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Emil Lang

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Emil Lang
The black and white photo of a man, shown from the front. He wears a military uniform with an Iron Cross displayed at the front of his shirt collar.
Emil Lang
Nickname(s)"Bully"
Born(1909-01-14)14 January 1909
Thalheim, now Fraunberg, Germany
Died3 September 1944(1944-09-03) (aged 35)
near Overhespen, Belgium
Buried
Lommel, Belgium
Allegiance Nazi Germany
Service/branchBalkenkreuz (Iron Cross) Luftwaffe
Years of service1938–44
RankHauptmann
UnitKG 51, JG 54, JG 26
Commands held5./JG 54, 9./JG 54, II./JG 26
Battles/wars
AwardsKnight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves

Emil Lang (14 January 1909 – 3 September 1944), nicknamed "Bully", was a Luftwaffe flying ace during World War II. A flying ace or fighter ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down five or more enemy aircraft during aerial combat.[1] Lang was credited with 173 aerial victories—144 on the Eastern Front, 29 on the Western Front—and one Soviet MTB sunk in 403 combat missions.[2]

Posted to a fighter wing on the Eastern Front, Lang claimed his first aerial victories in March 1943. He was credited with 72 victories in a three-week period, among them an unsurpassed total of 18 on 3 November 1943. He received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 22 November 1943 for his 119 victories to that time. By March 1944, his claims totaled 144, for which he received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves on 11 April 1944. Transferred to the Western Front, he claimed his 150th victim during the Normandy Invasion on 14 June 1944. He scored his last three victories on 26 August 1944; on 3 September 1944, he was killed in action over Belgium.

Early life and career[edit]

Lang was born on 14 January 1909 at Thalheim, now part of Fraunberg in the Isar region near Freising of Bavaria, Germany. He was a well-known track-and-field athlete who ran the middle distances. Prior to World War II, he qualified as a civil pilot and flew with Deutsche Luft Hansa.[3][2] Lang earned the nickname "Bully" from his 'bulldog-like' looks, characterized by his barrel-chested physique.[4] He joined the Luftwaffe as a member of the military reserve force on 4 January 1938. From 8 May to 3 June 1939, he served with 8. Staffel (8th squadron) of Kampfgeschwader 51 (KG 51—51st Bomber Wing). On 26 August 1939, he was put on active duty.[5]

World War II[edit]

World War II in Europe began on Friday 1 September 1939 when German forces invaded Poland. Following the outbreak of war, Lang served as a transport pilot with the Fliegerhorst Kompanie (Airfield Company) at Gablingen, flying missions to Norway, France, Crete and North Africa. On 1 November 1941, he was promoted to Leutnant (second lieutenant).[5]

Lang was 33 years old when he was accepted for fighter pilot training in 1942. He undertook courses at the Jagdflieger Vorschule 1 (1st Fighter Pilot Preparation School) (3 July 1942 – 14 August 1942) and Jagdfliegerschule 5 (5th Fighter Pilot School) (15 August 1942 – 5 January 1943).[6] He was then assigned to Jagdgruppe Ost (Fighter Group East) on 6 January 1943 and then to Jagdgeschwader 54 (JG 54—54th Fighter Wing) on the Eastern Front on 11 February 1943.[6][7][Note 1] Serving with 1./JG 54 (1st Squadron of the 54th Fighter Wing), Leutnant (Second Lieutenant) Lang was 34 and considered exceptionally old for a novice fighter pilot. His first three aerial victories were claimed in March 1943, and within a month he was transferred to 5./JG 54 (5th Squadron of the 54th Fighter Wing) of which he became Staffelkapitän (Squadron Leader) on 20 August 1943.[2] Lang had already briefly served as acting Staffelkapitän of 5. Staffel from July to early August before he officially succeeded Oberleutnant Max Stotz in this function after Stotz was reported missing in action on 19 August 1943.[8]

Before the year's end, Lang's kill tally stood at over 100 victories, with a remarkable 72 scored around Kiev in just three weeks during October and November 1943. He was the 58th Luftwaffe pilot to achieve the century mark.[9] This series of multiple victories included ten on 13 October 1943 and 12 (victories 61–72) in three combat missions on 21 October 1943, which earned Lang his first of two references in the Wehrmachtbericht, a bulletin issued by the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, the Wehrmacht High Command.[10]. During the Battle of Kiev, Lang set an all-time world record of 18 aerial victories claimed from four combat missions in one day on 3 November 1943, making him aviation history's leading ace-in-a-day.[7][11] This achievement led to him appearing on the cover of the 13 January 1944 Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung (Berlin's Illustrated Magazine).[12] Lang was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) after 119 aerial victories on 22 November 1943, followed three days later by the German Cross in Gold (Deutsches Kreuz in Gold).[2]

