EA, arguing that benevolence arising from reciprocity and face-to-face interactions is stronger and more prevalent than charity based on impartial, detached altruism. Such community-based charitable giving, he writes, is foundational to civil society and, in turn, democracy.[60]

Cause prioritization[edit]

A key component of EA is "cause prioritization". Cause prioritization is based on the principle of cause neutrality, the idea that resources should be distributed to causes based on what will do the most good, irrespective of the identity of the beneficiary and the way in which they are helped.[45] By contrast, many non-profits emphasize effectiveness and evidence with respect to a single cause such as education or climate change.[60]

EA-based organizations prioritize cause areas by following the importance, tractability, and neglectedness framework. Importance is the amount of value that would be created if a problem were solved, tractability is the fraction of a problem that would be solved if additional resources were devoted to it, and neglectedness is the quantity of resources already committed to a cause. These three criteria help estimate the marginal benefit of allocating more resources, such as money or people, toward addressing an issue.[61] This framework has been built upon by 80,000 Hours, into the scale, neglectedness, solvability and personal fit framework.[62]

The information required for cause prioritization may involve data analysis, comparing possible outcomes with what would have happened under other conditions (counterfactual reasoning), and identifying uncertainty.[45][63] The difficulty of these tasks has led to the creation of organizations that specialize in researching the relative prioritization of causes.[45][64][65]

This practice of "weighing causes and beneficiaries against one another" has been criticized by Ken Berger and Robert Penna of Charity Navigator for being "moralistic, in the worst sense of the word".[66] William MacAskill responded to Berger and Penna, defending the rationale for comparing one beneficiary's interests against another and concluding that such comparison is difficult and sometimes impossible but often necessary.[67]

Cost-effectiveness[edit]

Some charities are considered to be far more effective than others, as charities may spend different amounts of money to achieve the same goal, and some charities may not achieve the goal at all.[68][69] Effective altruists seek to identify interventions that are highly cost-effective in expectation. Many interventions have uncertain benefits, and the expected value of one intervention can be higher than that of another if its benefits are larger, even if it has a smaller chance of succeeding.[24] Non-profits which undertake health interventions are selected based on their impact as measured by lives extended per dollar, quality-adjusted life years (QALY) added per dollar, or disability-adjusted life years (DALY) reduced per dollar.[7]: 34 

Some effective altruist organizations prefer randomized controlled trials as a primary form of evidence,[24][70] as they are commonly considered the highest level of evidence in healthcare research.[71] Others have argued that requiring this stringent level of evidence unnecessarily narrows the focus to issues where the evidence can be developed,[72] and that historically many effective interventions have proceeded without this level of evidence.[73] Kelsey Piper argues that uncertainty is not a good reason for effective altruists to avoid acting on their best understanding of the world, because most interventions have mixed evidence regarding their effectiveness.[74] Pascal-Emmanuel Gobry and others have warned about the "measurement problem",[72][75] with issues such as medical research or government reform worked on "one grinding step at a time", and results being hard to measure with controlled experiments. Gobry also argues that such interventions risk being undervalued by the EA movement.[75]

Counterfactual reasoning[edit]

Counterfactual reasoning involves considering the possible outcomes of alternative choices. It has been employed by effective altruists in a number of contexts, including career choice. Many people assume that the best way to help others is through direct methods, such as working for a charity or providing social services.[76] However, since there is a high supply of candidates for such positions, it makes sense to compare the amount of good one candidate does to how much good the next-best candidate would do. According to this reasoning, the marginal impact of a career is likely to be smaller than the gross impact.[77][78]

Cause priorities[edit]

The principles and goals of EA are wide enough to support furthering any cause that allows people to do the most good, while taking into account cause neutrality.[47] Many people in the EA movement have prioritized global health and development, animal welfare, and mitigating risks that threaten the future of humanity.[64][70][79]

Global health and development[edit]