On 9 April 1944, Oberleutnant (First Lieutenant) Lang was appointed Staffelkapitän of the 9./JG 54 (9th Squadron of the 54th Fighter Wing) engaged in Defence of the Reich on the Western Front. He became the 448th recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub) on 11 April 1944 after 144 aerial victories, all claimed on the Eastern Front.[2] The presentation was made by Adolf Hitler at the Berghof, Hitler's residence in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps, on 5 May 1944.[13]

Western Front[edit]

In June, Lang claimed 15 aerial victories, including his 150th—a United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) P-47 Thunderbolt on 14 June 1944—and four P-51 Mustang fighters shot down in four minutes on 20 June 1944, plus another four P-51s on 24 June.[3] Hauptmann (Captain) Lang was then made Gruppenkommandeur (Group Commander) of the II./Jagdgeschwader 26 "Schlageter" (JG 26—2nd Group of the 26th Fighter Wing) on 28 June 1944.[3] On 9 July, he claimed three Royal Air Force (RAF) Supermarine Spitfires (victories 160–162)—no Spitfires were shot down this day: American historian Donald Caldwell noted that his claims were exaggerated but asserted Lang's ebullience, energy and drive made him an effective combat leader.[14] On 15 August 1944 two P-47s, and on 25 August 1944 three P-38 Lightning fighters in five minutes. The hard-hit 428th Fighter Squadron, 474th Fighter Group lost 8 P-38s, its worst combat performance. The 429th also lost three P-38s. Not a single Fw 190 was lost. The Bf 109-equipped III./Jagdgeschwader 76 (Fighter Wing 76) were also involved and claimed six P-38s. During the day it lost 21 Bf 109s, three pilots killed and 18 missing.[15]

He claimed three Spitfires in two missions for his final victories (victories 171–173) on 26 August.[3][2] His victims most likely belonged to 421 and 341 Squadron RAF.[16] Between 24 May and 28 August 1944, Lang had claimed 29 aerial victories on the Western Front, including nine P-51 Mustangs.[17] On 6 June 1944, his group was the first to reach 100 aerial victories over Normandy, earning him and his group a second and final reference in the Wehrmachtbericht on 30 August.[18]

Death[edit]

On 3 September 1944, Emil Lang was killed in action when his Fw 190 A-8 (Werknummer 171 240—factory number) "Green 1" hit the ground and exploded in a field at Overhespen. He had experienced mechanical trouble on the runway when he and the other aircraft of his flight took off at Melsbroek at 1.20 pm. Ten minutes later, Lang was still having difficulties raising his landing gear. Flying at an altitude of 200 metres (660 ft), his wingman, Unteroffizier Hans-Joachim Borreck, called out P-47 Thunderbolts to their rear. Lang broke upward, to the left. Leutnant Alfred Groß saw Lang's Fw 190 diving in flames, its gear extended, but he lost sight of Lang when his own craft was hit and he had to bail out. Examination of both German and American records suggests that Borreck and Groß misidentified their opponents. The P-51 Mustangs of the 55th Fighter Group's 338th Squadron intercepted a flight of three to six Focke-Wulfs. Lieutenant Darrell Cramer took a high deflection shot at the Focke-Wulf on the left, which fell upside down in a steep dive and crashed hard into the ground; this undoubtedly was Emil Lang.[19][Note 2]

On 28 September 1944, Lang's commanding officer, Geschwaderkommodore (Wing Commander) Josef Priller, submitted a request for posthumous promotion to Major. In describing Lang's character, Priller said:[18]

Captain Lang is a fully matured character, serious and calm in his demeanor, yet definite and energetic when strength was needed. Very good attitude as an officer. Demands of himself first. He understands how to reach the men under his command correctly. Captain Lang possesses an exemplary concept of service, has initiative and talent for improvisation to a large degree, well rooted in the National Socialist ideas.[18]

The commander of the II. Jagdkorps (2nd Fighter Corps), Generalleutnant (Major General) Alfred Bülowius, concurred with the assessment. Despite these recommendations, Emil Lang did not receive a posthumous promotion to Major.[18]

Summary of career[edit]

Aerial victory claims[edit]

Matthews and Foreman, authors of Luftwaffe Aces — Biographies and Victory Claims, researched the German Federal Archives and found records for 172 aerial victory claims. This number includes 141 aerial victories on the Eastern Front and 31 on the Western Front, including one four-engined bomber.[21]

Victory claims were logged to a map-reference (PQ = Planquadrat), for example "PQ 36 Ost 00333". The Luftwaffe grid map (Jägermeldenetz) covered all of Europe, western Russia and North Africa and was composed of rectangles measuring 15 minutes of latitude by 30 minutes of longitude, an area of about 360 square miles (930 km2). These sectors were then subdivided into 36 smaller units to give a location area 3 × 4 km in size.[22]

Awards[edit]

Dates of rank[edit]

1 November 1941: Leutnant (Second Lieutenant)[5]
1 November 1943: Oberleutnant (First Lieutenant)[5]
1 May 1944: Hauptmann (Captain)[5]
posthumously: Major (Major), effetive as of 1 September 1944[5]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For an explanation of Luftwaffe unit designations see Organization of the Luftwaffe during World War II.
  2. ^ According to Andrew Thomas, however, Emil Lang was shot down by Flight Lieutenant Terry Spencer of No. 41 Squadron RAF flying a Spitfire XII from Lympne.[20]
  3. ^ a b The "m.H." refers to a Ilyushin Il-2 with rear gunner (mit Heckschütze).
  4. ^ According to Matthews and Foreman claimed as a Il-7.[28]
  5. ^ According to Matthews and Foreman claimed as a Ilyushin Il-2.[28]
  6. ^ Yashnyky is approximately 5 km (3.1 mi) north of Lokhvytsia.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Spick 1996, pp. 3–4.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Obermaier 1989, p. 64.
  3. ^ a b c d MacLean 2007, p. 203.
  4. ^ Toliver & Constable 1998, pp. 295–296.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Stockert 2007, p. 104.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h MacLean 2007, p. 205.
  7. ^ a b Toliver & Constable 1996, p. 247.
  8. ^ Prien et al. 2012, p. 264.
  9. ^ Obermaier 1989, p. 243.
  10. ^ Weal 2001, pp. 103–104.
  11. ^ Prien et al. 2012, p. 252.
  12. ^ Weal 1998, p. 72.
  13. ^ Stockert 2007, p. 107.
  14. ^ a b c d Caldwell 1998, p. 300.
  15. ^ Caldwell 1998, p. 334.
  16. ^ a b c d Caldwell 1998, p. 336.
  17. ^ Bowman 2007, p. 75.
  18. ^ a b c d MacLean 2007, p. 204.
  19. ^ Caldwell 1998, pp. 343, 344.
  20. ^ Thomas & Davey 2008, p. 28.
  21. ^ Matthews & Foreman 2015, pp. 714–717.
  22. ^ Planquadrat.
  23. ^ Matthews & Foreman 2015, pp. 714–716.
  24. ^ a b Prien et al. 2012, p. 270.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Prien et al. 2012, p. 274.
  26. ^ a b Prien et al. 2012, p. 271.
  27. ^ a b c Prien et al. 2012, p. 272.
  28. ^ a b Matthews & Foreman 2015, p. 714.
  29. ^ a b c d e Prien et al. 2012, p. 277.
  30. ^ a b c d Prien et al. 2012, p. 273.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Prien et al. 2012, p. 278.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Prien et al. 2012, p. 280.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Prien et al. 2012, p. 281.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Prien et al. 2012, p. 279.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g Prien et al. 2012, p. 282.
  36. ^ Matthews & Foreman 2015, p. 717.
  37. ^ Matthews & Foreman 2015, p. 716.
  38. ^ a b Caldwell 1998, p. 332.
  39. ^ a b c Caldwell 1998, p. 335.
  40. ^ a b Caldwell 1998, p. 324.
  41. ^ Caldwell 1998, p. 331.
  42. ^ Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 267.
  43. ^ a b Thomas 1998, p. 4.
  44. ^ a b Scherzer 2007, p. 491.
  45. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 283.
  46. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 81.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bergström, Christer. "Bergström Black Cross/Red Star website". Identifying a Luftwaffe Planquadrat. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  • Bowman, Martin (2007). P-51 Mustang Vs Fw 190: Europe 1943–45. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-189-2.
  • Caldwell, Donald L. (1998). JG 26 War Diary Volume Two 1943–1945. London: Grub Street. ISBN 978-1-898697-86-2.
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) [1986]. Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
  • MacLean, French L. (2007). Luftwaffe Efficiency & Promotion Reports — For the Knight's Cross Winners. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Military History. ISBN 978-0-7643-2657-8.
  • Matthews, Andrew Johannes; Foreman, John (2015). Luftwaffe Aces — Biographies and Victory Claims — Volume 2 G–L. Walton on Thames: Red Kite. ISBN 978-1-906592-19-6.
  • Obermaier, Ernst (1989). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Luftwaffe Jagdflieger 1939 – 1945 [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Luftwaffe Fighter Force 1939 – 1945] (in German). Mainz, Germany: Verlag Dieter Hoffmann. ISBN 978-3-87341-065-7.
  • Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8.
  • Prien, Jochen; Stemmer, Gerhard; Rodeike, Peter; Bock, Winfried (2012). Die Jagdfliegerverbände der Deutschen Luftwaffe 1934 bis 1945—Teil 12/III—Einsatz im Osten—4.2. bis 31.12.1943 [The Fighter Units of the German Air Force 1934 to 1945—Part 12/III—Action in the East—4 February to 31 December 1943] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Buchverlag Rogge. ISBN 978-3-942943-07-9.
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
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