The alleviation of global poverty and neglected tropical diseases has been a focus of some of the earliest and most prominent organizations associated with EA. Charity evaluator GiveWell was founded by Holden Karnofsky and Elie Hassenfeld in 2007 to address poverty,[80][81] where they believe additional donations to be the most impactful.[69][82] GiveWell's leading recommendations include: malaria prevention charities Against Malaria Foundation and Malaria Consortium, deworming charities Schistosomiasis Control Initiative and Deworm the World Initiative, and GiveDirectly for direct cash transfers to beneficiaries.[83][84] The organization The Life You Can Save, which originated from Singer's book of the same name,[85] works to alleviate global poverty by promoting evidence-backed charities, conducting philanthropy education, and changing the culture of giving in affluent countries.[86][87]

Animal welfare[edit]

Improving animal welfare has been a focus of many effective altruists.[88][89][90] Singer and Animal Charity Evaluators (ACE) have argued that effective altruists should prioritize changes to factory farming over pet welfare.[21][57] 60 billion land animals are slaughtered and between 1 and 2.7 trillion individual fish are killed each year for human consumption.[91][92][93]

A number of non-profit organizations have been established that adopt an effective altruist approach toward animal welfare. ACE evaluates animal charities based on their cost-effectiveness and transparency, particularly those tackling factory farming.[18]: 139 [32][94] Other animal initiatives affiliated with EA include Animal Ethics' and Wild Animal Initiative's work on wild animal suffering,[95][96] addressing farm animal suffering with cultured meat,[97][98] and expanding the circle of concern so that people care more about all kinds of animals.[99][100][101] Faunalytics focuses on animal welfare research.[102][103] The Sentience Institute is a think tank founded to expand the moral circle to other species.[104][105]

Long-term future and global catastrophic risks[edit]

The ethical stance of longtermism, emphasizing the importance of positively influencing the long-term future, developed closely in relation to EA.[58][106][107] Longtermists believe that the welfare of future individuals is just as important as the welfare of currently existing individuals, as the prioritization of the former is coextensive with the wellness of the latter.[108][109] Toby Ord has stated that "the people of the future may be even more powerless to protect themselves from the risks we impose than the dispossessed of our own time."[110]: 8 

In particular, the importance of addressing existential risks such as dangers associated with biotechnology and advanced artificial intelligence is often highlighted and the subject of active research.[111]

Organizations that work actively on research and advocacy for improving the long-term future, and have connections with the EA community, are the Future of Humanity Institute at the University of Oxford, the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk at the University of Cambridge, and the Future of Life Institute.[112] In addition, the Machine Intelligence Research Institute is focused on the more narrow mission of managing advanced artificial intelligence.[113][114]

Approaches[edit]

Effective altruists pursue different approaches to doing good, such as donating to effective charitable organizations, using their career to make more money for donations or directly contributing their labor, and starting new non-profit or for-profit ventures.

Donation[edit]

Many effective altruists engage in significant charitable donation. Some believe it is a moral duty to alleviate suffering through donations if other possible uses of those funds do not offer comparable benefits to oneself.[54] Some even lead a frugal lifestyle in order to donate more.[115]

Giving What We Can (GWWC) is an organization whose members pledge to donate at least 10% of their future income to the causes that they believe are the most effective. GWWC was founded in 2009 by Toby Ord, who lives on £18,000 ($27,000) per year and donates the balance of his income.[116] In 2020, Ord said that people had donated over $100 million to date through the GWWC pledge.[117]

Founders Pledge is a similar initiative, founded out of the non-profit Founders Forum for Good, whereby entrepreneurs make a legally binding commitment to donate a percentage of their personal proceeds to charity in the event that they sell their business.[118][119] As of February 2022, roughly 1,700 entrepreneurs had pledged over $7 billion and over $500 million had been donated.[120][121]

An estimated $416 million was donated to effective charities identified by the movement in 2019,[122] representing a 37% annual growth rate since 2015.[123] Two of the largest donors in the EA community, Dustin Moskovitz, who had become wealthy through co-founding Facebook, and his wife Cari Tuna, hope to donate most of their net worth of over $11 billion for EA causes through the private foundation Good Ventures.[79] Other prominent philanthropists influenced by EA include Sam Bankman-Fried,[124] as well as professional poker players Dan Smith[49] and Liv Boeree.[49]

Career choice[edit]

Effective altruists often consider using their career to do good,[125] both by direct service and indirectly through their consumption, investment, and donation decisions.[126] 80,000 Hours is an organization that conducts research and gives advice on which careers have the largest positive impact.[29][127]

Earning to give[edit]

Earning to give involves deliberately pursuing a high-earning career for the purpose of donating a significant portion of earned income, typically because of a desire to do effective altruism. Advocates of earning to give contend that maximizing the amount one can donate to charity is an important consideration for individuals when deciding what career to pursue.[128]

Founding effective organizations[edit]

Some effective altruists start non-profit or for-profit organizations to implement cost-effective ways of doing good. On the non-profit side, for example, Michael Kremer and Rachel Glennerster conducted randomized controlled trials in Kenya to find out the best way to improve students' test scores. They tried new textbooks and flip charts, as well as smaller class sizes, but found that the only intervention that raised school attendance was treating intestinal worms in children. Based on their findings, they started the Deworm the World Initiative.[24] From 2013 to August 2022, GiveWell designated Deworm the World as a top charity based on their assessment that mass deworming is "generally highly cost-effective";[129] however, there is substantial uncertainty about the benefits of mass deworming programs, with some studies finding long-term effects and others not.[74] The Happier Lives Institute conducts research on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in developing countries;[130] Canopie develops an app that provides cognitive behavioural therapy to women who are expecting or postpartum;[131] Giving Green analyzes and ranks climate interventions for effectiveness;[132][133] the Fish Welfare Initiative works on improving animal welfare in fishing and aquaculture;[99] and the Lead Exposure Elimination Project works on reducing lead poisoning in developing countries.[134]

Incremental versus systemic change[edit]

While much of the initial focus of EA was on direct strategies such as health interventions and cash transfers, more systematic social, economic, and political reforms have also attracted attention.[135] Philosopher Amia Srinivasan criticized William MacAskill's Doing Good Better for a perceived lack of coverage of global inequality and oppression, while noting that EA is in principle open to whichever means of doing good is most effective, including political advocacy aimed at systemic change.[136]

In a piece for Jacobin, Mathew Snow wrote that EA "implores individuals to use their money to procure necessities for those who desperately need them, but says nothing about the system that determines how those necessities are produced and distributed in the first place."[137] Philosophers such as Susan Dwyer, Joshua Stein, and Olúfẹ́mi O. Táíwò have criticized effective altruism for contributing to the disproportionate influence of wealthy individuals in domains that they argued should be the responsibility of democratic governments and organizations.[138][139] An article in The Ecologist published in 2016 argued that effective altruism is an apolitical attempt to solve political problems, describing the concept as "pseudo-scientific".[140]

Arguments have been made that movements focused on systemic or institutional change are compatible with EA.[141][142][143] Philosopher Elizabeth Ashford posits that people are obligated to both donate to effective aid charities and to reform the structures that are responsible for poverty.[144] Open Philanthropy has given grants for progressive advocacy work in areas such as criminal justice,[79][145][146] economic stabilization,[79] and housing reform,[147][148] despite pegging the success of political reform as being "highly uncertain".[79]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d MacAskill, William (January 2017). "Effective altruism: introduction". Essays in Philosophy. 18 (1): eP1580:1–5. doi:10.7710/1526-0569.1580. ISSN 1526-0569. Archived from the original on August 7, 2019. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
  2. ^ The quoted definition is endorsed by a number of organizations at: "CEA's Guiding Principles". Centre For Effective Altruism. Retrieved December 3, 2021.
  3. ^ The term effective altruists is used to refer to people who embrace EA in many published sources such as Oliver (2014), Singer (2015), and MacAskill (2017), though as Pummer & MacAskill (2020) noted, calling people "effective altruists" minimally means that they are engaged in the project of "using evidence and reason to try to find out how to do the most good, and on this basis trying to do the most good", not that they are perfectly effective nor even that they necessarily participate in the effective altruism community.
  4. ^ a b c d e f MacAskill, William (March 10, 2014). "The history of the term 'effective altruism'". Effective Altruism Forum. Archived from the original on February 20, 2020. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
  5. ^ Lewis-Kraus, Gideon (August 8, 2022). "The Reluctant Prophet of Effective Altruism". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  6. ^ Matthews, Dylan (August 8, 2022). "How effective altruism went from a niche movement to a billion-dollar force". Vox. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  7. ^ a b MacAskill, William (2016) [2015]. Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Help Others, Do Work that Matters, and Make Smarter Choices about Giving Back. New York: Avery. ISBN 9781592409662. OCLC 932001639.
  8. ^ Anthis, Jayce Reese (May 15, 2022). "Some Early History of Effective Altruism". Jacy Reese Anthis. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  9. ^ "About the Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence". www.singinst.org. Archived from the original on July 4, 2006. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  10. ^ Chivers, Tom (2019). "The Effective Altruists". The AI Does Not Hate You: The Rationalists and Their Quest to Save the World. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-1-4746-0877-0.
  11. ^ Strom, Stephanie (December 20, 2007). "2 Young Hedge-Fund Veterans Stir Up the World of Philanthropy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  12. ^ Tuna, Cari (June 25, 2012). "Our Vision, Mission & Initial Approach to Giving". Good Ventures. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  13. ^ Matthews, Dylan (April 24, 2015). "You have $8 billion. You want to do as much good as possible. What do you do?". Vox. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
  14. ^ Cha, Ariana Eunjung (December 26, 2014). "Cari Tuna and Dustin Moskovitz: Young Silicon Valley billionaires pioneer new approach to philanthropy - The Washington Post". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2022.
  15. ^ "Our History". Giving What We Can. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  16. ^ "About us: what do we do, and how can we help?". 80,000 Hours. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  17. ^ MacAskill, William (May 20, 2013). "Getting inspired by cost-effective giving". The Life You Can Save. Retrieved June 3, 2022.
  18. ^ a b c d e Singer, Peter (2015). The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism Is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. Castle lectures in ethics, politics, and economics. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300180275. OCLC 890614537.
  19. ^ Ram, Aliya (December 4, 2015). "The power and efficacy of effective altruism". Financial Times. Archived from the original on August 6, 2018. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  20. ^ a b On the influence of Singer's essay "Famine, Affluence, and Morality" see, for example: Snow 2015, Singer 2015, pp. 13–20, and Lichtenberg, Judith (November 30, 2015). "Peter Singer's extremely altruistic heirs: Forty years after it was written, 'Famine, Affluence, and Morality' has spawned a radical new movement". The New Republic. Singer's arguments for impartiality were later repeated in other books by him (such as Singer 2009, Singer 2015).
  21. ^ a b Kristof, Nicholas (April 4, 2015). "The Trader Who Donates Half His Pay". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 9, 2019. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
  22. ^ Shariatmadari, David (August 20, 2015). "Doing Good Better by William MacAskill review – if you read this book, you'll change the charities you donate to". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on June 22, 2017. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
  23. ^ Cowen, Tyler (August 14, 2015). "Effective Altruism: Where Charity and Rationality Meet". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 21, 2016. Retrieved May 21, 2017.
  24. ^ a b c d Thompson, Derek (June 15, 2015). "The Greatest Good". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on August 20, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  25. ^ Schmidt, Christine (October 15, 2018). "Will Vox's new section on effective altruism... well, do any good?". Nieman Journalism Lab. Archived from the original on February 1, 2020. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  26. ^ Matthews, Dylan (October 15, 2018). "Future Perfect, explained". Vox. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  27. ^ "Future Perfect". Vox. Archived from the original on February 1, 2020. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  28. ^ Matthews, Dylan (December 17, 2019). "These are the charities where your money will do the most good". Vox. Archived from the original on August 29, 2019. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  29. ^ a b Matthews, Dylan (November 28, 2018). "How to pick a career that counts". Vox. Archived from the original on December 24, 2019. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  30. ^ Illing, Sean (March 8, 2019). "Want less poverty in the world? Empower women". Vox. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  31. ^ Yglesias, Matthew (January 8, 2020). "Installing air filters in classrooms has surprisingly large educational benefits: $1,000 can raise a class's test scores by as much as cutting class size by a third". Vox. Archived from the original on February 1, 2020. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  32. ^ a b Piper, Kelsey (November 27, 2018). "Where will your donations do the most for animals?". Vox. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
  33. ^ Piper, Kelsey (November 19, 2018). "How technological progress is making it likelier than ever that humans will destroy ourselves". Vox. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
  34. ^ Wiblin, Robert; Harris, Keiran (July 26, 2018). "Prof Yew-Kwang Ng on ethics and how to create a much happier world". 80,000 Hours. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
  35. ^ Greaves, Hilary; Pummer, Theron, eds. (November 15, 2019). Effective Altruism: Philosophical Issues. Engaging Philosophy. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-884136-4.
  36. ^ Pummer, Theron (August 2, 2020). "The Precipice: Existential Risk and the Future of Humanity". Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
  37. ^ MacAskill, William (2022). What We Owe the Future. Basic Books. ISBN 978-1-5416-1862-6. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
  38. ^ Schleifer, Theodore (March 20, 2021). "How a crypto billionaire decided to become one of Biden's biggest donors". Vox.
  39. ^ Tiku, Nitasha (November 17, 2022). "The do-gooder movement that shielded Sam Bankman-Fried from scrutiny". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 25, 2022.
  40. ^ Hiltzik, Michael (November 21, 2022). "Column: How Sam Bankman-Fried exploited the 'effective altruism' fad to get rich and con the world". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  41. ^ "The failure of FTX and Sam Bankman-Fried will leave deep scars". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  42. ^ "What Sam Bankman-Fried's downfall means for effective altruism". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  43. ^ Lowrey, Annie (November 17, 2022). "Effective Altruism Committed the Sin It Was Supposed to Correct". The Atlantic. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  44. ^ Kulish, Nicholas (November 14, 2022). "FTX's Collapse Casts a Pall on a Philanthropy Movement". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g Pummer, Theron; MacAskill, William (June 2020). "Effective altruism". In LaFollette, Hugh (ed.). International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 1–9. doi:10.1002/9781444367072.wbiee883. ISBN 9781444367072. OCLC 829259960. S2CID 241220220.
  46. ^ a b c MacAskill, William (2019a). "The definition of effective altruism". In Greaves, Hilary; Pummer, Theron (eds.). Effective Altruism: Philosophical Issues. Engaging philosophy. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 10–28. doi:10.1093/oso/9780198841364.003.0001. ISBN 9780198841364. OCLC 1101772304.
  47. ^ a b Crouch, Will (May 30, 2013). "What is effective altruism?". Practical Ethics Blog. University of Oxford. Archived from the original on October 3, 2015. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  48. ^ Singer (2015) expressed a clearly normative view: "Effective altruism is based on a very simple idea: we should do the most good we can. Obeying the usual rules about not stealing, cheating, hurting, and killing is not enough, or at least not enough for those of us who have the great good fortune to live in material comfort, who can feed, house, and clothe ourselves and our families and still have money or time to spare. Living a minimally acceptable ethical life involves using a substantial part of our spare resources to make the world a better place. Living a fully ethical life involves doing the most good we can." (p. vii)
  49. ^ a b c Pincus-Roth, Zachary (September 23, 2020). "The Rise of the Rational Do-Gooders". The Washington Post Magazine. Retrieved December 6, 2021.
  50. ^ Matthews, Dylan (August 10, 2015). "I spent a weekend at Google talking with nerds about charity. I came away … worried". Vox. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
  51. ^ Bajekal, Naina (August 10, 2022). "Want to Do More Good? This Movement Might Have the Answer". Time. Retrieved August 10, 2022.
  52. ^ "Hilary Greaves". Faculty of Philosophy. University of Oxford. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
  53. ^ O'Grady, Jane (January 12, 2017). "Derek Parfit obituary". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
  54. ^ a b Singer, Peter (Spring 1972). "Famine, Affluence, and Morality". Philosophy and Public Affairs. 1 (3): 229–243. JSTOR 2265052. The essay was republished in book form in 2016 with a new preface and two extra essays by Singer: Singer, Peter (2016). Famine, Affluence, and Morality. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190219208. OCLC 907446001.
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  57. ^ a b "Why Farmed Animals?". Animal Charity Evaluators. November 2016. Archived from the original on July 6, 2019. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
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